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TE>hH^Vn  ^useovr^.  >^.d(^  OH^^t■^,\  HiY^VtM  Loo^i  i  /tsi 


CATALOGUE 


OF 


THE    PERSIAN    MANUSCRIPTS 


IN 


THE    BRITISH    MUSEUM. 


BY 

CHARLES    RIEU,    Ph.  D. 

KEEPER  OF  THE  ORIENTAL  MSS. 


VOLUME   I. 


PRINTED  BY  ORDER  OF  THE  TRUSTEES. 


SOLD  AT  THE  BRITISH  MUSEUM; 

AND   BY 

LONGMANS  &  CO.,  38  to  41,  PATEENOSTEE  EOW;  B.  M.  PICKEEING,  196,  PICCADILLY; 

B.  QUAEITCH,  15,  PICCADILLY; 

AND  ASHEE  &  CO.,  13,  BEDFOED  STEEET,  COVENT  GAEDEN, 

AND  11,  UNTEE  DEN  LINDEN,  BEELIN. 

1879. 


LONDON  : 
tHLBBHT  AND   BIVINGTON, 

52,  8T.  John's  squabe,  clebkenwell,  e.c. 


This  Volume,  the  printing  of  which  was  commenced  in  1876,  contains  the  description  of  947 
Persian  manuscripts,  classed  under  the  heads  of  Theology.  History.  Geography,  and  some 
subordmate  divisions. 

Out  of  a  large  number  of  rare  and  valuable  works  which  are  here  noticed,  it  may  not 
be  superfluous  to  point  out  the  foUowing.  as  possessing,  from  their  extreme  scarcity  and  the 
importance  of  their  contents,  exceptional  claims  to  the  attention  of  the  reader  :_ 

^""j' f  ■"^'  *^^  ^™-l  ^^-nicle  of  Rashid  ud-Din,  nearly  complete  in  a  huge 
foho  (p.  74).  Although  bearing  the  seal  of  Shahrukh,  it  is  not  so  correct  a  copy  as  mi^^ht 
be  expected  from  that  royal  ownership.  " 

A  general  history  by  Khwurshah,  commonly  called  Elchi  e  Nizamshah.  who  accom- 
panied Shah  Tahmasp  in  some  of  his  campaigns,  and  who  gives  a  detailed  account  of  that 
kmg  s  reign  and  of  some  contemporary  dynasties  in  Tabaristan  (p.  107). 

The  Tarikhi  Rashldi  of  Mirza  Haidar  Dughlat,  a  history  of  the  Khans  of  Kashghar  and 
Moghuhstan,  including  the  author's  personal  memoirs,  which  scarcely  yield  in  interest  to 
the  autobiography  of  his  contemporary  and  near  relative,  the  emperor  Babar  (p.  164). 

The  Zafar-Namah  of  Nizam  Shami,  the  earliest  authentic  history  of  Timilr,  written 
by  his  order  A.D.  1404  (p.  170). 

The  Safar-Namah  of  Nasir  Ben  Khusrau.  a  narrative  of  the  author's  journey  from 
Merv  to  Mecca  A.D.  1046—1050  (p.  379). 

^  The  geography  of  al-Istakhri,  translated  into  Persian,  under  the  title  of  Ashkal  i  'Alam, 
for  'All  Khwajah,  Amir  of  Jand,  about  A.D.  1220  (p.  415). 

A  voluminous  geographical  work  composed  for  Shahrukh  by  ^afiz  i  Abrfi,  A.D. 
1417—1420,  and  including  a  very  foU  history  of  Khorasan  (p.  421). 

A  second  volume  of  the  Persian  Catalogue,  comprising  the  remaining  classes,  is 
complete  in  manuscript,  and  will  shortly  be  published. 

The  manuscripts  of  the  late  Sir  Henry  Miers  Elliot,  purchased  in  1878.  and 
some  other  recent  acquisitions.  wUl  form  the  subject  of  a  third  volume,  which  will 
also  contain  a  preface  and  indices  extending  to  the  entire  work. 

J     -7  00  -.o^n  CHARLES  RIEU. 

Apnl  23,  1879. 


CONTENTS  OF  THE  FIRST  VOLUME. 


PAGE 

Cheistian  Tueology 1 

The  Cokan  and  its  Commentaries    .     .  6 

Traditions  of  Muhammad      ....  14 

Traditions  of  the  Imams       18 

Law 22 

Theology  and  Controversy  ....  27 

Shi 'ah  Theology 30 

Asceticism  and  Sufism 35 

Parsism 46 

Hinduism 54 

General  History 68 

History  of  Creeds  and  Sects     .     .     .  139 
History  of  the  Prophets,  Muhammad, 

THE  KhALIFS,  and  THE  ImAMS    .       .      .  143 

History  of  the  Ghaznavis   .     .     .     .  157 

History  of  the  Moghuls 160 

History  of  the  Muzaffaris  ....  16H 


PAGE 

History  of  Timur 170 

History  of  the  Safavis 184 

History  of  Nadir  Shah 192 

History  of  the  Zands  and  Kajars  .  196 

Local  Histories  of  Iran 202 

History  of  Turkey 216 

General  History  of  India     ....  220 

Sultans  of  Dehli 239 

History  of  the  Timurides     ....  244 

Local  Histories  of  India 287 

Biography 833 

Lives  of  Saints  and  Sufis     ....  342 

Lives  of  Poets 364 

Memoirs  and  Travels 379 

Letters  and  Official  Papers    .     .     .  388 

Geography  AND  Topography  ....  415 


CHRISTIAI  THEOLOGY. 


Add.   19,431. 

Foil.  270  ;  8f  in.  by  61 ;  13  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  A.D.  1694. 
From  the  library  of  the  Duke  of  Sussex. 

The  four  Gospels  in  Persian;  viz.  Matthew, 
foL  1  b;  Mark,  fol.  74  6;  Luke,  fol.  123  a; 
John,  fol.  201  b. 

Beg.  J^  0  j^JU  &Li»y   ^ji^y*  (_^j>fl/«   Ojlli 

This  version  agrees  very  closely  with  that 
of  the  Vienna  MS.  described  by  Hammer  in 
the  Mines  de  1' Orient,  VI.  pp.  280—2,  and 
by  Fliigel  in  the  Vienna  Catalogue,  III., 
p.  11.  The  latter  version  was  written,  as  stated 
in  the  preface,  for  Louis  XIV.  [read  Louis 
XIII.]  by  a  French  missionary  on  his  return 
from  Georgia,  in  the  year  1616. 

The  following  beginning  of  the  third  chap- 
ter of  Matthew  may  be  compared  with  the 
text  given  by  Hammer,  1.  c. : 

^fXtite)   ldbl>\    Cmm\    i^    Bjjii    iX)]    Cm*)  fjA   r 


s\j  vJ-iT  euLi-L.  jjjULjjcS  » JJj/  tilib  j\j\  C^  &io  I 


\jj)  }4^  ^  ^\ 


J  \jSi^^ 


The  Gospels  of  Mark,  Luke,  and  John  have 
short  arguments.  There  are  headings  in  red 
ink  indicating  the  contents  of  every  chapter ; 
the  verses  are  divided  and  marked  with 
Arabic  figures. 

A  table  of  chapters  for  the  four  Gospels  is 
subjoined,  fol.  260  a,  and  is  followed,  fol. 
265  6,  by  a  collection  of  "  such  passages  as 
make  it  evident  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Son 

of  God"  «/  ^^  \j^\  i^\  J  J  Ji^j^  5\io.W 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  the  MS. 
was  written  in  HUgli  during  the  governor- 
ship of  Nawwab  Ibrahim  Khan,  A.D.  1694, 
and  that  its  owner's  name  was  o«»;j»- .  The 
same  name,  with  the  addition  of  "  Baronet  " 
cJiji  i^jfr  J  is  found  on  the  fly-leaf. 

Or.  1419. 

FoU.  163 ;  14i  in.  by  8^ ;  16  lines,  6  in, 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik  on  English 
paper,  apparently  in  India,  towards  the 
close  of  the  18th  century. 


2 


CHRISTIAIJ  THEOLOGY. 


Anotlior  version  of  the  four  Gospels  ; 
viz.,  Matthew,  fol.  2  6;  Mark,  fol.  49  6; 
John,  fol.  78  b  ;  Luke,  fol.  114  b. 

Bfg-     ^Jf-    U^J^   Lci>-^  J\^  J^  ^   <J*   ^^ 

This  version  agrees  closely  with  the  Persian 
translation  printed  hy  Walton  in  his  Biblia 
Polyglotta.  It  is  not  divided  into  chapters 
but  short  paragraphs.  The  first  thirty-one 
of  these,  corresponding  to  Matthew  i. — vi. 
27,  alone  have  headings  as  in  the  printed  text. 

The  forms  of  some  words  and  proper 
names  show  that  this  version  is  derived 
from  the  Syriac.    We  read  for  instance  in 

Luke  i.   5,    liUi*   (aic)   ^i  ^^\  J^}j  j<i   Jy 

Many  similar  instances  are  given  by  Graves 
in  Walton's  Polyglott,  vol.  VI.,  p.  57. 
Chapter  III.  of  Matthew  begins  as  follows : 

There  is  a  lacune  extending  from  Luke 
xxiii.  4  to  xxiv.  10  inclusive,  for  the  filling 
up  of  which  three  pages  have  been  left 
blank. 

The  volume  is  endorsed  in  the  hand  of 
the  transcriber  — J  j\^.  ^J^>J^J'i  J^'l  »*»-y 

The  first  page  bears  the  stamp  "  Claud 
Martin." 

Claude  Martin,  a  native  of  Lyons,  settled, 
after  an  adventurous  youth,  in  Oude,  where 
he  became  a  great  favourite  with  Shuja'ud- 
Daulah  and  his  successor  Asaf  ud-Daulah. 
lie  rose  to  the  rank  of  Major-General, 
amassed  immense  wealth,  and  died  at  Lucknow 
in  1800.     See  Biogr.  Univ.  XXVII.,  p.  213. 


Add.  19,532. 

Foil.  213;  11 J  in.  by  8;  19  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  plain  cursive  Nestalik, 
slightly  Shikastah-amiz,  with  a  rich  TJnwan, 
some  illuminated  headings  and  gold-ruled 
margins,  in  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century ; 
bound  in  painted  covers.  From  the  library 
of  Sir  Thomas  Phillipps,  Bart. 

The  New  Testament  in  Persian ;  viz.  Mat- 
thew, fol.  1  b;  Mark,  fol.  29  a;  Luke,  fol. 
46  a;  John,  fol.  73  a;  Acts,  fol.  94  a; 
Epistles,  fol.  120  a ;  Revelation,  fol.  198  b. 

Beg.  Ki  j^ii>\j>\j\  ^i— •  «*l)  i.^^  j<i  Jjl  Lyb 

UjUtfO     (^jMtlJ     CLJj^  j    fr>..y*     {^i^*^    {^i^-^^   J     l_flM»^ 
,_;•    O    I,    ^.,M./«    V    ,A./<'l..ii    .    ^JO    t>^i^j>    ^oJ^Uo  J&U9  J 

This  is  the  version  of  the  Rev.  Henry 
Martyn.  It  was  printed,  with  a  Latin  title, 
in  S.  Petersburg,  1815,  then  in  Calcutta,  1816, 
and  often  since.  Martyn  prepared  a  first 
Persian  translation  of  the  four  Gospels,  with 
the  assistance  of  an  Arab  convert  named 
Sabat,  at  Dinapore,  in  the  years  1807 — 9. 
This  having  been  rejected  at  Calcutta,  as  too 
full  of  Arabic  idioms,  he  set  to  work  again 
in  Shiraz,  with  the  help  of  Mirza  Sayyid  'Ali 
Elhan,  and  completed  in  the  space  of  eleven 
months,  from  June  1811  to  May  1812,  a  new 
translation  of  the  entire  New  Testament,  as 
well  as  one  of  the  Psalms.  Martyn  died,  on 
his  return  journey  to  England,  in  Tocat  on  the 
16th  of  October,  1812.  See  "Memoir  of 
the  Rev.  H.  Martyn  "  [by  John  Sargent], 
London,  1819,  and  "  Journals  and  Letters  of 
the  Rev.  H.  Martyn,  edited  by  S.  Wilber- 
forcc,"  London,  1837. 

In  the  present  copy  the  chapters  have 
headings  in  red  ink,  indicating  their  con- 
tents ;  but  these  have  not  been  entered  from 
fol.  171  to  210.    The  verses  are  not  divided. 

Harl.  5455. 

FoU.  216;  9i  in.  by  5;  15  lines,  3  in. 


CHRISTIAN  THEOLOGY. 


8 


long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India;  dated  Eamazan  A.H.  1027  (A.D. 
1618). 

"The  Mirror  of  Holiness,"  a  Life  of  Christ. 
Author :     Padre    Geronimo    Xavier    t^j-il-^ 

Beg.  job    ^  (Jii)]/  i^y   «^  (j-j^l    oy 

The  author,  a  native  of  Navarre,  and  a 
relative  of  the  celebrated  "  Apostle  of  India," 
S.  Erancis  Xavier,  joined  the  Jesuit  Mission 
at  Goa  in  1571,  and  died  there  in  1617.  See 
Zedler's  Lexicon,  under  Xaverius  (Hier.), 
Biogr.  Univ.,  under  Xavier  (J(^r6me)  and 
Dorn,  S.  Petersburg  Catalogue,  pp.  243 — 6. 
He  stayed  for  a  long  time  at  the  Moghul 
Court,  and  his  "  Historica  Relatio  de  Missione 
ad  regnum  Magni  Mogor,"  Moguntise,  1601, 
throws  much  light  on  his  intimate  relations 
both  with  Akbar,  whom  he  accompanied  on 
a  journey  to  Kashmir,  and  with  his  son 
Jahangir. 

The  present  work  has  been  edited,  with  a 
Latin  translation  and  remarks,  conceived  in 
no  friendly  spirit,  by  Louis  de  Dieu  under 
the  title  of  "  Historia  Christi  Persice "  etc. 
Lugduni  Batv.  1639.  The  copy  which  he 
used  belonged  to  Jacob  Golius ;  it  appears 
to  have  been  an  exact  counterpart  of  the 
present  MS.,  and  has  the  same  subscription. 
Another  copy,  containing  autograph  notes  by 
the  author,  is  in  the  Gotha  Library  ;  see 
Pertsch's  Catalogue,  p.  57,  and  D.  Porbes' 
Catalogue,  p.  40. 

Other  works  by  the  same  Xavier  are  a 
History  of  S.  Peter,  also  edited  by  L.  de  Dieu, 


Lugd.  Bat.  1839;  Lives  of  the  Apostles, 
written  in  1609,  a  copy  of  which  is  described 
by  Uri,  p.  270,  xmder  the  title  (_^jJiJ\  »y ; 
a  Persian  translation  of  the  Psalms ;  and  the 
"  Guide  of  Kings,"  addressed  to  Jahangir  in 
1609;  see  Bibliotheca  Marsdeniana,  p.  305. 

In  the  preface  of  the  present  work,  dated 
Agrah,  A.D.  1602,  the  author  states  that  he 
wrote  it  by  desire  of  the  Emperor  Akbar, 
after  having  been  engaged  for  seven  or  eight 
years  in  the  study  of  the  Persian  language. 
He  says,  at  the  end,  that  he  was  assisted  in 
the  Persian  translation  by  Maulana  'Abd  us- 
Sattar  B.  Kasim  Lahauri,  and  that  it  was 
completed  in  Agrah  in  the  same  year,  the 
47th  of  Akbar's  reign.  It  is  divided  into  four 
chapters  (Bab)  treating,  1.  of  Christ's  infancy ; 
2.  of  His  miracles  and  teaching ;  3.  of  His 
death  ;  4.  of  His  resurrection. 

It  may  be  further  noticed,  that  at  the  end 
of  the  preface,  the  reader  is  referred  for  a 
fuller  exposition  of  the  subject  to  the  author's 
other  work  "  A'lnah  i  Hakk  Numa "  (see 
p.  4),  then,  it  is  said,  nearly  completed. 

The  name  ^*  ^JVL«b,  by  which  the  pre- 
sent work  is  commonly  known,  is  written  as 
a .  running  title  at  the  top  of  every  other 
page. 

Prom  a  letter  prefixed  to  this  volume  it 
appears  that  it  was  brought  from  Aleppo  by 
Sam.  Marshall,  Esq.,  of  Shalford  HaU,  who 
presented  it,  in  1686,  to  the  Eev.  Dr.  Colvil, 
of  Christ  College,  Cambridge. 

A  short  Latin  description,  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Jean  Gagnier  (see  Arabic  Catal. 
Addenda  ad,  p.  8  a),  is  pasted  on  the  fly-leaf. 

Add.  16,878. 

PoU.  74 ;  7|  in.  by  4>l ;  17  lines,  2^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India,  in  the  18th  century.        [Wai.  Yule.] 

An  imperfect  copy  of  the  same  work,  con- 
b2 


CHRISTIAN  THEOLOGY. 


taining  Chapter  I.,  without  any  preface,  fol. 
1  b ;  Chapter  III.,  fol.  37  a ;  and  Chapter  IV., 
fol.  59  a. 

It  is  endorsed  in  Persian  "  History  of 
Jesus  and  of  the  birth  of  Mary,  translated 
from  an  English  book."  Tliis  MS.,  as  well 
as  several  others  of  the  Yule  collection, 
bears  on  the  first  page  the  stamp  "  Claud 
Martin." 

Harl.  5478. 

Foil.  525;  9|  in.  by  5|;  15  Hues,  3|  in. 
long;  written  partly  in  Nestalik,  partly  in 
Shikastah-Amiz  ;  dated  Jumada  I.,  the 
sixth  year  of  the  reign  (probably  that  of 
Jahfingir  =  A.H.  1019,  A.D.  1610). 

"  The  Truth-reflecting  Mirror,"  in  which 
the  doctrines  and  mysteries  of  Christianity 
are  fully  expounded,  and  its  superiority  to 
Islamism  demonstrated,  by  the  same  author. 

Beg.  «ja\  jjb  ^  ui,^J^(i)y  «/U>  j*  wuJl 

It  is  stated  in  the  heading  that  the  author. 
Padre  Geronimo  Xavier,  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  came  from  Goa  to  Lahore, 
where  he  was  presented  at  Court,  A.D.  1596. 

In  the  preface  which  follows,  the  author 
states  that  he  had  enjoyed,  twelve  years 
previously,  the  privilege  of  kissing  the  im- 
perial threshold,  and  that  he  now  dedicated 
this  work  to  Jahangir  as  a  slight  return  for 
past  favours,  and  a  humble  ofiering  on  the 
occasion  of  his  accession. 

The  work  is  written  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue 
between  the  Padre  and  a  philosopher  or  free 
thinker  (Hakim),  whom  he  purports  to  have 
met  at  Court,  while  in  some  parts  a  Mullfi 
intervenes  as  a  third  interlocutor. 

It  is  divided  into  five  books  (Bilb)  sub- 


divided into  chapters  (Fasl),  a  full  table  of 
which  is  given  at  the  end  of  the  preface, 
foil.  14  b — 18  a.  The  five  books  are  as  fol- 
lows :  1.  Necessity  of  a  divine  law;  fol.  18  o. 
2.  What  Christianity  teaches  regarding  God, 
and  proofs  of  its  being  conformable  to  reason ; 
fol.  73  b.  3.  Divinity  of  Jesus  Christ  our 
Lord ;  fol.  208  a.  (The  end  of  this  book 
and  the  beginning  of  the  next  are  missing). 
4.  Commandments  of  the  Gospel  and  their 
contrast  with  those  of  Muhammad ;  fol.  322  a. 
The  strength  imparted  by  the  Christian 
faith  and  its  superiority  to  other  religions ; 
fol.  437  b. 

The  work  was  finished,  as  stated  at  the 
end,  A.D.  1609.  It  has  been  noticed  above, 
p.  3  b,  that  the  author  described  it  in  1602 
as  nearly  completed. 

Copyist :  Tirlmal  J-^y 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  found  the  following  note, 
in  the  handwriting  of  Humphrey  Wanley : 
"  Donum  Alexandri  Pope  Armigeri,  mense 
Aprilis,  A.D.  1723,"  and  lower  down,  by  the 
same  hand,  a  short  Latin  description  of  the 
MS.  in  which,  by  a  curious  mistake,  the 
author  is  called  San  Hieronymo  Shad. 

Add.  23,584. 

Poll.  55 ;  7  in.  by  4| ;  13  lines,  3^  in.  long ; 
written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Sa'idabfid,  district 
of  Murshidabad,  Bengal,  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1152 
(A.D.  1740).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

An  abridgment  of  the  preceding  work,  by 
the  same. 

Beg.  \j    ^cWjl^jLar^^  ^  J^  J   J^a.    ^   J.^ 

In  a  long  preface,  addressed  to  Jahangir, 

the  author, whose  name  is  here  written  ^jj^-S. 

j>)y^,  fol.  4  h,  mentions  his  previous  work 


CHRISTIAN  THEOLOGY. 


entitled  A'inah  i  Hakk  Numa,  to  which  he 
had  devoted  so  many  years,  and  says  that, 
finding  the  Emperor's  time  taken  up  by  the 
cares  of  government,  he  extracted  its  sub- 
stance for  his  use,  and  condensed  it  in  the 
present  "  selection,"   i_<j5^'* 

This  work,  which  is  not,  like  the  former, 
written  in  the  form  of  dialogue,  contains  the 
following  four  chapters  (Easl) :  1.  Knowledge 
of  the  nature  of  God ;  fol.  7  b.  2.  On  Jesus, 
our  Lord;  fol.  19  a.  3.  Commandments  of 
the  Gospel ;  fol.  32  b.  4.  Divine  assistance ; 
fol.  43  a. 

This  is  the  work  which  found  its  way  to 
Persia  and  there  called  forth  the  reply  en- , 
titled  Miskal  i  Safil,  which  will  be  described 
under  Mohammedan  Theology,  Add.  25,867. 

The  present  copy  was  written  by  Ram- 
g'hosan  of  Sa'idabad  for  Khwajah  'Abd  ul- 
Masih  of  Hamadiin.  The  last  leaf  contains 
the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the  Creed  in  Persian. 

Add.  23,583. 

Foil.  140 ;  9|  in.  by  7^ ;  13  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  and  fair  Naskhi  on 
EngUsh  paper,  and  on  one  side  of  the  leaves 
only;  dated  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1229  (A.D.  1814.) 

[Rob.  Tatlok.] 

A  work  on  Christian  evidences. 

Author :  Avanus  Khalifah,  »ijdi-  (_)«yljl 

Beg.  jj<^^  Ji^\  ijy.U*  u^Si\  uJ;^\^\  ^^^ 
»_^Js/«  fdJiA^   O^y^j^  ijy^^  >>»jjj   ^>\   w    C-Jb 

fll....>j«»    Si   (t^Y«  i>— 'V    icfy  y^   '^^  '^^  ^'^  'V.^ 

^Umj   \j/oj>i>    5iiJ0)iip    ^j 

Nothing  is  said  of  the  name  or  country  of 
the  royal  personage  by  whose  order,  as  here 
stated,  the  work  was  written.  But  it  is  said 
at  the  end  that  it  was  completed  A.D.  1690  : 


^ 


^'i,\ 


4ijO      JJ 


ft^  i_i)^  ftjjf-  -.>.<.»))  C^jA>-  i)Jy 


It  consists  of  a  short  introduction  (Muk- 
addimah)  and  three  Parts  (Juz),  subdivided 
into  chapters  (Fasl),  and  treating  severally : 

1.  of  metaphysical  notions  regarding  human 
perception,  matter,  existence,  etc.,  fol.  6 ; 

2.  of  God  and  his  attributes,  fol.  24 ;  3.  of 
the  divinity  of  Christ  as  demonstrated  by 
His  miracles  and  the  fulfilment  of  prophecy, 
fol.  80. 

These  are  the  headings  of  the  three  Parts 
as  given  in  the  Introduction,  fol.  4 :  Jj^  >> 

J  (_-Ala*  Cj^  (_-o--»  &i^cli!jjjs&  J  tlJuJjl  J  Ui.) 

Although  containing  no  direct  reference 
to  Islamism,  this  work  borrows  largely  the 
method  and  terminology  of  Muslim  scholastic 
theology,  and  is  so  Arabic  in  its  vocabiilary 
and  construction  as  to  have  all  the  appear- 
ance of  a  Hteral  translation  from  that  lan- 
guage. The  texts,  copiously  quoted  from  the 
Psalms  and  Prophets  in  Part  III.,  are  given 
in  Arabic,  and  mostly  accompanied  with  an 
interlinear  Persian  version  in  Nestalik.  The 
Author  was  apparently  a  Catholic,  and  his 
frequent  use  of  the  second  person  plural  in 
biblical  passages,  where  God  or  a  single  in- 
dividual is  addressed,  as  \J^  jo.,  fol.  64,  jlj^ 
Ui,  fol.  94,  U^  ci*->Jo,  fol.  134,  would  seem 
to  betray  a  French  origin. 

This  copy  was  transcribed  by  a  Moham- 
medan called  Hasan  B.  Jamfd  B.  Ahmad  B. 
Hasan  for  a  Christian  personage  of  rank, 

designated  as  ^U--S'  »?.^ji.  a-^st*^^  'W^^  J-Vj 

t/^  LT^'j^  *»-'y-  ^3 

It  is  eadorsed  (js**"*  aajli.  (j-y^j)  <-r'^; 
but  in  the  text  the  work  is  termed  «)L^ 
without  specific  title. 


MOHAMMEDAN  THEOLOGY. 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


Add.  23,252. 

Foil.  472  ;  10^  in.  by  6| ;  12  lines,  3§  in. 
long ;  written  in  fine  Naskhi,  with  two  double- 
page  'Unwans,  highly  finished  in  shaded  gold, 
at  the  beginning,  as  well  as  illuminated  head- 
ings and  gold-ruled  margins  throughout, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

[Rob.  Tatlob.] 

The  Coran  in  Arabic,  with  a  Persian  para- 
phrase written  in  small  Nestalik  and  red  ink 
between  the  lines,  and  copious  marginal  an- 
notations.    See  Arab.  Catal.  p.  537. 

For  the  sake  of  comparison  with  the  fol- 
lowing, or  other  versions,  we  give  here  the 
rendering  of  the  100th  Surah,  ij^jU^WI  y,y^ 

UJJ^  u^^  <:jV-^  U-^v  t^  *^®  margin  J^ 
jJ^Ty  u^j'i  u^^j^  yJj^  "^J  ul)'^  jxiH^J' 

J  ^^  &S    jj^j-^  JJ.J   bl    0««»\   C^j^   i^}^   J^ 
**i\  0^  tiij  li/j  o^^j\:u«^ji^jj  V^\  ijjyi.  iCac^' 


The  notes  are  extracts  from  various,  mostly 
Shi'ah,  commentaries,  in  which  the  traditional 
comments  of  the  Imams  are  frequently  ad- 
duced. 

Foil.  466  a — 468  a  contain  a  prayer  to 
be  recited  after  a  complete  reading  of  the 
Coran  and  a  Fal-Namah  in  Persian  verse, 
both  written  in  alternating  blue  and  gold 
lines. 

On  fol.  468  6  is  a  Persian  note  stating  that 
this  copy  was  written  by  Mulla  Abd  ITUah 
Tabbakh,  the  master  (in  calligraphy)  of  Aka 
Ibrahim,  who  was  himself  the  master  of 
Mirza  Ahmad  Nairizi,  and  that  it  was  worth 
500  Rupees. 

MuUa  'Abd  Ullah  Tabbakh,  of  Herat,  is 
mentioned  among  the  great  penmen  who 
lived  in  the  reign  of  Sultan  Husain  (A.H. 
873—911).  See  Mir'at  ul-'Alam,  Add.  7657, 
fol.  459  b. 

Some  leaves  containing  other  prayers  or 
additional  notes  in  modern  handwriting  are 
added  at  beginning  and  end,  and  occasionally 
in  the  body  of  the  volume. 


THE  GORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


Add.  5548-5551. 

Four  volumes,  perfectly  uniform,  and  offer- 
ing a  continuous  text,  separated  only  by  the 
binding.  They  contain  respectively  foil.  192, 
187,  184,  and  190 ;  11  in.  by  7|,  with  13 
lines,  5  in.  long;  written  in  a  large  and 
angular  Naskhi,  with  illuminated  borders 
enclosing  the  first  two  pages,  and  the  two  last, 
marginal  ornaments  and  gold  headings,  ap- 
parently in  the  14th  century. 

[Charles  Hamilton.] 

The  Goran  in  Arabic,  with  a  Persian  version 
added  in  small  writing  and  red  ink  under  the 
text ;  see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  57.  The  Persian 
version  presents  many  antiquated  forms,  such 
as  jj  and  lDoT  for  saiT  and  aGT,  c^i^  for 

ssf^  etc.,  but  it  is  singularly  incorrect,  and 
often  exhibits  a  complete  perversion  of  the 
persons  and  tenses  of  the  Arabic. 

As  a  specimen,  the  Persian  of  the  100th 
Surah  is  here  transcribed  with  all  its  faults  : 

\)iJ^  o^^  iS}  u^  ^  "^J  u^*^  "^W  J  ^^^ 

J\    Ci^    iCsJ   lj-_J  J  C**«l»,j^ji5    J\   liy^  iCssrf->^ 

The  first  eight  leaves  have  been  defaced 
by  an  English  translation  written  over  the 
Persian. 

Or.  1340. 

Poll.  539 ;  lO.f  in.  by  6| ;  10  Hues,  3f  in. 
long ;  written  in  good  Naskhi  with  two 
double-page  'TJnwans,  illuminated  headings, 
marginal  ornaments,  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century.  Bound  in 
stamped  chagreen  covers. 

[Sir  Charles  A.  Murray.] 


The  Goran  in  Arabic,  with  a  Persian 
version  written  in  small  Naskhi,  and  red 
ink  between  the  lines,  and  a  few  marginal 
notes. 

Surah  100 :  ,jJij:i^j\jT  sS  jjjjj   y;^-*V   <^y^ 

^J^    U-e  j^j3^    ij)ji:>    LT^"^    u^'H'^    U3jt>    lH 


"■^y  uV^^  u ' 


j^  lH  ^-^  "-^y  u 


l^JJJ^ 


D^  dj!^  sjjJ'j^oU.  J   ij:,,M\iij^  jd  «^T  0^  laj 

The  last  page  contains  the  '&*\j  c^^pU. 
Si^  ^!iJ/designating  on  the  authority  of  Imam 
Ja'far  Sadik  the  days  and  hours  in  which  the 
reading  of  the  Goran  is  especially  blessed. 


Add.  7218. 

Foil.  262 ;  9^  in.  by  ^ ;  15  Hues,  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  neat  Naskhi,  on 
extremely  thin  paper,  with  gilt  headings 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  Bound  in  painted  and  glazed 
covers.  [CI.  J,  Eich,] 

The  Goran  in  Arabic,  with  an  interlinear 
Persian  version  and  marginal  notes  ;  see 
Arab.  Catal.,  p.  57. 

The  Persian  version,  written  in  red  ink 
and  minute  Nestalik,  is  separated  from  the 
text  by  gold-lines,  and  the  notes  in  the 
margins,  written  in  a  still  smaller  character, 
are  similarly  enclosed. 

Surah   100  :    (j«flij^j\  ^^i>j  (_rA>j\jV  iJ^'^jj^ 

j^j    Lr>^    f^^j    (-PV    ^"^^j^j^    LT^T   tj-J     jij 

ji       (j-^       ^^      jli      JOJ.j^      C^lS-       ftljUMj    ft>        \^^       (J»J 


8 


MOHAM^IEDAN  THEOLOGY. 


Two  leaves  and  a  half  at  the  beginning 
and  two  at  the  end  have  been  added  by  a 
later  hand,  and  present  an  imperfect  imitation 
of  the  old  writing. 

Or.  1341. 

FoU.  280;  9f  in.  by  6i;  14  lines,  3^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  a  rich 
double-page  'Unwan,  gilt  headings  and  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  about  the  close  of 
the  17th  century.  Bound  in  stamped  and 
gilt  leatlier.  [Sir  Charles  A.  Mueeat.] 

The  Goran  in  Arabic,  with  a  Persian 
version  written  in  a  small  neat  Nestalik  and 
in  red  ink  between  the  lines  of  the  text,  from 
which  it  is  divided  by  gold  lines.  Ex- 
planatory notes,  also  in  Persian,  and  in  the 
same  handwriting,  cover  a  considerable  part 
of  the  margins. 

This  version  agrees  substantially  with  that 
of  Add.  7218,  as  the  foUowing  beginning  of 
Siirah  100  wiU  show:  ^^^j  ^  j\^\  ^UjJ^^ 

J    u-i    ^  j^    -Wj^    Ojlfr   »L«.j    »^  V^l   o-i 


i^h 


Or.  1342. 


Foil.  334;  10^  in.  by  6| ;  12  lines,  3|  in. 
long,  m  a  page,  written  in  a  handwriting 
similar  to  that  of  the  preceding  copy,  and 
ornamented    in    the     same    style  ;    dated 


Ispahan,  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1113  (A.D.  1702). 
Bound  in  painted  and  glazed  covers. 

[Sir  Chaeles  A.  Murray.] 

The  Goran  in  Arabic,  with  the  same 
Persian  version  as  in  the  preceding  copy, 
and  copious  marginal  notes. 

The  copyist,'Abd  ul-'Azim  ur-Rizawi,  states 
in  the  subscription  that  this  was  the  eighth 
or  ninth  Goran  he  had  transcribed. 

Add.  7601. 

Foil.  358;  10  in.  by  6^;  29  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Naskhi ;  dated 
Jaunpur,  A.H.  883  (A.D.  1478). 

[Gl.  J.  Rich.] 

iSj^\  ji).^    f^&^J> 

The  Persian  translation  of  the  Gom- 
mentary  of  Abu  Ja'far  Muhammad  B.  Jarir 
ut-Tabari  upon  the  Goran ;  see  Arab.  Catal. 
p.  370.  The  first  two  pages  contain  the 
author's   Arabic  Preface,    beginning  :    j^l 

JPI      i^;^      <Uji      S^j      u^     J^b        r^l      ^3J,      ^ 

Then  follows  a  Persian  preface  of  one 
page  giving  an  account  of  the  translation. 
It  is  here  stated  that  the  Arabic  original,  in 
forty  volumes,  having  been  brought  fi^m 
Baghdad  to  the  Amir  Malik  Muzafi^ar  Abu 
Srdih  Mansur  B.  Nuh,  (the  same  Samani 
prmce  for  whom  Tabari's  history  was  trans- 
lated),  he  convened  the  'Ulama  of  Mawera 
un-Nahr,  and,  after  obtaining  from  them  a 
decision  to  the  effect-that  it  was  lawful  to 
translate  that  work,  ordered  them  to  elect 
out  of  their  number  the  ablest  men  to  carry 
out  the  task.  It  is  added  that  the  original 
was  considerably  abridged  by  leaving  out  the 
Isnads,  and  that,  on  the  other  hand,  some  of 
the  historical  notices  included  were  brought 
down  to  A.H.  345.    See  the  text  of  this 


I 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


9 


preface  in  the  Arab.  Catal.,  loc.  cit.  The 
Persian  translation  is  mentioned  by  Haj. 
Khal.  vol.  ii.,  p.  346. 

Tabari's  Commentary  deals  chiefly  with 
the  persons  and  events,  legendary  or  his- 
torical, referred  to  in  the  Coran,  and  with 
the  circumstances  under  which  the  several 
Surahs  have  been  revealed. 

It  is  divided  by  numerous  headings  in 
large  character.  The  following  are  those 
which   relate   to    Surah  II.,  foU.    28 — 56 : 

lib  .•.  jjjLi»y    ib.y     .i>   jj\iij^     *>     sJu-*    Cl*il.»   j 

Jyj  ioy  .••  |.^LJ1  jJiP  ^  |,iil  j^lioLly  ^^J  is^ 
••'  ^%J\  ajJ*  j,^i\  C>oy  J^'  .'.  j,5LJ\  «j1&  ^ii\    ^^^ 


^^LJ^        AJkifi'        j,il\        2iukl 


.'.    ^^).^\     d:jl&     jnii\     «ui3 


UJ 


aj 


,M-» 


j_yjJJl  JiS3l  ji  »-aa  .••  yU;  ^^<l^i  J^iUa  a-aS  •••  *lai^^ 
J  Oy\J'  auaS  J    (»iLJ\  ajJkfr  Jj^^v^l  &-^'  •••  ^.^LJ^  s-i* 

In  the  first  part  of  the  volume  some 
chapters  of  the  Coran  are  inserted  at  full 
length  and  in  a  larger  character,  viz. : — 
Surah   I.,    fol.   4>,   Surah    II.,   foil.   6—28, 


Surah  III.,  foil.  57—96,  Surah  IV.,  foil.  81—94, 
Surah  V.,  in  detached  portions,  foil.  105, 107, 
111,  115,  118.  They  are  partly  accompanied 
with  an  interlinear  Persian  translation.  But 
further  on  the  text  is  very  incomplete,  most 
of  the  spaces  reserved  for  its  insertion  having 
been  left  blank. 

Transcriber's  name :  j_jJl-S    j-»^  jj->  i>jb 

Add.  7602. 

FoU.  589;  11  in.  by  7^;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  'Unwan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  appa- 
rently in  the  16th  century. 

A  Persian  Commentary  upon  the  Coran, 
with  the  Arabic  text ;  see  Arab.  Catal.,  p. 
376. 

Author :  Husain    Va'iz   Kashif  I  )ia^)j    i^jh'-^ 
Beg.   (j»-*>t>  y  ^j^\  i>*W  lifr^y  Sk^  j\  jjo 

^Uo  CLii\jMj  CJ>j^a:>-   j_plji-Uj  ^_^^ 

Kamal  ud-Dm  Husain  B.  'All,  surnamed 
al-Vii'iz  ul-Kashifi,  born  at  Baihak,  Sabzawar, 
lived  at  Herat  in  the  reign  of  Abul-Ghazl 
Sultan-Husain,  where  he  soon  acquired  a 
great  fame  as  an  eloquent  preacher  and  an 
elegant  prose- writer,  and  enjoyed  the  special 
favour  of  Mir  'All  Shir.  He  died  there  A.H. 
910.  See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Add.  6561,  fol.  538, 
S.  de  Sacy,  Calila  et  Dimna,  preface,  p.  42, 
Jourdain,  Biogr.  Univ.,  vol.  xx.  p.  435,  Ham- 
mer, Schone  Redekiinste  Persiens,  p.  275. 

The  author  had  undertaken,  as  stated  in 
the  preface,  by  desire  of  Mir  'AH  Shir,  to 
write  an  extensive  Commentary,  in  four 
volumes,  entitled  ^«^(  'isi^  jJ^"^^  _^^yr  >  but 
after  the  first  volume  had  been  completed 
the  progress  of  the  work  was  delayed.     In 

c 


10 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTAEIES. 


the  meanwhile  he  began,  in  A.n.  897,  to  write 
the  present  work  in  plainer  language  and  on 
a  smaller  scale,  and  gave  it  the  above  title, 
derived  from  his  patron's  name.  It  was  com- 
pleted in  A.H.  899 ;  see  below,  Add.  16,668. 

The  substance  of  the  above  preface  is  given 
by  Fleischer,  Leipzig  Catal.,  p.  390,  and 
Mehren,  Copenhagen  Catal.,  p.  3.  See  also 
Dorn,  S.  Petersburg  Catal.  p.  247,  and 
Aumer,  Miinchen  Catal.,  p.  127.  In  both 
places  a  Commentary  with  the  same  begin- 
ning as  ours  is  described  under  the  title  of 
Jawilhir  ut-Tafsir,  which  belongs  to  the 
fuller  Commentary  mentioned  in  the  preface. 

The  work  is  frequently  called,  from  its 
author's  name,  Tafsir  i  Husaini,as  for  instance 
at  the  end  of  the  next  following  copy. 

Add.  16,667. 

Foil.  590 ;  10|  in.  by  6| ;  19  lines,  4  J  in. 
long;  written  in  clear  Nestalik,  with  an 
'Unwan  and  ruled  margins;  dated  A.H. 
1097  (A.D.  1686).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  first  half  of  the  above  work,  comprising 
Chapters  i. — xviii.    See  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  376. 

It  is  slightly  imperfect,  wanting  the  latter 
part  of  Chapter  xviii.  from  the  middle  of 
verse  81  to  the  end. 

Transcriber :  c?^^  Jj^lr*^  u^  ^j^  '^^ 

Add.  16,668. 

Foil.  645;  uniform  with  the  preceding, 
and  written  by  the  same  hand;  dated  Kul 
Jalali,  Subah  of  Akbarabad,  Ramazan,  A.H. 
1095,  the  31st  of  the  reign  of  Aurangzlb. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  latter  half  of  the  work,  extending 
from  the  beginning  of  Chapter  xix.  to  the  end 
of  the  Coran.  The  present  copy  and  one  of 
the  following,  Egerton  999,  contain  a  con- 
clusion not  found  in  the  first  MS.    There 


the  author,  after  an  eulogy  on  his  patron 
Mir  'All  Shir,  quotes  the  following  Rubai 
composed  by  his  own  son,  and  in  which  the 
day  of  the  month  on  which  the  Commentary 
was  completed  is  ingeniously  used  as  a 
chronogram  to  fix  the  date  of  the  work. 

oi.y  JIAJI  ^^\^  ^  ^\4\  J 

C*iy  Jl^^;^^  ^ji3  Jli*  (j 

The  words  Jl^^  j^  J  w'^  (^^^  (*?J'^  ^  ^ 
clerical  error)  express  A.H.  899. 

There  is  a  mistake  in  the  date  of  tran- 
scription of  the  present  volume ;  for  the  31st 
year  of  Aurangzlb  corresponds  to  A.H.  1098, 
not  to  1095,  as  written  in  words  in  the 
subscription. 

Egerton  998. 

Foil.  443;  lOf  in.  by  6f ;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  partly  in  Naskhi,  partly  in 
Nestalik,  apparently  in  India,  about  the  close 
of  the  17th  century. 

The  first  half  of  the  above  Commentary, 
closing  with  the  end  of  Chap,  xviii. ;  see  Arab. 
Catal.,  p.  377. 

V 

Egerton  999. 

Foil.  485 ;  llf  in.  by  6| ;  21  Hnes,  4i  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  in  India;  dated 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1094  (A.D.  1683). 

The  second  volume,  from  the  beginning  of 
Chap.  xix.  to  the  end ;  gee  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  377. 

On  the  first  page  is  a  Persian  note  relating 
to  the  purchase  of  the  MS.  in  Ahmadabad, 
A.H.  1130,  in  which  it  is  incorrectly  de- 
signated as  the  second  volume  of^,*— aiJI^I^ . 

Add.  5565. 

Foil.  366;  10|  in.  by  6;  12  Hnes,  4  in. 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


11 


long;  written  in  fair  Indian  Nestalik,  with 
an  TJnwan  and  ruled  margins;  dated  Ju- 
mada  I.,  A.H.  1097  (A.D.  1686). 

[Charles  Hamilton.] 

The  latter  half  of  the  same  Commentary, 
from  the  beginning  of  Chap.  xix.  to  the  end ; 
see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  377. 

Transcriber :  ji^»».  .i.^ 

The  fly-leaf  contains  a  table  of  chapters  ; 
the  first  page  bears  the  name  of  a  former 
owner,  Robert  Watherston. 

Add.  23,577. 

Foil.  242;  10  in.  by  5|;  20  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik;* 
dated  Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1021  (A.D.  1612). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  volume  of  a  very  extensive  Commentary 
on  the  Coran,  without  title  or  author's  name. 

The  writer  lived  at  the  time  of  the  author 
of  Shawahid  un-Nubuwwah  (Jam!)  whom  he 
quotes  as  stfll  living,  fol.  5  b.  This  and,  still 
more,  the  great  similarity  in  style  and 
arrangement  of  the  present  volume  with  the 
following.  Add.  7603,  render  it  very  pro- 
bable that  it  contains  the  first  portion  of  the 
same  work,  namely  jjk*^l  'ii^  j^;.J>j!i\  ^\y>- . 

The  MS.  is  imperfect  at  the  beginning ;  it 
commences  in  the  middle  of  the  second  of 
six  introductory  chapters  called  ^,^ys-,  treating 
of  the  necessity  and  pre-eminence  of  the 
science  of  Exegesis^;---fii\  J* .  The  remaining 
four  are  as  follows  : 

Fol.  5  b.  III.  On  the  miracle  jUPl,  or 
supernatural  power,  displayed  in  the  Coran. 

Fol.  9  b.  IV.  On  the  pre-eminence  of  some 
Surahs  and  verses,  and  the  virtues  of  some 
letters  and  words  in  the  Coran. 

Fol.  12  a.  V.  On  the  attention  and  respect 
due  to  the  Coran. 

Fol.  18  a.  VI.  On  spiritual  interpretation, 
Jjj\j .  This  is  followed  by  a  long  discussion 
on  the  preliminary  formula  «JJ'j  iys-l,  fol.  21 «. 


The  comments  on  the  Basmalah  and  the 
Fatihah  itself  begin  at  fol.  33  a,  and  occupy 
the  rest  of  tlie  volume. 

Add.  7603. 

Foil.  346;  llj  in.  by  7;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  neat  Naskhi  with  'Unwan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Mashhad, 
Jumuda  I.,  A.H.  1076  (A.D.  1665). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  part  of  the  larger  Commentary  of  Husain 
Va'iz  ul-Kashif! ;  see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  377. 
Beg.  jJai  (ObT  lij*  »^  ij^jj^  \)  l)^  i:}^^ 

This  volume  contains  the  comments  upon 
the  Surat  ul-Bakarah  or  Chapt.  II.  It  pro- 
bably is  only  the  latter  half  of  what  the 
author  in  the  preface  to  the  Mawahib  (see 
Add.  7602  p.  9)  calls  his  first  volume,  the 
only  one  then  written,  the  first  half  consisting 
of  the  prolegomena  and  the  comments  on  the 
Fatihah,  which,  according  to  Haj  Khal.,  vol. 
ii.,  p.  641,  formed  part  of  the  same  volume. 

Neither  author's  name  nor  title  is  to  be 
found  in  the  text,  but  the  style  is  that  of 
Husain  Va'iz,  and  there  appears  to  be  no 
reason  to  doubt  the  correctness  of  the  title 
written  on  the  first  page  :  jy..v;\\  j:>\y>-  Jj\  Ju». 
j^\  j>\,   iiytiso    ^_a_io     (jjj-»»-     iJu«»    CJvftija*  Ji 


Copyist :   ^Jil\i\JLM':^  \  (_^\;...?fcl  ^^  c^^m 

Add.  18,538. 

Foil.  392 ;  11 1  in.  by  8 ;  25  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  clear  Nestalik  ;  dated  A.H. 
1071  (A.D.  1660).         [J.  H.  Sternschuss.] 

A  Shi'ah  Commentary  upon  the  Coran. 
c  2 


12 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


Author :  Ibn  Shukr  Ullah  Fath  Ullah  ush- 
Beg.   C*>Uo   jb;   oUlT  ^^y>■    J^    c^.x^ 

lJl-rf^    l_j.V>^    »JL^.U> 

The  author  had  written,  as  he  states  in 
the  preface,  a  full  commentary  in  five 
volumes,  containing  altogether  one  hundred 
and  eighty  thousand  lines,  and  entitled 
^^\il^^  J^\  ^j  ^J^^>\^\  ^ ;  hut  perceiving 

that  its  bulk  put  it  out  of  the  reach  of  most 
readers,  he  determined  to  write  the  present 
abridgement,  chiefly  intended  for  persons 
ignorant  of  Arabic.  It  evinces  a  marked 
Shi'ah  tendency  and  relies  exclusively  on  the 
tradition  of  the  Imams  and  their  sectaries. 

The  same  author  wrote  also  a  Commen- 
tary on  the  Nahj  ul-Balaghah,  Add.  16850, 
which  is  said  to  have  been  completed  A.H. 
955,  and  in  which  he  calls  himself  Fath 
Ullah  B.  Shukr  Ullah  lU-Kashani ;  see  below, 
p.  18,  and  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  512.  He  is  called 
Fath  Ullah  Kashani  in  Stewart's  Catal., 
p.  171. 

This  MS.  contains  the  first  half  of  the 
work,  closing  with  the  end  of  Chap,  xviii. ; 
see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  378. 

At  the  end  is  found  a  transcript  of  the 
author's  own  subscription,  in  which  the 
work  is  called  ^JJ.i\-aJ\  ^^  /»-a^  ;  but  the 

leaf  is  torn  and  the  date  which  followed  is 
lost. 

This  volume  and  the  next  are  wrongly 
endorsed  c-*fc^^\  j--*5.  a-  title  belonging  to 
the  Commentary  of  Husain  Va  iz. 

Add.  18,539. 

Foil.  536 ;  uniform  with  the  preceding,  and 
written  by  the  same  hand. 

[J.  H.  Sternschuss.] 

The  latter  half  of  the  work;  see  Arab. 
Catal.,  p.  378. 

It  wants  two  or  three  pages  at  the  end, 


breaking  off  in  the  last  verse  of  the  last 
chapter  but  one,  jjliJl  *jy^' 

Or.  244. 

Foil.  540;  13^  in.  by  10  ;  24  lines,  5|  in. 
long,  in  a  page ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi  with 
'Unwan  and  ruled  margins ;  dated  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  1082  (A.D.  1671.) 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

Another  copy  of  the  second  volume. 

It  was  transcribed  by  Muhammad  Kasim 
KausI  for  Aka  Muhammad  Shaf  i'. 

'Abdullah  B.  Muhammad  Shafi'  ul-Yazdi, 
apparently  the  son  of  the  latter,  states  in  a 
note  at  the  end,  that  he  collated  this  volume 
for  the  third  time  in  Kashmir,  in  A.H.  1044 
(read  1144). 

It  is  endorsed  :   ^^-U  j*-i3  ^  J.l»- 

Foll.  2 — 7  contain  a  table  of  contents  in 
the  handwriting  of  the  copyist. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  a  modem  title  in  which 
the  author  is  called  [JjIjm  aJJl  -oj  iU 

Or.  243. 

FoU.  442  ;  13|  in.  by  10 ;  21  lines,  6^  in. 
long,  in  a  page ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik, 
apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  Shi'ah  Commentary  on  the  Coran,  with- 
out preface,  title,  or  author's  name. 
Beg.  ^^  J*^**  "i.^***?  cj^^  *^  ^^   '^f"^ 

This  volume  contains  apparently  the  first 
half  of  the  work ;  it  begins  with  the  formula 
My  i^^  which  is  immediately  followed  by 
the  Fatihah,  and  it  concludes  with  the  end 
of  Chapter  xvii.,  fjjMit\  s,^ 


THE  CORAN  AND  ITS  COMMENTARIES. 


18 


It  has  been  endorsed  by  the  same  hand  as 
the  preceding  MS.,  Or.  244,  Jfc\  ^  j.^.oS 
Jj^  i\U  iiiaiJl,  with  the  evident  intention  to 
make  it  appear  the  first  volume  of  the  same 
work. 

But  the  present  Commentary  is  altogether 
different  from  the  ^^\  &<e^li-,  and  displays 

a  much  stronger  Shi'ah  bias.  The  author 
does  not  scruple  to  say,  for  instance,  that, 
according  to  Imam  Sadik,  the  word  (_.>\::i3\  at 
the  beginning  of  Surat  ul-Bakarah  applies  to 
All  B.  Abi  TaHb,  who  said  of  himself,  "  I  am 
the  speaking  book  of  God."  He  further  in- 
terprets ^;ialji5  ^Ji»  as  "  guiding  the  pious 
Shi'Is,"  and  includes  under  ^j>_^^  all  those 
who  do  not  believe  in  the  twelve  Imiims. 
He  follows  everywhere  the  traditional  inter- 
pretations of  the  Imams,  and  quotes,  on 
every  page,  the  great  Shi'ah  Commentary 
Majma'  ul-Bayan  (Arab.  Catal.,  p.  671). 

Add.  7600. 

FoU.  192  ;  8  in.  by  6 ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi  with  the  vowels ; 
dated  from  Rajab,  A.H.  1090,  to  Muharram, 
A.H.  1091  (A.D.  1679—80).     [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

An  alphabetical  index  of  the  verses  of  the 
Coran ;  see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  380. 


Author :  Muhammad  'All  Karbala  i,  a^ 

Beg.  |»^>i  _\jujl  j,>  tS  i^jM  i.sjjjAa'  lijjti  J  J.,*. 

•^ 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that 
while  studying  Hexegesis  and  Traditions 
with  other  pupils  under  Muhammad  Ibn 
Khatun  ul-'AmUi,  the  want  of  a  Coranic 
index  being  often  felt,  he  was  directed  by 
his  master  to  compile  the  present  work  and 
dedicate  it  to  Sultan  'Abd  TJUah  Kutubshah 
(who  reigned  A.H.  1035—1083).  He  then 
proceeds,  fol.  3  a,  to  explain  its  arrange- 
ment, and  to  give  tables  of  the  abbreviations 
by  which  the  Surahs  are  designated,  and  of 
all  the  beginnings  of  the  sections  called 
(Juz'),  and  their  subdivisions  (Hizb). 

The  index  itself  is  divided  into  two  parts 
(Kism).  In  the  first,  fol.  8  6,  the  verses  are 
arranged  according  to  their  initial,  in  the 
second,  fol.  101  b,  according  to  their  final 
letters.  In  both  parts  references  are  given 
to  the  Juz'  and  Hizb,  as  well  as  to  the 
Surah. 

The  proper  reading  of  the  title  may  be 
^LlJaJJ  i0.j*,  but  the  first  word  is  written  as 
above  «j,iiU>,  in  the  heading  of  Kism  II., 
while  in  the  first  heading,  fol.  1,  it  has  been 
all  but  cut  away  with  a  portion  of  the  leaf. 

The  first  part  was  transcribed  by  .y^  ^ 
fJisJ}  ^y,  and  the  second  by  ^^t_tt-»y.  2)c« 


(    14    ) 


TRADITIONS  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


Or.  1107. 

FoU.  232 ;  15  in.  by  10^ ;  35  lines,  7^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  hand  and 
dated  Zulka'dah,  A.H.  1092  (A.D.  1681) 

[Warren  Hastings.] 


SUCjlJI 


C-^^ 


kJljlltJ    jUt>^l 


A  Persian  Commentary  on  the  Arabic 
work  "  Mishkat  ul-Masabih,"  a  well  known 
collection  of  the  traditional  sayings  of  Mu- 
hammad. See  Arabic  Catalogue,  p.  721  a, 
and  Mishcdt  ul-Masabih,  translated  by  Capt. 
A.  N.  Matthews,  Calcutta,  1809,  Preface,  p. 
ii.,  notes. 

Commentator :  'Abd  ul-Hakk  B.  Saif  ud- 

Din  ud-Dihlavi,  ^J^^\  j^.J^  »—»*«»  ^^  j*\  jj^ 
'Abd  ul-Hakk  is  a  most  prolific  writer, 
whose  name  will  often  recur  in  these  pages. 
He  gives  a  full  account  of  his  forefathers  and 
his  early  life  in  his  Akhbar  ul-Akhyar.  He 
there  traces  his  descent,  through  five  inter- 
vening generations,  to  Muhammad  Turk, 
who  went  from  Bukhara  to  India  and  rose 
to  the  rank  of  Amir  in  the  reign  of  'Ala  ud- 
Din  Klialji.  'Abd  ul-Hakk's  grandfather, 
Shaikh  Sa'd  UUah,  who  died  A.H.  928,  had 
embraced  a  religious  life,  and  his  example 
was  followed  by  his  son.  Shaikh  Saif  ud-Din, 
the  author's  father,  who  died  A.H.  990.  The 
author,  who  was  born  in  A.H.  958,  and  had 
from  his  infancy  devoted  his  time  with  un- 
remitting ardour  to  study  and  devout  prac- 
tices, entered  the  Kadiri  order  A.H.  985,  and 
set  out  in  A.H.  996  for  the  Hijaz,  where  he 
spent  some  years  in  the  pursuit  of  Hadi§ 
under  'Abd  ul-Wahhab  Muttaki  and  other 


'<^j 


r 


celebrated  doctors.  He  died  in  his  native 
place,  Dehli,  in  great  renown  of  sanctity,  A.H. 
1052,  See  Akhbar  ul-Akhyar,  Or.  221,  foil. 
214 — 233,  and  a  notice  on  his  life  in  Elliot's 
Hist,  of  India,  vol.  vi.  p.  175. 

This  MS.  begins  with  the  following  heading 
in  the  handwriting  of  the  transcriber :  Ji». 

It  contains  the  fourth  and  last  volume  of 
the  work,  beginning  with  the  chapter  on 
soothsaying,  'ii\^\  i_jb .  See  Matthews'  trans- 
lation, vol.  ii.,  from  p.  384  to  the  end. 

The  author  states  at  the  end,  in  a  note  ap- 
pended in  A.H.  1045  to  a  copy  which  had 
been  transcribed  in  A.H.  1044,  and  collated 
by  himseK  in  the  same  year,  that  he  com- 
menced the  present  Commentary  at  Dehli  in 
the  middle  of  A.H.  1019,  and  completed  it  in 
the  same  place  in  Rabi'  ul-akhir,  A.H.  1025. 
He  adds  that  during  the  same  period  he  also 
wrote  an  Arabic  Commentary  on  the  same 
work,  entitled  iilsCi*  -jL  ^^  >^^  C^Ui 
^Ufl4^  which  was  much  inferior  to  the 
Persian  in  extent,  the  former  containing 
about  80,000  and  the  latter  130,000  lines. 

The  author  there  calls  himself :  j^'  i^ap 

esojio  jj5jii\ji)l  \>j^  ijy^'^  Ukj»«  ^_^^    ^J«-J 

Copyist :   ^j-^yjo- 

The  last  page  contains  a  table  of  chapters 
in  the  hand  of  the  transcriber. 

On  the  first  page  is  impressed  the  seal  of 
Muhammad  Khan,  servant  of  Muhammad 
Shah,  with  the  date  A.H.  1136. 


TRADITIONS  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


16 


Add.  7606. 

Poll.  566;  101  in.  by  6|;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
ITth  century.  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  Commentary  upon  "  Sufar  us-Sa  adat," 
a  collection  of  authentic  traditions  relating 
to  the  life,  character,  practices,  and  moral 
teachings  of  Muhammad,  compiled  by  Mu- 
hammad B.  Ya'kub,  known  as  Majd  ud-Din 
ul-Firuzabadi. 

Commentator :  'Abd  ul-Hakk  B.  Saif  ud- 
Din  B.  Sa'd  Ullah  ut-Turk  ud-Dihlavi  ul- 
Bukhari,   «JJ\  jju«  ^^'   ^^_,oi\  ^-a^m  ^j>  j_:i'  ju& 

Beg.  c:^\  t^l  UUp  U  ^\  li)  Jc-  ^  cdLilsrt- 

The  commentator  states  in  his  preface  that 
al-Firuzabadi  (better  known  as  author  of  the 
Kamus ;  see  Arab.  Catal.,  p.  229),  was  born 
in  Kazarun,  A.H.  727,  and  died  in  Zabid 
A.H.  817.  He  extols  the  excellence  of 
the  work,  which,  he  adds,  is  also  known  as 
^*b'::~.U  ^]j^  ,  but  complains  at  the  same  time 
of  the  excessive  severity  of  the  author  in 
rejecting  some  traditions  of  questionable 
authenticity.  He  then  proceeds  to  enume- 
rate a  vast  number  of  works  referred  to  in 
his  Commentary.  An  introduction  follows, 
divided  into  two  parts  (Kism).  The  first, 
fol.  5  b,  treats  of  the  science  of  Hadig  and 
of  the  authentic  collections ;  the  second,  fol. 
19  b,  of  the  Imams  or  chiefs  of  the  four  schools 
of  law. 

The  original  work,  the  title  of  which  is  re- 
peatedly  written  xiS'j»-J\  ^o-.  (with  zammah) 
in  the  Gotha  copy,  dated  A.H.  884,  is  divided 
into  a  Mukaddimah,  five  books  (Bab),  and 
a  Khatimah.  The  contents  are  specified  by 
Pertsch,  Gotha  Catalogue,  p.  55 ;  see  also  Haj. 
KhaL,  vol.  iii.,  p.  599,  and  the  Vienna  Cata- 


logue, vol.  iii.,  p.  449,  where  the  work  is  de- 
signated by  its  second  title,  Sirati  Mustakim. 
The  Khatimah,  fol.  507  a,  which  treats  of  the 
unsound  traditions,  ends  in  the  present  copy 
with  the  words  jii  j  ^\:Jtjb  j  c^\  j\jjj\  u«>b  ^ 

^\  4)31  J  ».xli  ijio^  <.f}4»-  *^j  in  the  comments 
upon  which  the  MS.  breaks  oS. 

Add.  7617. 

Foil.  198 ;  10  in.  by  7 ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  two  'Unwans  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  work  treating  of  the  noble  qualities  and 
praiseworthy  customs  and  observances  of 
Muhammad  and  the  Imams,  set  up  as  an 
example  to  all  Muslims;  translated  from 
the  Arabic. 

Translator:  Nasir  ud-Din  Muhammad  B. 
'Abd  ul-Karim  ul-Ansari  id-Astarabadi.  ^^ 

A  preface  is  prefixed,  occupying  two  pages, 
and  beginning  thus  :  o- V'  J  '^■*^  j^^jJ  j* W 

This  preface  is  due  to  the  translator,  who 
states  that  the  Arabic  original,  entitled  ^JsU 
J!iii-^1,  is  the  work  of  Shaikh  ul-Islam  Razi 
ud-Din  Abu  'Ali  ul-Hasan  B.  Abu  Nasr  ul- 
Fazl  B.  ul-Hasan  ut-TabarsI.  He  further 
says  that  he  wrote  the  present  translation 
in  the  reign  of  Shah  Tahmasp  B.  Shah 
Ismail  (A.H.  930—984),  and  by  order  of 
Muhammad  Khan,  Governor  of  Khorasan. 
(Muhammad  Khan  Sharaf  Ughli  Taklu  was 
appointed  governor  of  Herat  in  A.H.  941 ; 
see  'Alam-ara,  Add.  16,684,  fol.  23). 

He  finally  assigns  to  his  translation  the 
above  title :  i_jb!il\  ^^'-i?.  It  must  be  no- 
ticed, however,  that  the  title  of  the  original 


16 


TRADITIONS  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


J^^l  ».}C  appears  in  the  headings  of  the 
preface  and  of  the  work  itself. 

The  latter  begins,  fol.  5G,  as  follows  :— 

It  is  divided  into  twelve  books  (Bab), 
subdivided  into  numerous  chapters  (Fasl), 
a  full  table  of  which  occupies  three  pages 
at  the  end  of  the  preface. 

The  twelve  books  treat  of  the  following 
subjects : — 

1.  Bodily  and  mental  qualities  of  Muham- 
mad ;  fol.  8  b.  2.  Rules  observed  in  cleans- 
ing the  body,  apparel,  etc. ;  fol.  21  a.  3.  Rules 
observed  in  bathing ;  fol.  24  h.  4.  On  nail- 
paring,  clipping  the  hair  of  the  upper  lip, 
combing,  etc ;  fol.  28  b.  5.  On  dyeing,  or- 
naments, rings,  etc. ;  fol.  32  b.  6.  On  dress 
and  dwelUngs  ;  fol.  38  h.  7.  On  eating  and 
drinking;  fol.  51  a.  8.  On  matrimony,  fol. 
61  a.  9.  On  travelling;  fol.  79  b.  10.  On 
prayers  ;  fol.  90  a.  11.  On  sickness  and 
healing ;  fol.  129  b.  12.  On  some  curious 
precepts  and  traditions ;  fol.  160  a. 

The  original  does  not  appear  to  be  much 
earlier  than  the  translation,  for  the  author 
is  described  in  the  preface  as  the  "  noblest 
of  the  modems  "  j>.f^^^  ^/l  •  Moreover,  a 
work  of  recent  date  is  frequently  quoted  in 

the  text,  viz.  ^^^y^  *^JL;  (^^^  ^°^-  ^^  *' 
21  a,  etc.),  written,  according  to  Haj-Khal., 
by  Mu'in  Farahi,  who  lived  at  Herat  under 
Abul-GhazI  Sultan  Husain,  and  died  A.H. 
907 ;  see  Habib  us-Siyar. 

This  copy  is  slightly  imperfect  at  the  end. 

Haj.  Khal.  mentions  four  works  bearing 
the  same  title  ^'^il\  j,J^,  vol.  vi.  p.  98, 
none  of  which  can  be  identified  with  the 
present,  a  decidedly  Shl'ah  book. 

Or.  245. 

FoU.  190  ;  Hi  in.  by  7^  ;  21  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  probably  in  the 


18th  century. 


[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 


A  Persian  Commentary  on  the  Arabic 
work  of  Jalal  ud-Din  'Abd  ur-Rahman  us- 
Suyuti,  commonly  called  Kitab  ul-Barzakh, 
and  consisting  of  a.  collection  of  the  Hadi§, 
or  traditional  sayings  of  Muhammad,  which 
relate  to  the  fate  of  souls  in  the  period  in- 
tervening between  death  and  the  day  of 
resurrection. 

Author :  Siraj  Ahmad  B.  Muhammad  Mur- 
shid  Sihrindi  Nakshabandi,  *.♦*;•  ^^  .x^l  ^j^ 

Beg.  j^Lil  «/  c*-o^j&  i-^  ^"^  d'-J^s^ 
The  whole  of  the  Arabic  text  is  given  in 

the  Commentary,  and  is  distinguished  by  a 

red  line  drawn  above  it. 

It  begins  thus  :  f\Z>  ^J^>  law.\  t/i!\  <»Jl  J-*^' 

The  real  title  of  the  work  is  :  jj.i-a3\  -^ 
jyJi\  j   J.^\  JW  ^^.     See  Haj.  Khal., 

vol.  iv.,  p.  39. 

Suyuti  states  in  his  preface  that  the  pre- 
sent work  is  based  on  the  Tazkirat  ul-Kur- 
tubi,  the  contents  of  which  he  had  revised, 
arranged,  and  supplemented  with  numerous 
additions. 

The  full  title  of  Kurtubi's  work  is  :   ijsi\ 

The  author  is  Shams  ud-Din  Abu  'Abd 
Allah  Muhammad  Ibn  Ahmad  Ibn  Abi  Bakr 
Ibn  Farj  ul-Ansarl  ul-Kurtubi,  who  died 
A.H.  671  (not  Mahmud  Ibn  Ahmad  Ibn 
Farah,  as  Haj.  Khal.  has  it  under  »/jj 
Ja^^,  vol.  ii.,  p.  266^.  See  Arab.  Catal., 
pp.  108  and  701. 

This  copy  is  slightly  imperfect ;  it  ends 
abruptly  after  the  beginning  of  the  fifth 
of  the  observations  jJoli  included  in  the 
Khiitimah. 

A  portion  of  fol.  2,  which  contains  the 
preface,  is  torn  off. 


TRADITIONS  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


17 


I 


Add.  5567. 

Foil.  53  ;  10  in.  hj  6^.  Foil.  1—10  ;  13 
lines,  3^  in.  long ;  written  in  the  Naskhi 
and  Nestalik  characters,  apparently  in  India, 
in  the  17th  century.      [Chakles  Hamilton.] 

I.  Forty  sayings  of  Muhammad,  in  Arabic, 
with  a  paraphrase  in  Persian  verses. 

Author :  Jami  ^U- 

Beg.    i_Aatf    U    A^^    L-Jkag    j_^    f/<i^\    ij-'y!.   ^ 

The  author,  who  designates  himself  in  the 
concluding  quatrain  by  the  above  Takhallus, 
is  the  celebrated  poet  and  Sufi  Nur  ud-Din 
Abd  ur-Rahman  Jami.  According  to  his 
friend  and  disciple,  Abd  ul-GhafRir  Ltiri,  who 
wrote  his  Ufe,  Or.  218,  foU.  151—175,  Jami 
was  born  in  Kharjird,  province  of  Jilm,  on 
the  23rd  of  Shaban,  A.H.  817,  and  died  in 
Herat,  where  most  of  his  life  had  been  spent, 
on  the  18th  of  Muharram,  A.H.  898.  Notices 
of  him  are  found  in  many  contemporary 
works,  as  Lata'if  Namah,  Add.  7669,  fol.  31 ; 
MajaUs  ul-'Ushshak,  Or.  208,  fol.  133 ;  Rash- 
ahat  'Ain  ul-Hayat,  Or.  212,  fol.  77 ;  Habib 
us-Siyar,  Add.*  6561,  fol.  81;  Tuhfah  i  SamI, 
Add.  7670,  fol.  81,  as  well  as  in  many  Euro- 
pean works.  See  V.  van  Eosenzweig,  Biblio- 
graphische  Notizen ;  Hammer,  Schone  Eede- 
kiinste  Persiens,  p.  312;  Jourdain,  Biogr. 
Univ.  vol.  xi.,  p.  431;  S.  de  Sacy,  Not.  et 
Extr.,  vol.  xii.,  p.  287 ;  Ouseley,  Biographical 
Notices,  p.  131 ;  Dorn,  St.  Petersburgh  Cata- 
logue, p.  369 ;  Sprenger,  Oude  Catal.,  p.  447 ; 
N.  Sees,  Biographical  sketch  of  Jami,  Cal- 
cutta, 1859;  Fliigel,  Vienna  Catal.,  vol.  i., 
p.  570,  etc. 

The  present  work  is  mentioned  by  Lari,  in 
his  list  of  Jami's  work,  under  the  title  of 


t^.j^  ^j^J^  *iit^J> .  In  another  copy  of  the 
same  collection.  Add.  16,825,  I.,  there  is  a 
short  prose  preface,  and  a  conclusion  in 
which  Jami  states  that  it  was  completed 
A.H.  886.  The  paraphrase  of  each  saying 
is  a  Kit'ah  of  two  Baits  in  the  metre  Rami. 
II.  Another  series  of  forty  Hadig,  with  a 
metrical  version  of  exactly  the  same  form  as 
the  preceding,  and  apparently  by  the  same 
writer ;  fol.  56. 

Beg.  oLDb  JU»5)i  Ul 

For  the  rest  of  the  contents  see  Arab. 
Catal.,  p.  397. 

The  first  page  bears  the  name  of  Robert 
Watherston. 

Or.  1231. 

Foil.  67 ;  8  in.  by  5| ;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  NestaHk ;  dated  Shawwal, 
A.H.  925  (A.D.  1519).  [Alex.  Jaba.] 

A  work  purporting  to  give  the  questions 
put  by  the  Jews  to  Muhammad,  and  the 
latter's  answers,  on  the  creation  of  the 
heavens  and  the  earths,  of  paradise  and 
hell,  on  the  end  of  the  world,  and  on  the 
history  of  the  prophets. 

Beg.  «5  jJ^  Jj>-  \j  ^i^  JO  iji^.^  J  (j-Va«» 

The  work  is  ascribed  in  a  short  preamble 
to  the  Imam  Abu  Mansur  Sa'id  B.  Muham- 
mad ul-Kattan  ul-Ghaznavi.  A  similar  work, 
with  the  same  title,  but  with  a  different  be- 
ginning, is  attributed  to  Shaikh  Abu  Bakr 
B.  'Abdullah  B.  Muhammad  B.  Shamur  ul- 
Asadi  ur-Razi ;    v.   Fluegel,   Vienna  Cata- 

D 


18 


TRADITIONS  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


logue,  vol.  iii.,  p.  453,  and  Haj.  Klial.,  vol. 
ill.,  p.  588. 

Add.  23,581. 

Foil.  105 ;  8i  in.  by  6^ ;  14  Hnes,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  very  rude  Naskhi,  about 
the  beginning  of  the  present  century. 

[EoB.  Taylor.] 

The  same  work. 


The  text  is  very  incorrect,  and  apparently 
much  altered,  but  it  agrees  in  the  main  with 
the  preceding  copy.  The  work  is  ascribed 
here  to  the  Imam  Abu  Nasr  B.  Sa'd  B.  Mu- 
hammad, and  is  stated  to  contain  twenty- 
seven  descriptions,  izJi-e,  a  division  which, 
however,  is  not  observed  in  the  text. 

The  fly-leal'  bears  the  name  of  Col.  Taylor, 
with  the  date,  "  Shiraz,  18th  June,  1811." 


TRADITIONS    OF    THE    IMAMS. 


Add.  18,401. 

Foil.  367 ;  9|  in.  by  6| ;  20  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  on  gold- sprinkled  paper,  in 
fair  Naskhi  with  all  vowels,  and  in  smaU  and 
neat  Nestalik,  with  a  rich  double-page  *Un- 
wan,  gold-ruled  margins,  and  illuminated 
headings ;  dated  Eabi'  II.,  A.H.  1093  (A.D. 
1682).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

Discourses,  letters,  and  sayings  ascribed  to 
'All  B.  Abu  Talib,  collected  by  Sayyid  Razi 
ud-Din  ^Jl^i\  ^j  j--.  (fol  366  fi),  i.  e.  Abul- 
Hasan  Muhammad  B.  id-Husain  B.  Musa, 
commonly  called  ash-Sharif  ur-RazI,  with  a 
literal  Persian  version  written  in  red  ink 
under  the  lines  of  the  Arabic  text. 


Beg.  of  the  Persian  version :  j-^  j\  c^  Ul 

This  work,  whose  authenticity  is  repudiated, 
and  whose  editorship  is  considered  doubtful 
by  Sunni  writers,  enjoys  the  highest  authority 


with  the  Shi'ah,  who  ascribe  its  compilation 
to  the  above  named  Sharif.  See  Majalis  ul- 
Muminin,  A.H.  16,716,  fol.  248,  Arabic 
Catalogue,  p.  511,  and  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  vi., 
p.  406. 

Copyist:    ^;Jt:^^    iX^  JLa  ^>^ ji!^  (rj»j*   i;;^^ 

^^^1  L-i»/.  ■nil 

The  Nahj  ul-Balaghat  has  been  printed  in 
Tabriz,  A.H.  1267. 

Add.  16,850. 

FoU.  438;  11  in.  by  7.f ;  22  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  good  Naskhi,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  Persian  paraphrase  of  the  preceding 
work,  «i-iL)l  ^  -**.v>-y,  with  a  preface  by  the 
translator. 

Translator:  Path  UUah  B.  Shukr  UUah 
ul-Kashani,  ^^U.l<5\  <jM\^  ^^  dJl\  xi 

Beg.  t?jl^  Ui'  Uj  ^j^J  U  \j*  ^^^^\  ^  c^ 


TRADITIONS  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


19 


F 


The  Arabic  text  is  written  in  red;  each 
passage,  and  often  each  single  word,  is  fol- 
lowed by  its  Persian  interpretation.  See 
Arab.  Catal.,  p.  512. 

In  the  translator's  preface,  the  name  of  the 
compiler  of  the  Arabic  work  is  given  as 
foUows :   t_xflil  ^^j  ^yJ  ,i^  ^^.^^)l  ^  t-w^^ 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  the 
version  was  completed  A.H.  955  :  s3.s>  o^-J 
i,^^  u*  '*"'  *****  (•i**^^  c:j^J^  j^  '"'  (j  8-^J^\ 
iO.jjJU  This  is  followed  by  another  date 
relating  to  the  transcription  of  the  present 
copy,  of  which  the  last  two  figures  only, 
namely  34,  are  preserved;  it  probably  was 
1034. 

Copyist :  JiJ,]  M  ^  ^^  ^JiJ\,\  ^^,..^ 

Add.   7536. 

FoU.  318 ;  11  in.  by  7^ ;  16  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  'Unwan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  Persian  Commentary  upon  the  Arabic 
Dlwan  of  'Ali  B.  Abu  Talib;  see  Arabic 
Catalogue,  p.  276. 

Commentator :   Husain  B.  Mu'in  ud-Din 

ul-Maibudi,  fjd^\  ^Ji.^\  i^i^i^  ^^  (jf^ 

Beg.  ;_>mUS  Cj^\xS'  SJmjj  (_>wU*»1  OjUm*  (_j«U«» 

\J^JiyMt 

The  commentator's  native  place,  Maibud, 
or,  rather,  Maibuz,  was,  according  to  Yakut, 
a  town  and  fort  in  the  province  of  Ispahan, 
but  belonged,  according  to  others,  to  that  of 
Yazd  or  of  Fars.  He  was  a  Husaini  Sayyid,  and 
is  known  as  the  author  of  some  philosophical 
works,  and  a  treatise  on  astronomy.  See 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  499,  vi.,  p.  474,  and 
TJri's  Catal.,  p.  120. 


Sam  Mirza,  who  calls  him  KazI  Mir  Hu- 
sain Yazdi,  says  that  he  was  born  in  Maibud, 
studied  philosophy  in  Shiraz,  under  Dawani, 
and  wrote  many  works,  but  does  not  men- 
tion by  name  any  but  the  present  Com- 
mentary. He  used  in  poetry  the  Takhallus 
Mantiki.  See  Tuhfah  i  Sami,  Add.  7670, 
fol.  46;  and  Haft  Iklim,  Add.  16,734, 
fol.  74. 

A  collection  of  his  letters  is  described  by 
KraflPfc,  Catalogue  of  the  Orient.  Acad., 
p.  27. 

Maibudi  found  in  the  religious  poems 
ascribed  to  'All  a  convenient  text  for  Sufi 
comments.  So  little  was  he  convinced  of 
their  genuineness  that  he  says  in  his  preface 
that  he  would  be  glad  to  think  that  the 
Dlwan  contained  a  single  line  proceeding 
from  its  reputed  author. 

The  preface  is  followed  by  extensive  prole- 
gomena, foil.  4 — 89,  dealing  chiefly  with 
the  doctrines  of  Sufis  and  philosophers.  They 
are  often  found  as  a  separate  work,  under 
the  name  of  cf^fi*  2ly,  from  their  being 
divided  into  seven  sections  called  «^\s,  as 
follows : — 

1.  On  the  true  path  followed  by  the  elect, 
fol.  4  a. 

2.  On  the  essence  of  God,  fol.  14  a. 

3.  On  His  name  and  attributes,  fol. 
21  «. 

4.  On  the  "  greater  man,"  or  the  universe 
considered  as  a  living  entity,  fol.  28  b. 

6.  On  the  lesser  man,  or  microcosm,  fol. 
43  6. 

6.  On  prophecy  »^,  and  saintship  So^j, 
fol.  55  a. 

7.  On  the  prerogatives  of  *Ali,  and  the 
history  of  his  life,  fol.  70  b. 

The  author  states  in  conclusion  that  he 
completed  the  present  Commentary  in  the 
month  of  Safar,  A.H.  890,  corresponding  to 
the  year  406  of  the  Jalali  sera. 
d2 


20 


TRADITIONS  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


Or.  125. 

FoU.  265 ;  9|  in.  by  6 ;  16  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury. [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  25,846. 

Foil.  410  ;  10|  in.  by  6J  ;  17  lines,  3J  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  'Unwan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  about 
the  close  of  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

A  Shi'ah  treatise  containing  directions  as 
to  the  practises  and  observances  of  daily  life, 
founded  upon  the  precepts  and  example  of 
the  Imams. 

Author:  Muhammad  Bakir  B.  Muham- 
mad Taki,  ^JJ  j-»^  t>?yV  J>^ 

w 

Beg.  ^;;-«»-b  ij^Ji'^  «^.^^  (J*-  ^J^^  ^  '^ 

Shaikh  ul-Islam  MuUa  Muhammad  Bakir 
MajUsi,  the  great  apostle  of  the  Shi'ah  faith, 
was  bom  at  Ispahan,  A.H.  1038,  and  died 
there  A.H.  1110.  His  father,  Muhammad 
TakI,  who  filled  before  him  the  office  of 
Shaikh  ul-Islam,  had  taken  the  surname  of 
Majlisi  from  his  own  father,  Mulla  Maksud 
'All,  who  had  adopted  it  for  his  Takhallus. 
A  full  account  of  this  family  is  to  be  found 
in  Mir'at  ul- Ahwal,  Add.  24,0*52,  foil.  17,  seqq. , 
in  which  nine  Arabic  and  forty-nine  Persian 
works  of  Muhammad  B;ikir  are  enumerated. 
See  also  Add.  7656,  fol.  158  a;  Add.  7719, 
fol.  198 ;  and  the  life  of  Shaikh  Hazin,  trans- 
lated by  T.  C.  Belfour,  p.  32. 

The  author  mentions  in  the  preface  a 
treatise  on  ethics,  previously  written  by 
himself,  and  entitled  j^jii  ^J^,  which  is  the 
first  in  the  list  of  his  Persian  Avorks,  Add. 
24,052,  fol.  28  a,  whUe  the  ^ii^l  JLU  is  the 


third.  Both  have  been  lithographed  in 
Tehran,  A.H.  1240  and  1248. 

The  present  work  is  divided  into  fourteen 
books  (Bab),  and  an  Appendix  (Khati- 
mah),  enumerated  in  the  preface,  and  each 
book  is  subdivided  into  twelve  chapters 
(Fasl). 

The  fourteen  books  treat  of  the  rules  to 
be  observed  in  regard  to  the  following  sub- 
jects : — 1.  Dress,  2.  Ornaments,  dyes,  etc. 
3.  Eating  and  drinking.  4.  Married  life  and 
bringing  up  of  children.  5.  Using  the  tooth- 
pick, clipping  the  nails  and  the  hair  of  the 
upper  lip,  shaving,  etc.  6.  Scents.  7.  Bath- 
ing. 8.  Sleeping.  9,  Blood-letting.  10.  In- 
tercourse with  believers.  11.  Assemblies  and 
greetings.  12.  Entering  and  leaving  the 
house.  13.  Riding,  walking,  marketing,  etc. 
14.  Travelling. 

The  author  states  at  the  end  that  he  com- 
pleted the  work  in  Rajab,  A.H.  1079. 

A  full  table  of  contents  in  the  hand- 
writing of  the  transcriber  occupies  fourteen 
pages  at  the  beginning. 

Add.  25,847. 

FoU.  342;  8|  in.  by  5^^;  15  lines,  3f  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Cubeton.] 

The  same  work. 

The  date  of  composition  does  not  appear 
in  this  copy.  The  first  page  has  been  sup- 
plied by  a  later  hand. 

Add.  25,855. 

Foil.  270 ;  7  in.  by  4^ ;  12  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Naskhi,  with  gold 
headings,  probably  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Cuketon.] 

A  collection  of  prayers,  ascribed  to  the 
Imams,  with  directions  for  their  recitation 
at  various  times  of  day  and  night. 


TRADITIONS  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


21 


The  MS.  is  defective  at  the  beginning; 
the  latter  part  of  the  preface,  which  is  pre- 
served, contains  a  dedication  to  Shah  Sulai- 
man  (A.H.  1077-1105).  The  above  title  is 
taken  from  an  English  note  prefixed  by- 
Sir  Wm.  Chambers,  Calcutta,  1779.  The 
work  is  there  ascribed  to  the  famous  Shi'ah 
doctor,  Mulla  Muhammad  Bakir  Majlisi, 
who  extracted  it  from  his  Arabic  work 
_,ly^\  jUs! .  That  statement  is  confirmed  by 
the  life  of  Bakir  Majlisi  already  quoted,  in 
which  the  Mikbas  ul-Masabih  is  mentioned 
as  the  seventh  of  the  author's  Persian  works ; 
see  Add.  24,052,  fol.  28, 

The  work  is  divided  into  ten  chapters 
(Fasl).  The  Arabic  text  of  the  prayers  is 
written  with  all  vowels. 

Add.  26,304. 

Foil.  19 ;  8  in.  by  5 ;  15  lines,  2f  in.  long ; 
written  in  neat  Naskhi,  with  a  double-page 
'Unwan,  gilt  headings  and  gold-ruled  mar- 
gins, apparently  about  the  close  of  the  17th 
century.  [Wm.  Eeskine.] 

Prayers  and  pious  observances  on  ordi- 
nary and  special  days  through  the  year, 
according  to  the  practice  of  the  Imams. 

Author:  Muhammad  Bakir  B.  Muham- 
mad Taki,  ^Ju  s^  uij^-  '^^ 

Beg.    JJJ   *L-»j   iiiilj^Jl   J«9-   t/JJ\   rfll   jji 

This  work  has  been  lithographed  in  Teh- 
ran, A.H.  1244. 

The  author  states,  in  a  short  preface,  that 
he  extracted  this  short  manual,  for  the  use 
of  persons  engaged  in  worldly  pursuits,  from 
his  larger  work  entitled  ^^y^^jl*;,  and  he  con- 
cludes with  a  dedication  to  Shah  Sultan 
Husain  (A.H.  1105—1135). 

The  latter  work  is,  according  to  the  notice 


previously  quoted,  Add.  24,052,  fol.  26  b,  a 
vast  compilation  of  Shi'ah  traditions  in  Ara- 
bic. It  consisted  of  25  volumes,  only  16  of 
which  have  been  completed.  (Voll.  8,  10 
and  14  have  been  printed  in  Persia,  A.H.  1270 
— 5.)  The  present  work  is  the  ninth  in  the 
list  of  the  author's  Persian  works,  ib.  f.  28  b, 
and  is  said  there  to  consist  of  15,000  lines. 
The  text  of  the  prayers  is  given  in  Arabic, 
with  all  the  vowels,  and  accompanied  with 
an  interlinear  Persian  version. 

The  present  copy  is  imperfect;  it  has 
a  lacuna  after  fol.  8,  and  breaks  off  at 
fol.  16. 

Appended  is  an  Arabic  tract  in  support 
of  the  supernatural  powers  of  the  saints,  and 
in  refutation  of  the  Mu'tazilah  sect,  which 
denies  their  existence.  It  is  dedicated  to 
Sulaiman  Pasha,  Governor  of  Baghdad,  and 
dated  A.H.  1205.  It  is  written  by  another 
hand  in  small  Naskhi,  and  fills  five  pages, 
foil.  17 — 19,  with  27  lines  in  each. 

Add.  7605. 

Foil.  178;  10  in.  by  6;  17  lines,  3 J  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unwan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [CI.  J.  High.] 

A  treatise  on  supererogatory  night  and 
morning  prayers,  and  some  other  occasional 
prayers,  according  to  the  traditions  of  the 
Imams. 

Beg.jj-iS  jjs^jlp^  cfjj/v^  ^%  »^.^  ^j^ 
The  author  gave  his  own  and  his  father's 
name  in  the  preface,  fol.  2  b ;  both  have  been 
purposely  erased,  but  the  title  of  Khan  that 
followed  the  latter  is  still  legible.  He  calls 
this  work  a  tribute  of  gratitude  to  the  Safawi 
house,  which  his  forefathers  and  himself  had 
served,  and  dedicates  it  to  the  reigning  sove- 
reign, Shah  Sulaiman  (A.H.  1077—1105). 


22 


LAW. 


It  is  divided  into  an  introduction,  six 
chapters  called  Manhaj,  and  a  conclusion. 
The  numerous  and  extensive  Arabic  texts  of 
the  prayers  are  written  in  clear  Naskhi,  with 
all  vowels. 

Egerton  1015. 

Foil.  309  ;  10  in.  by  6^ ;  16  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India,  in  the  18th  century. 

"  The  road  of  true  faith,"  a  Commentary 
upon  the  C*-ej  or  "  Testament,"  containing 
the  moral  and  religious  precepts  of  the 
Imam  Ja'far  Sadik. 

Author :  'Ala  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Abu 
Turab  Gulistanah  ul-Husaini,  j*^  fj>.di\  »^ 

Beg.  »iU  4^U-»4W  -li-o  «55.j..»»  i^\jJ>\  _.jj  ^jj 

\^\ 

The  author,  considering  the  teachings  of 
the  Imams  the  only  safe  guide  to  truth  and 


salvation,  wished,  he  says,  to  render  that 
most  important  text  accessible  to  readers 
ignorant  of  Arabic,  and  added  to  its  utility 
by  elucidating  and  supplementing  it  with 
the  traditional  sayings  of  other  Imams.  The 
Arabic  text,  which  is  given  in  Naskhi,  with 
all  the  vowels,  is  said  to  be  taken  from  the 
'iJ>jJ\  ^^,  a  portion,  as  it  appears,  of  the 
j^,  the  great  collection  of  Imamitic  tradi- 
tions compiled  by  Muhammad  B,  Ya'kub 
ul-Kalini  ur-Razi;  see  Arabic  Catalogue, 
p.  452,  vi. 

Kalini,  a  great  Shi'ah  doctor,  so  called 
from  Kalln,  a  village  near  Rai,  died  in  Bagh- 
dad A.H.  328.  See  Majalis  ul-Muminln,  Add. 
16,716,  fol.  223.  The  pronunciation  Kalin 
is  fixed  by  the  Kamus,  and  by  Yakut  in  his 
Mu'ajjam. 

The  author  states  at  the  end  that  he  com- 
pleted this  work  in  Shawwal,  A.H.  1081. 

Mirza  'Ala  ud-Din  Muhammad  Gulistanah 
is  mentioned  in  Mir'at  ul-Ahwal,  Add.  24,052, 
fol.  25  b,  as  one  of  the  most  eminent  dis- 
ciples of  the  Shaikh  ul-Islam  Muhammad 
Bakir  Majlisi  above-mentioned,  and  the 
author  of  a  Commentary  upon  the  Nahj  ul- 
Balaghah. 


LAW. 


Add.  25,854. 

FoU.  95;  6  in.  by  4;  13  lines,  2Hn.long; 
written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the  17th 
century.  [Wm.  Cueeton.] 

A  short  and  popular  manual  of  the  law  on 
religious  obligations  according  to  the  Hanafi 
school. 


This  copy  is  imperfect  at  beginning  and 
end.  An  exposition  of  the  principal  articles 
of  faith  occupies  the  first  23  leaves.  It  is 
called  at  the  end  o-s-j^^  ^>  and  is  followed  by 
a  second  introduction  treating  of  prayer 
»jU  ^\x)  jH  pj^  &*jA« ,  f oU.  24  a — 25  b.  The 
rest  of  the  volume  contains  the  usual  books 
on   purification    0,^iaJl    <-r»^>    fol-    25    b. 


LAW. 


28 


prayer,  fol.  43  h,  fasting,  fol.  72  b,  legal  alms, 
fol.  77  a,  victims  5Lif^\  v^.  fol-  81  i,  and 
pilgrimage,  fol.  83  a. 

The  text  is  compiled  from  the  most 
approved  works  of  the  Hanaf  i  school,  such 
as  Kanz,  Kiifi,  Muhit,  Hidayah,  etc.,  chiefly 
of  the  6th  and  7th  centuries. 

Add.  4947. 

Foil.  150 ;  1\  in.  by  4| ;  7  lines,  3  in.  long ; 
written  in  large  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India,  early  in  the  18th  century. 

[Claud  Russel.] 

I.  Foil.  1  o— 80  b. 

A  Commentary  on  XjLo  wji*,  a  treatise  in 
verse,  on  legal  prayer,  by  MuUa  Sharaf  ud- 
Din  Bukhari ;  see  the  Vienna  Catalogue, 
vol.  i.  p.  512. 

Commentator:  Abu-l-'Ismat  Muhammad 
Ma'sum  M^^ojuc  s^  cu^^\  ^\ 

In  a  preface,  the  beginning  of  which  is 
wanting,  the  commentator  claims  indulgence 
for  this,  his  first  work.  The  versified  treatise 
begins,  fol.  8  a,  thus  : 

Its  author  states,  in  the  concluding  lines, 
fol.  75  a,  that  it  consists  of  170  distichs  and 
ten  sections  (Bab).  He  adds  that  he  was 
called  Sharaf,  was  born  in  Bukhara,  and 
taught  in  Khorasan. 

Mulla  Ya'kub  Charkhi,  and  Maulana  Ikhti- 
yar,  are  frequently  quoted  as  earlier  commen- 
tators of  the  same  treatise. 

II.  FoU.  80  6—150  b. 

A  Commentary  on  a  versified  treatise  on 
purification  yo^ . 

The  Commentary  begins  with  an  exposition 
on  the  different  kinds   of  water  used  for 


ablutions.    The  first  verse  of  the  text  is  the 
following,  fol.  91  a. 

No  author  is  named  for  either  text  or 
commentary ;  but  the  same  earUer  commen- 
tator, Ikhtiyar,  is  quoted.  This  copy  is  im- 
perfect  at  the  end. 

Add.  5543. 

FoU.  295;  llf  in.  by  7f ;  16  lines,  4 J  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'TJnwan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  18th  century.  [Charles  Hamilton.] 

A  complete  treatise  of  Muhammedan  Law 
according  to  the  Hanafi  school,  translated 
from  the  Arabic  Hidayah  of  Burhan  ud-Din 
'Ali  B.  Abi  Bakr  ul-Marghinani  (d.  A.H.  593). 

Translator  :   Ghulam  Yahya,  ^_^  ^is- . 

Beg.  j^j]f*»  ]j  L?'*^f**  (ji»^t:%^   0"^***  J   >^^ 

The  translator  says  in  his  preface  that  the 
Governor-General,  Warren  Hastings,  ever 
anxious  for  the  better  government  of  the 
people,  and  especially  for  the  improvement 
of  the  administration  of  justice,  had  commis- 
sioned him  to  compile  the  present  translation 
from  the  Hidayah  and  other  Arabic  treatises, 
with  the  assistance  of  Mulla  Taj  ud-Din,  Mir 
Muhammad  Husain  and  Mulla  Shari'at  UUah. 
He  then  conveys  the  date  on  which  the 
work  was  completed,  viz.  A.H.  1190,  in  the 
following  chronogram : 


ib  ^\d\  io}ji^^  tj^j^  *i'3'J* 

An  EngHsh  translation  of  this  Persian 
version  was  published  by  Charles  Hamilton, 
London,  1791,  who,  in  his  Preliminary  Dis- 
course, gives  an  account  of  the  original  at 


24, 


LAW. 


p.  xxxii.,  and  of  the  present  version  at  p.xliii. 
The  text  has  been  printed  in  Calcutta,  1807. 
The  present  volume  contains  the  first  five 
books,  treating  of  purification,  prayer,  legal 
alms,  fasting,  and  pilgrimage,  the  third  of 
which  only  has  been  translated  by  Hamilton, 
vol.  i.,  pp.  1 — 70.  A  full  table  of  books  and 
sections  occupies  three  pages  at  the  begin- 


ning. 


Add.  5544. 

Foil.  518;  uniform  with  the  preceding, 
and  written  by  the  same  hand. 

[Charles  Hamilton.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  above  work,  be- 
ginning with  the  book  on  marriage,  and 
ending  with  the  book  on  Wakf,  or  pious 
foundations.  (Hamilton's  translation,  vol.  i. 
p.  71 — vol.  ii.  p.  359). 

Foil.  1 — 3  contain  a  table  of  contents. 


Add.  5545. 

Foil.  552 ;  uniform  with  the  two  pre- 
ceding volumes.  [Charles  Hamilton.] 

The  third  volume,  beginning  with  the 
book  on  sales,  and  ending  with  the  book  on 
"  ghasb,"  or  appropriation  by  force.  (Hamil- 
ton's translation,  vol.  ii.  p.  360 — vol.  iii.  p. 
560). 

Table  of  contents,  foil.  2 — 4. 


Add.  5552. 

Foil.  380 ;  10  in.  by  6 ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  18th  century. 

[Charles  Hamilton.] 

The  fourth  and  last  volume,  from  the  book 
on  "  Shufah,"  or  the  right  of  pre-emption, 
to  the  end  of  the  work.  (Hamilton,  vol.  iii. 
p.  561 — vol.  iv.  p.  574). 


Add.  22,714. 

Foil.  192  ;  111  in.  by  7i ;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  in  two  gold- 
ruled  columns,  with  'Unwan  and  illuminated 
headings  ;  dated  March,  A.  D.  1803,  A.  H. 
1217. 


Wk>\ 


J 

A  treatise  on  penal  law,  jjo^-osj  :»jJ^  a^\ 
according  to  the  Hanaf  i  school. 

Author:    Salamat  'Ali  Khan,  known   as 

Hazakat  Khan  y\^''^  ,_ij^  ^J^  cl*-^ 
Beg.  \j  oU-lii  ^15  ^^'\  j.*^  o»l^  J  J^ 

The  author,  while  acting  as  legal  assistant 
to  Mr.  John  Knife  in  the  Court  of  Second 
Instance  at  Muhammad- Abiid,  compiled  the 
present  work,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  de- 
cision of  criminal  cases.  He  states  his 
sources  as  follows  :  ^J^^3»^  j  »j.^j*  j  t^j*^  (_j\Jo 
*?.iiU»-  (j'jl^  J  i^^  (_^'^  k/j^  J  ioS>j  ^j^  J  J^ 

He  adds  that  he  commenced  the  work  in 
A.H.  1212,  a  date  expressed  by  its  title,  and 
presented  it  to  Mr.  John  Dean. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  introduction 
ft^jLfl/o ,  and  two  books  ;  it  consists  entirely  of 
extracts  from  the  original  Arabic  works, 
with  a  Persian  translation  "  en  regard." 

It  has  been  printed  in  Calcutta,  A.H. 
1244.    See  Biblioth.  Sprenger.,  no.  663. 

Add.  24,040. 

FoU.  210 ;  114  in.  by  6| ;  15  lines,  41  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik,  in  two 
gold-ruled  columns,  about  the  beginning  of 
the  19th  century.  [H.  H.  Wilson.] 

The  same  work. 


LAW. 


25 


Add.  19,433. 

Foil.  63 ;  9  in.  by  5| ;  17  lines,  4  in.  long ; 
written  in  cursive  Indian  Nestalik,  in  the 
early  part  of  the  19th  century. 

[Turner  Macan.] 


Z^jt}\    ^j^ 


A  treatise  on  penal  law,  according  to  the 
Hanafi  school. 

Author  :  Amir  ud-Din  Ahmad,  known  as 
Amr  TJUah  Khan  i^\  jc\^^  j^J:.X\  ,^^  iji^\j^\ 

Beg.    %^]jt^\  ^-Lo  \JJuai  t_sJJ\  dJll  Jl  ijj^  ^ji>^\ 

The  author,  who  claims  descent  from  Arab 
ancestors  settled  in  India  since  the  time  of  Ba- 
bar,  states,  in  the  preface,  that  he  had  accepted 
office  under  the  English,  and  acted  for  eight 
years  as  judge  of  the  court  of  Ghazipur.  In 
consequence  of  the  appointment  of  English 
judges,  in  A.D.  1795,  he  lost  his  place,  but 
found  a  kind  patron  in  Henry  Colebrook. 
It  was  owing  to  his  advice  and  kind  en- 
couragement that  he  wrote  the  present  work, 
which  he  completed  and  dedicated  to  him  in 
A.H.  1223. 

It  is  written  in  the  form  of  questions  and 
answers,  and  divided  into  chapters  (Bab)  and 
sections  (Easl),  a  table  of  which  occupies 
three  pages  at  the  beginning. 

The  authorities  referred  to  under  every 
head  are  quoted  in  the  original  Arabic. 

•     Add.  23,579. 

Foil.  237 ;  7\  in.  by  5 ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  16th  century.  [Robert  Taylor.] 

A  treatise  of  law,  according  to  the  Shi'ah 
school. 

It  is  divided  into  a  number  of  books  (Kitab) 
bearing  the  headings  usual  in  legal  treatises, 


and  subdivided  into  chapters   (Bab).    The 
first  book,  O,^  '-r'^j  is  imperfect  at  the 
beginning. 
The  second  begins,  fol.  14  a,  as  follows : 

l«  Jjl  ii^^ji  *^LJ\  ft-lp  Jill'*  ^r^*^  i*^^  Cyi.* 

The  last  book,  which  is  imperfect  at  the 
end,  begins,  fol.   227   b,  as  follows :  ^\3S 


C*-»\  tji  a^j  Jii.     There  are  also  some  la- 
cunes  in  the  body  of  the  volume. 

The  MS.,  although  endorsed  j_^Uff-  *«V> 
is  a  different  work  from  the  compilation  so 
called.  Add.  23,678,  and  apparently  earlier. 

Add.  23,578. 

FoU.  207 ;  8  in.  by  5| ;  26  Hues,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  clear  Naskhi,  in  the  17th 
century.  [Robert  Taylor.] 

A  popular  exposition  of  the  law,  according 
to  the  Shi'ah  school. 

Author :  Baha  ud-Din  Muhammad  'Amill, 

J^'*  c)>^  ^^.J1  ^\i 

Beg.   ^j^\  J*   i^LaJlj   (^Wl    L^j   4J3   ^ 

Shaikh  Baha  ud-Din  Muhammad,  born  in 
A.H.  963,  accompanied,  as  a  boy,  his  father. 
Mar  Sayyid  Husain,  of  Jabal  'Amil,  near 
Damascus,  to  Persia.  The  latter,  an  eminent 
Shiah  divine,  became  Shaikh  ul-Islam  in 
Ardabll,  and  afterwards  Mujtahid  in  Ispahan. 
Baha  ud-Din  became,  under  his  father,  a  com- 
plete master  of  tradition  and  law  ;  he  learnt 
also  physics,  mathematics,  and  astronomy, 
from  the  great  masters  of  the  day.  After 
discharging  for  a  time  the  office  of  Shaikh  ul- 


26 


LAW. 


Islam  at  Ispahan,  he  gave  it  up  to  perform 
the  pilgrimage,  and  led  for  many  years  the 
wanderina:  life  of  a  Darvlsh.  He  is  the  author 
of  numerous  works  on  theology,  law,  and  the 
sciences ;  he  left  also  some  poetry  and  a  large 
collection  of  Analecta  in  seven  volumes,  called 
Kashkul.  See  Alam  Arai,  Add.  16,684,  foil. 
38, 40  and  377,  where  Iskandar  Mirza,  the  au- 
thor's contemporary,  says  that  he  died  at  Ispa- 
han on  the  12th  of  Shavviil,  A.H.  1030,  and 
had  been  working  to  the  last  at  the  Jami' 
'Abhasi.  The  above  date  is  confirmed  by 
two  versified  chronograms  due  to  contem- 
porary poets.  Notices  of  his  life  are  also 
found  in  the  Khulasat  ul-Agar,  Add.  23,370, 
fol.  179;  'Ikd  ul-Jawahir,  Add.  16,647,  fol, 
279 ;  Eiyaz  ush-Shu'ara,  Add.  16,729,  fol.  79 ; 
Atashkadah,  Or.  1268,  fol.  95 ;  and  the  Maj- 
,  mu  ah.  Add,  7719,  fol.  197.  See  also  Spren- 
ger,  Oude  Catal.,  p.  368 ;  Malcolm,  History 
of  Persia,  vol.  i.  p.  558 ;  and  Dorn,  S.  Peters- 
burgh  Catalogue,  p.  238. 

The  author  states,  in  a  short  preface,  that 
he  wrote  this  work  by  command  of  Shah 
'Abbas  (A.H.  996—1037),  for  the  benefit  of 
his  subjects.  It  is  divided  into  twenty  chap- 
ters (Bab),  which  follow  the  usual  arrange- 
ment of  legal  books,  and  a  table  of  which  is 
given  at  the  end  of  the  preface.  The  first 
treats  of  purification  Cj>j\^,  the  last  of  blood- 
money  \^  ^^f'. 

At  the  beginning  of  Bab  vi.,  fol.  72  &,  is 
foimd  a  second  preface.  Here  it  is  stated 
that,  the  author  having  died  on  the  12th  of 
Shavviil,  A.H.  1031  (not  1030  as  in  the 
'Alam  Arai),  after  finishing  the  first  five 
Babs,  the  writer,  Nizam  B.  Husain  Savaji, 
received,  and  carried  out,  the  royal  commands 
to  complete  the  remaining  fifteen  Babs. 

Foil.  2—13,  and  200—207,  have  been  sup- 
plied in  A.H.  1202  by  a  copyist  named 
<^  ^  [j>  (J**^»  who  states  that  the  date  of 
the  older  writing  was  A.H.  1063.    The  sub- 


scription ascribes  the  work  to  ^ji\  ^  ^^ 
^Ji\  ^j\j^  (irt~5i.  the  above-named  con- 
tinuator. 

The  Jami'  i  Abbas!  has  been  lithographed 
in  Lucknow,  A.H.  1264,  and  in  Persia,  A.H. 
1277,  d.  1285 ;  see  Zenker,  vol.  ii.,  p.  93, 
and  Dorn's  Catalogue  des  ouvrages  arabes, 
etc.,  no.  27.  Por  other  MS.  copies  see  Fleis- 
cher, Dresden  Catal.,  no.  338 ;  Leyden  Catal., 
vol.  iv.,  p.  178;  De  Jong,  Catal.  Bibl.  Acad., 
p.  237 ;  Aumer,  Munich  Catal.,  p.  130 ;  Co- 
penhagen Catal.,  p.  5 ;  and  Bibl.  Sprenger., 
No.  654. 

Add.  18,871. 

FoU.  158;  8^  in.  by  5^;  17  lines,  5|  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  neat  Naskhi, 
with  TJnvan  and  gold  ruled  margins ;  dated 
A.H.  1233  (A.D.  1818). 

A  very  full  exposition  of  the  ordinances 
of  Islamism  ^^y^  ^^.^>  Ji»-\  a  Shi'ah  work. 

Author :  Ibn  Muhammad  Hasan  ul-Khu- 
rasani  Muhammad  Ibrahim,   j^^— »-    s^   ^ji\ 

Beg.  Si.^  ^jfjj>-  iijo  lol  . . .  ;^W\  L_^  <jJ3  s^ 

The  author  says,  in  a  short  preface,  that 
this  work  was  written  at  the  request  of  a 
vast  number  of  believing  brethren,  and  that 
it  consists  of  an  introduction,  four  parts 
(Maksad),  and  a  conclusion.  Maksad  I. 
treats  of  the  acts  of  worship  L->bLff,  and  is 
divided  into  a  number  of  books  called  Man- 
haj. 

The  only  portion  contained  in  the  present 
volume  is  the  introduction,  wuJj  jiS  «<j£« 
(^.Ji'^p,  on  the  necessity  of  a  duly  qualified 
Mujtahid,  foil.  2  b — 6  b,  and  secondly,  the 
first  Manhaj  of  Maksad  I.  The  latter  treats 
very  fully  of  the  legal  prayer,  and  is  itself 
divided  into  four  sections  (Mabha§),  beginning 


THEOLOGY  (KALAM)  AND  CONTROVERSY. 


27 


at  foil.  6  J,  35  a,  93  «,  and  122  «,  and  a 
Khatimah.  treating  of  fvineral  rites,  J^\ 
jiUo.,  fol.  136  b. 

Add.  16,835. 

Foil.  32 ;  4|  in.  by  3| ;  10  lines,  2  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  apparently  early 
in  the  ISth  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  popular  treatise  on  the  defects  and 


doubts  which  invalidate  the  legal  prayer, 
according  to  Shi'ah  practice. 

Author :  Muhammad  Bakir  B.  Sayyid 
Hasan  B.  Khalifah  Sultan  ul-Husaini.     ^^ 

Beg.   (_^UHjO  tW>-j   ijt^.^  (_>a)\i-  (^.liSi  i^}^ 

The  work  is  dedicated  to  Shah  Sultan 
Husain  (A.H.  1105—1135).  It  is  divided 
into  five  chapters  (Easl). 


THEOLOGY  (KALAM)  AND  CONTROVERSY. 


Egerton  702. 

Foil.  100;  9  in.  by  5^;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  17th  century. 

[Adam  Clarke.] 

A  treatise  on  scholastic  theology  (Kalam), 
without  title  or  author's  name. 


Beg. 


J     '**i-?     r''^   J 


The  author  says,  in  his  preface,  that,  on 
approaching  the  throne  of  the  reigning  sove- 
reign, Mu'izz  ud-Dunya  wad-Din,  Ghiyag 
ul-Islam  wal-Muslimin,  Abul-Fath  Muham- 
mad B.  Malakshah,  Kasim  i  Amir  ul-Muminin, 
he  decided  to  oflFer  to  him,  as  the  most 
valuable  gift  he  could  command,  these  subtle 
thoughts  and  ingenious  observations  on  mat- 
ters of  faith,  j^.i  i\jjCi  \^  J  ^t^iiaJj  the  fruit 
of  forty  years  study.  The  work  consists  of 
the  following  three  sections  (Makalah) : — 

I.  On  the  excellence  of  knowledge;  in 
seven  chapters  (Fasl),  fol.  6  6. 

II.  On  the  proofs  of  the  existence  of 
a  Creator,  which  are  drawn  from  the  existence 


and  order  of  the  universe,  in  eleven  chapters, 
fol.  28  b. 

III.  On  other  proofs  derived  from  the 
condition  and  nature  of  man,  in  five  chapters 
(Bab),  fol.  59  a. 

A  full  table  of  the  contents  is  found  on  the 
fly-leaf,  fol.  1  b,  with  the  heading  i_flj\la3  l-^Ij/ 
«JU& ;  the  same  title  is. written  at  the  end 
in  the  handwriting  of  the  transcriber,  and 
lastly  at  the  back  of  the  first  page,  as  follows : 

The  celebrated  theologian,  Fakhr  ud-Din 
Razi  (Muhammad  B.  'Umar),  to  whom  the 
work  is  here  attributed,  was  born  in  A.H.  544, 
and  died  A.H.  606.  See  Ibn  Khallikan,  de 
Slane's  transL,  vol.  ii.  p.  655.  He  could  not, 
therefore,  have  been  the  author  of  a  work 
dedicated  to  Sultan  Muhammad  B.  Malak- 
shah, who  reigned  A.H.  498 — 511. 

As  to  the  title  j^jUs-  (_flj\ia),  although  it 
does  not  appear  in  the  work  itself,  it  may 
well  have  been  given  to  it,  for  it  would  seem 
to  be  derived  partly  from  the  word  ^i-U,  by 
which  the  contents  are  designated  in  the 
preface,  and  partly  from  Ghiyag  ud-Din,  the 
Sultan's  surname. 

E  2 


28 


THEOLOGY  (KALAM)  AND  CONTROVERSY. 


This  treatise  was  not  known  to  Haj.  Khal., 
who  gives  the  same  title  to  a  very  different 
work ;  see  vol.  v.,  p.  317. 

On  fol.  5  o  is  a  Persian  note  stating  that 
the  MS.  was  bought  in  Jaunpur,  A.H.  1144, 
by  a  certain  Lutf  Ullah. 

Or.  222. 

Foil.  199;  10  in.  by  5^;  17  lines  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  dated  Pili  Bhit, 
Parganah  of  Bareli,  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1181 
(A.D.  1767).  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  controversial  work,  in  which  the  author 
gives  an  account  of  the  true  and  false  doctors 
of  his  own  time. 

Author:     Shaikh    Darvizah    Nankarhari, 

Beg.  Cj>jja>'  jjbU.  \^\  5b  /UjIj  Iduol  5b  (.>»U-» 

The  author  is  the  well-known  apostle  of 
Afghanistan,  commonly  called  Akhund  Dar- 
vizab  (see  fol.  103  b),  who  so  successfully 
exerted  himself  to  crush  the  Eaushaniyyah 
sect.  See  Dr.  Leyden,  Asiatic  Researches,  vol. 
X.,  p.  416,  and  Elphinstone,  "Account  of  Cau- 
bul,"  i.,  p.  276.  He  says,  in  his  preface,  that 
before  reading  a  book  people  should  ascertain 
that  the  author  was  a  true  believer  and  safe 
guide ;  if  not,  the  book  should  be  destroyed. 
He  then  proceeds  to  give  numerous  instances 
of  unsound  passages  in  current  religious 
works.  He  wrote  the  present  Tazkirah,  he 
further  says,  to  enable  the  people  of  Hindo- 
stan  and  Afghanistan  to  distinguish  between 
the  true  and  the  false  doctors.  He  states,  at 
the  end  (fol.  199  a),  that  the  work  was  writ- 
ten A.H.  1021. 

The  title  is  found  in  the  colophon,  and  at 
the  back  of  the  first  page.  In  the  preface 
the  work  is  designated  only  as  Tazkirah. 


It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
copy  was  transcribed,  during  the  rule  of 
Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan  Bahadur  Hilfiz  ul-Mulk, 
for  Mulla  Dindar  Khan,  by  Khalifah  Ghulam 
Muhyi  ud-Din. 

This  MS.,  like  many  others  in  the  Hamil- 
ton collection,  once  belonged  to  the  Royal 
library  of  Lucknow,  and  bears  the  vermillion 
stamps  of  two  kings  of  Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah 
and  Amjad  'Ali,  containing  the  following 
inscriptions  in  verse. 


f\^J\s. 


Uj    sU.    Jft    ^\     Jli- 


Add.  25,857. 

Poll.  181 ;  5|  in.  by  4 ;  12  lines,  2|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Naskhi,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [William  Cureton.] 

"The  clean  polisher  for  the  brightening 
of  the  '  Truth-reflecting  Mirror,'  "  a  Musul- 
man  refutation  of  Geronimo  Xavier's  "  De- 
fence of  Christianity  "  (see  p.  3). 

Author:  Sayyid  Ahmad  B.  Zain  ul-'Abidin 
ul-Alawi  ul-'Amili,  j^.jjU3I  ^j  ^^  j^l  .^^ 

Beg.  j\  J^^j  yll-T  */  ^^  s^  j\  s>o 

The  author  dedicates  his  work  to  the 
reigning  Shah  (here  called  Shah  Safi,  instead 
of  Shah  'Abbas,  by  a  mistake  of  the  tran- 
scriber). He  then  states  that,  in  obedience 
to  a  message  conveyed  to  him  in  A.H.  1030, 
by  the  Imam  Mahdi,  in  a  vision,  he  had  pre- 
viously written  a  work  entitled  ^i  Jiij  *<U3 
J>\j^  Cj\^  ij  against  the  Christians,  and 


THEOLOGY  (KALAM)  AND  CONTEOVERSY. 


29 


another  called  j^b^.  u-JoJ^  iJ,  iii  (^^^  J*^^j^ 
against  the  Jews. 

In  A.H.  1032,  having  been  shown  by  two 
Christian  priests,  viz.  Padre  Juan  J'y>-  and 
Padre  Brio  (?)  y^ ,  the  work  entitled  ^&xoT 
UJ  J9- ,  written  in  defence  of  the  Trinity  by 
the  great  Christian  divine  known  as  Padre 
.J^L^,  he  felt  called  upon  to  write  the  present 
treatise  in  refutation  of  it.  It  was  com- 
pleted, as  stated  at  the  end,  in  the  month  of 
Muharram  of  the  same  year,  viz.  A.H.  1032. 

Erom  numerous  and  extensive  quotations 
it  is  clear  that  the  author  had  before  him, 
not  the  larger  work  of  Jerom  Xavier  (Harl. 
5478),  but  its  abridgment  by  the  same 
author  (see  above,  p.  4,  Add.  23,584). 

The  present  work  has  itself  called  forth  a 
very  full  and  extensive  refutation  in  the 
book  entitled :  Apologia  pro  Christiana 
Religione,  qua  a  R.  P.  PhUippo  Guadagnolo 
respondetur  ad  objectiones  Ahmed  fiHi  Zin 
Alabadin,  Persae  Asphahensis,  contentas  in 
libro  inscripto  Politer  Speculi.    Romae,  1631. 

A  former  reply  had  been  written  by  P. 
Bonav.  Malvalia  in  1628.  See  Schnurr,  iv.,  p. 
241,  and  the  S.  Petersburgh  Catal.,  p.  244. 

A  full  account  of  the  author's  first  work, 
^b  *<\^  ,  written,  also  in  reply  to  J.  Xavier, 
A.H.  1031,  is  given  by  S.  Lee  in  his  preface 
to  Henry  Martyn's  "  Controversial  tracts  on 
Christianity  and  Mohammedanism,"  Cam- 
bridge, 1824,  pp.  xii — ci. 

Add.  5602. 

EoU.  114 ;  11  in.  by  7^  ;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India ;  dated  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1037  (A.D. 
1627).  '  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

A  treatise'of  Mussulman  controversy,  in 
which  the  falsehood  of  Hindu  mythology  is 
exposed,  and  the  excellence  of  Islam  de- 
monstrated. 


Author  :  Ibn  'XJmar  Mihrabi,  ^\j£j^  ^^\ 
Beg.  «13l  .x**.  lijo  U\  .  .  .  ,y*JU)\  t_jj  «JJ  j^' 

Jfc^    ^j^   IPii    ^..^^    aJJ^    Jy«j    CoOj    J*-_j  Jft 

It  is  written  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue 
between  a  parrot  and  a  sharak  (a  species  of 
talking-bird),  and  is  preceded  by  a  fabulous 
account  of  the  origin  of  the  work.  It  was 
composed,  it  is  stated,  for  Damyati,  the 
daughter  of  Nal  Rae,  king  of  Naldrug,  in 
the  Mahrattah  country.  A  young  and 
accomplished  Mussulman,  who  had  become 
enamoured  of  the  princess,  after  training 
two  talking  birds  to  repeat  alternately  the 
questions  and  answers,  found  means  to  have 
them  purchased  by  her,  and  thus  eflFected 
her  conversion.  The  work,  which  was  by 
her  order  written  down  in  letters  of  gold, 
subsequently  passed  into  the  treasury  of 
Gujrat,  where  it  long  lay  forgotten,  until 
Rae  Karan  discovered  it,  and,  after  some 
fruitless  attempts  by  his  own  Pandits,  had 
it  at  last  interpreted  to  him  by  a  strange 
Brahmin,  secretly  converted  to  Islamism, 
when  the  king's  own  conversion  followed  as 
a  matter  of  course.  The  reason  which  the 
author  gives  for  translating  it  from  the 
Indian  tongue  into  Persian  is,  that  in  his 
time  the  children  of  Mohammedans  dwelling 
in  villages,  and  associating  with  idolaters, 
were  fast  becoming  imbued  with  their  super- 
stitious creeds,  and  heathenish  practices. 

A  work  entitled  iiU«)\  jL»^ ,  and  written 
A.H.  620  (see  p.  38,  Or.  258),  is  frequently 
quoted.  See  for  other  copies  Stewart's 
Catalogue,  p.  84,  and  Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  715.  Stewart  calls  the  author  Omar 
Mehramy,  and  gives  A.D.  1645  (A.H.  1055), 
as  the  date  of  the  work. 

Some  extracts  in  English  have  been 
written  in  the  margins  by  Nathaniel  Brassey 
Halhed,  whose  name  appears  on  the  first 
page,  and  whose  Persian  seal  is  afiixed  at 
the  back.     These  have  been  transcribed  from 


30 


SHI'AH  THEOLOGY. 


the  present  copy,  so  as  to  form  a  continuous 
text,  by  the  Kev.  J.  Haddon  Hindley,  in 
Add.  7044. 

Add.  26,315. 

FoU.  145 ;  9  in.  by  5| ;  12  lines,  3f  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Indian  Nestalik, 
and  dated  Eamazan,  A.II.  1063  (A.D.  1653). 

[Wm.  Eeskine.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy,  although  in  appearance  com- 
plete, wants  about  a  quarter  of  the  work  at 
the  end,  viz.,  the  portion  corresponding  to 
Add.  5602,  foU.  86—114.  The  first  two 
leaves  have  been  supplied  by  a  later  hand. 

Tanscriber :  ^JMJi  j^jJl  J^  j-»^  >-2» 

Add.  5633. 

Foil.  24;  7|  in.  by  5;  13  Hues,  3f  in. 


long;  written  in  cursive  Indian  Nestalik; 
dated  Muharram  A.H.  1191  (A.D.  1777). 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

An  abridgment  of  the  Hujjat  ul-Hind. 

Author:  Muhammad  Jan  B.  Muhammad 
Sadik,  son  of  Hafiz  Sultan  Mahmud  Tash- 
kandi,  ^J^aL^  kiU-  .jJj  j>.s>o  ,u^  ^  J^  c^s^ 

(jJ>i  Vm>\j   liy^ 

Beg.    jjU.  fjl-aX^  tJ'iW  »^\j  ^\i>-j>oJ\y^  s^ 

The  abbreviator  adds  at  the  end,  foil. 
20  b — 24  b,  a  few  observations  of  his  own  on 
the  heathenish  practices  of  some  Mussulmans 
of  his  time. 

The  subscription  shows  that  this  copy  was 
written  for  Mr.  Halhed  by  Faiz  UUah  ul-Hu- 
saini,  of  Mangalkoth. 


SHIAH    THEOLOGY. 


Egerton  1020. 

Foil.  173;  8^  in.  by  5;  13  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  large  Indian  Nestalik, 
apparently  in  the  17th  century. 


euju 


&)L* 


J 


A  controversial  work  in  defence  of  the 
Shi'ah  tenets,  especially  with  regard  to  the 
prerogatives  of  *Ali  and  his  descendants. 

Author:  Ibrahim  B.  Wali  Ullah  Astara- 
badi,  t/ob)pL*i\  ^^  ^  yJ  (^]ji^ 

Beg.  \juJ^\   t^l*y^    UjJ*    ^y*  ^ji\  411    ^^ 

The  author  professes  to  have  translated 
this  work  from  an  Arabic  original,  which  he 
found  in  the  possession  of  a  pious  Sayyid  at 
Damascus,  on  his  return  from  a  pilgrimage 
to  Mecca  and  Medina,  in  A.H.   958.    He 


adds  that  his  translation  was  read  with 
delight  by  Shah  Tahmasp,  who  sent  for  him 
and  desired  him  to  adorn  the  book  with  his 
exalted  name. 

The  frame-work  is  obviously  fictitious.  A 
fair  and  accomplished  slave-girl,  Hasaniyyah 
(or,  as  pointed  by  a  later  hand,  Husaniyyah) 
by  name,  undertakes,  before  Harun  ur-Rashid, 
to  support,  in  debate,  the  Shi'ah  faith  against 
all  the  doctors  of  the  age. 

Ibrahim  B.  Khalid  *Aufi  is  sent  for  from 
Basrah,  as  the  most  learned  man  of  the 
time,  and  a  long  discussion  ensues,  in  which 
the  latter  is  naturally  discomfited. 

The  Arabic  texts,  frequently  quoted,  are 
written  in  large  Naskhi,  with  all  vowels. 

This  work  has  been  printed  in  Persia,  A.H. 
1248 ;  see  Dorn's  Catalogue  des  ouvrages 
arabes,  etc..  No.  27. 


SHI'AH  THEOLOGY. 


81 


Add.  7609. 

PoU.  272 ;  11  in.  by  7^ ;  22  lines  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  clear  Naskhi ;  dated  Rajab, 
A.H.  1080  (A.D.  1669).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  complete  and  popular  exposition  of  the 
creed  and  religious  obligations,  according  to 
the  Shi'ah  faith. 

Author:  Ibn  Muhammad  Haidar  ul- 
Khwansari  ^^l— i^yt  jiJwj*  o^  ^^\ 

Beg.  &jM  ^j^.'^yt^  "iiJ*  j^  Lr?.^  ^  '^^  ,^  ^^ 

The  work  is  dedicated  to  Shah  'Abbas 
(probably  'Abbas  I.,  A.H.  996—1037),  and 
is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah,  and  twelve 
books  (Bab),  each  consisting  of  twelve  chap- 
ters (Fasl).  It  is  to  be  noticed,  however, 
that,  although  only  twelve  books  are  men- 
tioned in  the  preface,  thirteen  are  enumerated 
in  the  full  table  of  contents  which  follows  it, 
foil.  3  6—6  a. 

The  present  volume  contains  only  the 
Mukaddimah  treating  of  Kalam,  i.  e.  the 
rational  demonstration  of  religious  truth,  and 
the  first  eight  books.  The  latter  treat :  1.  Of 
the  fundamental  points  of  faith,  ^J^'\  J^J' ', 
2  and  3.  Of  prayer ;  4.  Of  fasting ;  5,  Of  legal 
alms,  'i/j  ;  6.  Of  pUgrunage ;  7.  Of  the  pre- 
eminence of  Muhammad  and  the  Imams ; 
8.  Of  the  history  of  the  prophets. 

The  remaining  books,  not  contained  in 
this  volume,  treat,  according  to  the  table,  of 
the  following  subjects :  9.  Qualities  and  ob- 
servances enjoined  on  the  true  believer; 
10.  Things  from  which  believers  ought  to 
abstain ;  11.  Science  and  'Ulama ;  12.  Crea- 
tion and  resurrection ;  13.  Divers  traditions 
and  narratives. 

The  author  frequently  inserts  verses  either 
due  to  other  poets,  or  of  his  own  composition. 

Copyist :  iX-*-*  .^^  ^^,  ^^  <^^ 


Add.  7612. 

FoU.  110;  8  in.  by  4^;  22  lines,  2\  in. 
long;  written  in  minute  Nestalik;  dated 
Shawal,  A.H.  1056  (A.D.  1646.) 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

Foil.  1—42. 

A  popular  compendium  of  Shi'ah  theology, 
treating  of  the  proofs  of  the  existence  and 
attributes  of  God,  of  the  authority  of  the 
Prophet  and  Imams,  and  of  future  life. 

Author:  Haidar,  called  Rafi'ud-Din  ul- 
Husainl  ut-Tabataba'i,  ^^.jJl  ^^  jCvA^  jiX-*- 

Beg.  s^  ii}-»  \jt^ii^jnw>  jj«-j  t/U5  J  li^  iX?" 

The  author  speaks,  in  the  preface,  of  the 
reigning  sovereign.  Shah  Safi  (A.H.  1037 — 
52),  and  states  at  the  end  that  he  completed 
this  work  in  RabI'  II.,  A.H.  1047. 

In  the  Kisas  ul-Khakani,  Add.  7656,  fol. 
156,  the  author  is  mentioned  under  the 
name  of  Mirza  Muhammad  Rafi'a  Tabataba'i, 
of  Na'in,  near  Ispahan.  He  was  Mujtahid, 
we  are  told,  in  the  reign  of  'Abbas  II.,  at 
the  close  of  which,  A.H.  1077,  he  was  past 
seventy  years  of  age.  The  present  tract  is 
there  enumerated  among  his  works  as  *3L»^ 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah 
and  eight  chapters  (Matlab),  the  headings  of 
which  are  mostly  omitted. 

Copyist :   ^^  ^y^  •i-*^  ui  t:Hi*^  "^-^ 
For    the    rest  of   the    contents    of  this 
volume,  see  Arabic  Catalogue,  p.  392. 

Add.  26,289. 

FoU.  279;  11  in.  by  6;  17  lines,  4  in.  long; 
written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  India,  and 
dated  Muharram,  A.H.  1177  (A.D.  1763). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 


S2 


SHI'AH  THEOLOGY. 


A  treatise  on  scholastic  divinity  (Kalam), 
according  to  the  Shi'ah  doctrine. 

Author:  'Abd  ur-Razzfik  B.  'All  B.  ul- 
Husain  ul-Lahiji,  ^;;JbJi  (^  J^  y?  J^^  "^ 

Beg.  O;*"'  (/^.j'ij^  ])  '^J^  U*!?^  sS^o\jcj^<f 

Maulana  'Abd  ur-Razzak,  born  in  Lahijan, 
lived  in  Kum,  in  the  time  of  'Abbas  II. 
(A.H.  1052—1077) ;  he  was  a  pupil  of  Sadr 
ShirSzi,  and  a  friend  of  Muhsin  Kashi,  and 
left,  besides  the  present  work,  a  large  Divan, 
in  which  he  takes  the  Takhallus  of  Fayyaz. 
See  Kisas  i  Khakanl,  Add.  7656,  fol.  157; 
Riyaz  ush-Shu'ara,  Add.  16,729,  fol.  345; 
Atashkadah,  Or.  1268,  fol.  91.  His  Com- 
mentary on  the  Taj  rid  ul-Kalam  has  been 
printed  in  Tehran,  A.H.  1280. 

The  author  complains,  in  the  preface,  that 
a  rational  and  independent  knowledge  of 
divine  things,  though  necessary  to  salvation, 
was,  in  his  time,  too  much  neglected  even  by 
the  learned.  He  wrote  this  work  in  order  to 
afford  to  all  an  easy  means  of  supplying  that 
deficiency ;  he  dedicates  it  to  Shah  'Abbas  II. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah, 
four  books  (Makalah),  and  a  Khatimah,  as 
follows : 

Mukaddimah,  treating  of  the  dignity  of 
man,  his  prerogative  of  divine  knowledge, 
and  of  the  science  of  Kalam  generally; 
fol.  9  b. 

Makalah  I.  On  self-knowledge  ,_^  \J^  iy>- , 
in  two  chapters,  treating  severally  of  body 
and  soul,  or  physics  and  metaphysics ;  fol  20  a. 

Makalah  II.  Knowledge  of  God  ^jJlL  l.ii- , 
in  three  chapters — 1.  Existence  and  unity  of 
God,  fol.  76  6;  2.  His  attributes,  fol.  96  b; 
3.  His  acts,  fol.  113  b. 

Makalah  III.  On  divine  law,  in  four  chap- 
ters— 1.  Religious  obligations  i-ijJio;  fol. 
136  a ;  2.  Prophetic  mission  c^^ ;  fol.  140  b ; 


3.  Imamat  c*«U,  showing,  at  great  length, 
the  proofs  of  the  exclusive  claims  of  'Ali  and 
the  twelve  Imams,  fol.  182  a;  4.  Euture 
state  jl*. ;  fol.  239  a. 

Khatimah,  treating  of  the  two  paths  of 
spiritual  life,  that  of  the  philosophers,  and 
that  of  the  Sufis,  fol  268  a. 

A  modem  table  of  contents  has  been  pre- 
fixed, foil.  1 — 4.  See  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  40. 

Or.  1294. 

Eoll.  238 ;  13  in.  by  8^^ ;  27  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi  and  Nestalik,  ap- 
parently in  the  19th  century. 

A  Shi'ah  work  in  proof  of 'All's  right  to 
the  Imamat. 

Beg.  \jis-  'i/  ^/y^i  (J*^  *5U  (^lj-«U  «r,_fj^ 

This  work  does  not  bear  any  specific  title ; 
it  is  described  in  the  preface  as  'SJ^\  ji>  &)L», 
j^.  ^  c*«U^ .  The  author,  whose  name  does 
not  appear,  states  that  he  had  been  living  for 
a  long  time  at  Haidarabad,  in  the  service  of 
'Abdullah  Kutub  Shah  (A.H.  1035—1083), 
and  that  he  wrote  the  present  work  as  a 
humble  offering  to  His  Majesty.  In  the 
concluding  lines,  also  addressed  to  the  king, 
we  are  told  that  the  work  was  completed, 
after  a  year  and  half  of  unremitting  labour, 
in  A.H.  1058. 

It  contains  the  following  divisions :  1.  A 
Mukaddimah  treating  of  the  significance  of 
the  Imam,  and  the  necessity  for  his  existence, 
fol.  3  a.  2.  A  book  (Bab)  on  the  claims 
of  'All,  fol.  7  b,  subdivided  into  twelve 
chapters  (Fasl),  the  last  of  which  treats  at 
great  length^  foil.*  142  6—232  b,  of  'All's 
eleven  successors.  3.  A  Khatimah,  con- 
taining miscellaneous  observations,  fol.  232  b. 

Or.  1295. 

Eoll.  206;  111  in.  by  7f ;  18  lines,  4i  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik;  dated  Rama- 
zan,  A.H.  1266  (A.D.  1850). 


SHI'AH  THEOLOGY. 


33 


A  diatribe  against  the  competitors  and 
adversaries  of  'Ali. 

Author :  *Ali  Da'ud  Khadim  ul-Astarabadi. 

Beg.  Jo-  ^  ^^  w^  J  <^  o-V^  J  j^ 

The  author,  a  most  virulent  Shi'i,  here 
rakes  up  all  the  most  malignant  slanders 
and  calumnies  against  those  that  resisted  or 
denied  'All's  exclusive  claims  to  the  Khilafat, 
chiefly  against  Abu  Bakr,  'Umar,  'U§man,  and 
Muaviyah.  The  work  is  divided  into  fifty 
chapters  (Bab),  subdivided  into  sections,  sig- 
nificantly called  Ta'n  or  Eevilings.  The  last 
four  chapters  are  directed  against  the  four 
heads  of  the  Sunni  schools,  Abu  Hanifah, 
Shafi'i,  Malik  and  Ibn  Hanbal. 

Towards  the  end,  A.H.  1076  is  mentioned 
as  the  current  year,  and  Shah  'Abbas  II.  as 
the  reigning  sovereign. 

Copyist :   ij!J\;^\  S^y--  t^  j-^ 

Or.  1296. 

Foil.  356 ;  9^  in.  by  6^ ;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik ;  dated  Ju- 
mada  II.,  A.H.  IIM  (A.D.  1702). 

A  fuU  exposition  of  Shi'ah  theology. 
Author :  Muhammad  Bakir  B,  Muhammad 
Taki  ^_J3  s^  u^j^V  •^^■^^ 

Beg.  ^jJuJ^  j-^\  ,ijJil\  jo^^  j^\^\  all  ^^ 

In  spite  of  the  considerable  size  of  this 
work,  the  author  terms  it  a  compendious 
exposition  of  the  essential  points  of  doctrine, 
designed  for  those  persons  who  lacked  leisure 
to  master  his  extensive  works  in  Persian  and 
Arabic.  He  dedicates  it  to  the  reigning 
Shah,  Sultan-Husain,  and  states,  at  the  end, 


that  it  was  completed  on  the  last  of  Sha'bim, 
A.H.  1109. 

This  is  the  last,  and  not  the  least  volu- 
minous, of  the  forty-nine  Persian  works  of 
Muhammad  Bakir  Majlisi,  as  enumerated 
in  the  notice  of  his  life,  Add,  24052,  foil. 
28 — 30.  It  contains  the  following  six  books 
(Bab),  of  very  unequal  extent: — 1.  God's 
existence  and  attributes,  fol.  2  6.  2.  Attri- 
butes which  are  not  to  be  ascribed  to  God, 
fol.  6  a.  3.  Attributes  relating  to  God's 
acts,  fol.  8  b.  4.  On  Prophecy  (Nubuvvat), 
fol.  10  a.  5.  On  Imamat,  fol.  20  a.  6.  On 
resurrection  (Ma'ad),  its  antecedents  and 
sequels  from  death  to  the  end  of  the  world, 
'fol.  205  b. 

In  the  fifth  book,  which  contains  nine 
chapters  (Maksad),  and  makes  more  than 
half  the  bulk  of  the  work,  the  exclusive 
claims  of  'All  and  his  descendants  to  the 
Imamat  are  demonstrated,  and  his  opponents 
disparaged,  at  considerable  length. 

Copyist:  i^^ibT^^yU^  JiJ  j,^*  ^^^^^.^  j^s*  ^A 

This  work  has  been  printed  in  Tehran, 
A.H.  1241. 

Add.  M,411. 

Poll.  262 ;  8i  in.  by  6i ;  22  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  close  Naskhi,  about  the 
beginning  of  the  19th  century. 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

"  B/isalah  i  Khairatiyyah,"  a  fierce  denun- 
ciation of  Suflsm. 

Author :  Aka  Muhammad  'Ali  B.  Mu- 
hammad Bakir  Isfahani  Bahbahani,  s^  ^\ 

Beg,    »JTj   jj-^\  J*  ULa/«  «3!y  ^Js-  ix^) 

Aka  Muhammad  'All,  born  in  Karbala, 
A.H.  1144,  was  the  eldest  son  of  the  great 


u 


SHI'AH  THEOLOGY. 


Mujtahid,  Aka  Muhammad  Bakir  Babbahani, 
who  died  A.H.  1205,  and  under  whose  tuition 
he  rose  to  the  same  rank.  After  living  some 
years  with  his  father  in  Bahbahan,  he  re- 
paired to  Mecca,  where  he  spent  two  years 
in  law  studies.  After  his  return  a  fearful 
plague  drove  him  from  Karbalii  to  Kirman- 
shahan,  where  he  spent  most  of  his  remaining 
years  in  the  enjoyment  of  undisputed 
spiritual  sway,  and  died  in  A.H.  1216.  A 
full  account  of  his  life  is  given  by  his  son 
Ahmad,  in  his  Mir  at  ul  Ahwal,  Add.  24,052, 
foil.  45 — 52 ;  the  same  MS.  contains,  fol.  26, 
a  mention  of  the  present  work,  and  of  the 
numerous  conversions  effected  by  it.  See 
also  Tuhfat  ul-'Alam,  Add.  23,533,  fol.  72, 
and  Malcolm,  History  of  Persia,  vol.  ii., 
pp.  422,  443. 

This  lengthy  and  most  virulent  refu- 
tation of  the  Sufi  doctrines  is  especially 
directed  against  the  great  Sufi  teacher  of 
the  time,  Sayyid  Ma'sum  'Ali  Shah,  surnamed 
by  his  sectaries  Ma'bud  (or  "the  Lord")  Ol-« 
jU.  >i}^iL^  i,^^^  ^Jjt^tyox*  ,  and  against  his  prin- 
cipal followers,  Nur  'Ali  Shah,  Eaunak 
'All,  Aka  Mahdi  Kirmani,  and  Mirza  Taki 
Kirmani. 

It  begins  with  a  letter  addressed  to  an 
eminent  Sayyid,  whose  name  is  not  given. 
Here  the  author  says  that,  a  letter  written 
by  the  AsaQah,  or  Prime  Minister  (Mirza 
Muhammad  Shafi',  see  Brydge's  History 
of  the  Kajars,  p.  28),  to  the  Beglerbegi, 
or  Governor  of  the  Province,  and  relat- 
ing to  the  said  Ma'sum  'Ali,  having  been 
shown  to  him,  he  was  shocked  to  find  a  man 
of  great  piety  supporting  the  arch  enemy 
of  the  faith,  no  doubt  in  ignorance  of  his 
real  character,  and  felt  himself  called  upon 
to  unmask  and  refute  the  foul  heresy.  Ac- 
cording to  our  author,  the  first  appearance 
of  Ma'sum  'Ali  as  a  public  teacher  took  place 
in  Isfahan,  under  'Ali-Murad  Khan  (A.H. 
1196 — 1199),  by  whose  order,  and  in  conse- 


quence of  the  denunciation  of  the  'Ulamas,  he 
and  his  disciple,  Nur  'Ali  Shah,  had  their  ears 
cropped,  and  were  expelled  from  the  city. 
"When,  after  staying  a  short  time  in  Kirman, 
and,  subsequently,  some  years  iu  Baghdad 
and  Karbala,  he  ventured  to  return  to  Persia, 
the  author  had  him  arrested  in  Kirmiinsha- 
han,  and  conveyed  to  Tehran  for  punish- 
ment. 

From  the  latter  part  of  the  work  we  learn 
that  in  the  month  of  Safar,  A.H.  1213,  the 
author  betook  himself  to  Tehran  with  the 
double  object  of  congratulating  Path  'Ali 
Shah  on  his  accession,  and  of  urging  him  to 
extirpate  the  growing  heresy.  With  this 
view  the  first  half  of  the  Khairatiyyah,  the 
only  part  then  finished,  was  submitted  to 
His  Majesty.  The  result  was  a  general  and 
fierce  persecution  of  the  Sufis.  Two  of  the 
leaders,  Aka  Mahdi  and  Mirza  Taki,  both 
natives  of  Kirman,  were  arrested  in  Hama- 
dan,  and  delivered  over  to  the  author  to 
deal  with  them  as  he  deemed  fit.  The  first 
was  tortured  to  death.  The  latter  was 
thrown  into  prison.  Niir  'Ali,  frightened, 
fled  to  Mossul,  where  he  died  of  the  plague. 
Mirza  Taki,  as  the  author  exultingly  states 
in  a  post-scriptum,  was  also  overtaken  by 
the  divine  wrath,  in  other  words,  put  to 
death,  three  months  after  the  completion  of 
of  this  work.  A  short  account  of  these  dis- 
turbances is  given  by  Malcolm  in  his  History 
of  Persia,  vol  ii.,  pp.  417 — 423. 

The  time  of  composition,  A.H.  1211,  is 
indicated  by  the  word  C^]^ ,  from  which 
the  title  is  derived ;  but  the  work  was  not 
finished  before  the*  1st  of  Jumada-1-akhir, 
A.H.  1214 ;  for  that  is  the  date  rather  enig- 
matically conveyed  by  the  author  in  the 
concluding  lines. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  a  considerable 
portion  of  Jaml's  Notices  of  the  Sufis, 
"  Nafahat-ul-uns,"  is  here  inserted  in  fuU 
for  the  sake  of  refutation. 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


35 


Add.  16,831. 

Poll.  110;  7i  in.  by  4^;  11  lines,  2^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unviln 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 


A  short  exposition  of  the  creed  and  reli- 
gious duties,  according  to  the  Shi'ah  doctrine, 
without  author's  name. 

This  treatise  is  divided,  according  to  the 


preface,  into  an  Introduction,  two  chapters 
(Bfib),  and  a  Conclusion  (Khatimah).  The 
Introduction,  fol.  3  a,  defines,  in  a  few  lines, 
the  meaning  of  Iman  and  Islam.  Bab  I., 
fol.  4  a,  contains  five  sections  (Rukn), 
treating  of  the  principal  points  of  the  Shi'ah 
creed.  Bab  II.,  fol.  52  a,  expounds,  in  five 
sections  (Fasl),  the  ordinances  relating  to 
prayers,  fasting,  alms,  pilgrimage,  and  Jihad. 
The  Khatimah  is  wanting. 

This  is  quite  distinct  from  the  work  de- 
scribed p.  30,  Egerton  1020,  which  bears  a 
similar  title. 


ASCETICISM     AND     SUFISM. 


2i 


Add.  16,833. 

Foil.  19 ;  7  in.  by  4 ;  from  8  to  10  lines, 
in.  long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated 
Zulka'dah,  the  21st  year  (probably  of  Shah 
'Alam,  i.e.  A.H.  1193,  A.D.  1780). 

[Wm.  Yules.] 

A  religious  tract,  inscribed  &!>-\y>-  OU-U* 


Beg 


8A«T  ^J^jJ  ^fjJ  \j  J^S^ 


-J^j  ci^ 


Abu  Ismail  'Abd  Ullah  B.  Abil-Mansur 
Muhammad  ul-Ansari  ul-HaravI,  surnamed 
Shaikh  ul-Islfim,  a  celebrated  devotee,  and 
the  author  of  Manazil  us-Sa'irin,  was  born 
in  Kuhandiz,  A.H.  396,  and  died  in  Herat, 
A.H.  481.  Notices  of  his  life  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Nafahat  ul-Uns,  Add.  16,718, 
fol.  158 ;  Majalis  ul-'Ushshak,  Or.  208,  fol.  46 ; 
Haft  Ikllm,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  267;  andRiyaz 
ush-Shu'ara,  Add.  16,729,  fol.  4.  See  also 
S.  de  Sacy,  Not.  et  Extr.,  vol.  xii.,  p.  352. 


This  tract,  which  is  commonly  known,  as 
ij^^\  i^\  jjkC-  4»-\}i-  »!l«»,,  consists  of  invoca- 
tions to  God,  followed  by  pious  exhortations 
addressed  to  devotees. 

It  is  written  in  prose,  mixed  with  verses 
in  the  form  of  Rubaas  and  Ghazals.  In  the 
latter  the  author  designates  himself,  in  some 
places,  by  the  name  of  'Abd  Ullah,  in  others, 
by  that  of  Piri  Ansar,  which,  according  to 
Walih,  Add.  16,729,  fol.  4,  was  the  Takhallus 
of  *Abd  Ullah  Ansari. 

Other  copies  are  found  in  Add.  16,825, 
26,292,  26,303.  See  also  the  Vienna  Cata- 
logue, vol.  iii.,  p.  497,  and  the  S.  Petersburgh 
Catalogue,  p.  254. 

Or.  257. 

Poll.  141 ;  8|  in.  by  6|  ;  17  hnes,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  NestaUk,  apparently  in 
the  16th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.} 

A  work,  without  title  or  author's  name, 
r  2 


36 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


containing  the  religious  teachings,  moral 
precepts,  and  pious  observances,  of  Muham- 
mad and  his  followers. 

Beg.  »_jU^  ^^.I  j^  U  . . .  ujJUl  L^j  ^  ijji 
j\^\  j\  is^  ij)^  i)b  ^J>\  ji  \j  j-«T  a/  i-i..:^') 

The  work  begins  with  a  short  introduction 
on  the  duty  of  the  devotee  of  attaching  no 
value  to  his  pious  works.  It  contains  fifty- 
five  chapters  (Bab),  a  table  of  which  occu- 
pies the  first  two  pages.  They  treat  of  true 
devotion,  the  terrors  of  death,  the  ordeal  of 
the  grave,  resurrection,  heaven  and  hell, 
moral  duties,  vices  and  virtues,  religious 
observances,  the  pre-eminence  of  certain  days 
and  months,  the  virtue  of  the  recitation  of  the 
Coran  and  prayers,  finally,  of  the  miracles  of 
Muhammad. 

Their  headings  are  as  follows  :  ^jatiU-^  ^.i  i 


ii>  0 


\jS 


ir 


L5V^J 


J     IV 


cX 


yj'*    J^      l^    J 


li       II 


u'l;^ 


M 


•'■  w-^/  ti*?'  ^  '}  (^' j'i  •*  •••  u*^  *^^*JH*J 

•••  J*^J^  U*^/  (^J-i  •••   •••    <^-«-j'  u'^/i^j'J 


Oi>l 


JJJ 


^bjb  5b  jji>bMiX^  »JlJlj(i  r«  .'.  j^;lb  sJ^jO  J.aai 


jjtjiCl  J 


i  l«l 


J^ 


J\M^   )\ 


^Sj^j>  J 


a  »«. 


'*V 


.>M 


SJ«fl)l 


er 


01 


•■•  Jr^  0;-i»-  <:J\j^ jd  0  6  •••  jjjj 

This  copy  breaks  off  before  the  end  of  the 
last  chapter.  The  language  is  archaic,  and 
such  as  is  found  in  early  translations  from 
the  Arabic.  The  text  is  a  mere  compilation 
of  sayings  of  Muhammad,  the  companions, 
and  some  holy  men  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  cen- 
turies, as  Shakik  Zahid  (d.  A.H.  174),  Yahya 
Ma'az  Razi  (d.  A.H.  258),  etc.,  with  anec- 
dotes relating  to  the  same. 

An  author  frequently  quoted  is  Eakih  Za- 
hid Abu-l-Laig  Samarkand!.  He  wrote  a 
similar  work  in  Arabic,  entitled  ^^Ul  l;^.)^ 
from  which  the  present  seems  to  be  in  great 
part  derived.  Abu  1-Lai§  died  A.H.  375. 
See  Al-Wiifi  bil-Wafayat,  Add.  23,359,  fol. 
124;  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  51;  Tornberg, 
Upsala  Catal.,  p.  289;  and  Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  914. 

The  title,  u^Jlla!\  C-o.ljjb  Jj^Jljii,  written 
by  a  later  hand,in  the  margin  of  the  table  of 
contents,  and  the  endorsement,  jj^flUl  wlo>fc, 
on  fol.  2  a,  are  of  doubtful  authority. 

Add.  25,026. 

Poll.  313;  18i  in.  by  9^;  23  lines,  6^ 
in.  long ;  written  with   the  vowels,  in   fine 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


87 


Persian  Naskhi,  with  'Unvrm  and  ruled  mar- 
gins ;  dated  Zul-hijjah,  A.H.  672  (A.D.  1274). 

"The  Alchemy  of  Bliss,"  an  extensive 
work,  treating  of  the  religious  ohligations 
and  moral  duties  of  the  true  Muslim. 

Author:  Muhammad  B.  Muhammad  ul- 
Ghazzali  ut-Tusi,  ^j^^\  J\yi\  s^  ^  ^^ 

Beg.   ^^lv-»T   jjllli  (Siijo  jj^lj^  u"^  J  J^ 

Hujjat  ul-Islam  Ahu  Hamid  Muhammad 
ul-Ghazzali,  the  greatest  divine  and  Shafi'i 
lawyer  of  his  time,  is  chiefly  known  by  his 
Arabic  works.  He  was  born  in  Tus,  A.H. 
450,  and  studied  under  Imam  ul-Haramain 
Abul-Ma'iili  Juvaini.  After  staying  for 
many  years  in  Naishapur,  in  the  Nizamiyyah 
College,  Baghdad,  in  Damascus  and  Jeru- 
salem, engaged  in  teaching  and  writing,  he 
returned  to  his  native  place,  where  he  devoted 
himself  to  a  religious  life,  and  died  A.H.  505 ; 
see  Ibn  Khallikan,  English  translation,  vol.  ii., 
p.  621,  and  Nafahat  ul-Uns,  Add.  16,718, 
fol.  177. 

The  present  work  may  be  considered  as 
a  popular  abridgment  of  the  author's  volu- 
minous Arabic  work  Ihya  'Ulum  id-Din 
(Arab.  Catal.,  p.  386),  the  arrangement  of 
which  it  follows. 

Al-Ghazzali  himself,  in  his  preface,  refers 
readers  desirous  of  fuller  information  to  the 
last-named  work,  as  well  as  to  his  Jawahir 
ul-Kur'an  (Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  646). 

The  preface  is  followed  by  four  introductory 
chapters,  called  'Unwan,  fol  3  b,  treating  of 
the  soul,  of  God,  the  present  world,  and  the 
life  to  come.  The  body  of  the  work  consists 
of  four  books  (Rukn),  the  first  two  of  which 
relate  to  external,  and  the  last  two  to  spiri- 
tual life,  as  follows : — 1.  Man's  duty  to  God, 
or  the  acts  of  worship  and  religious  obser- 
vances, obU& ,  fol.  31  b.  2.  Man's  duty  to 
man,  or  rules  to  be  observed  in  the  inter- 


course with  fellow  creatures,  OiU\»«,  fol. 
68  b.  3.  Pernicious  passions,  or  impulses, 
from  which  the  soul  should  be  freed,  oUltx, 
fol.  140  b.  4.  Qualities  conducive  to  salva- 
tion, with  which  the  soul  should  be  adorned, 
iSj\^,  fol.  282  b. 

At  the  beginning  of  each  Rukn  is  written 
in  gold,  red,  and  blue,  a  table  of  the  ten 
chapters  (Asl),  into  which  it  is  divided. 

This  copy  exhibits  the  archaic  spelling  of 
li  for  <i,  eiJ  or  ^  for  &i^,  and  also  the  pecu- 
liarity that  the  two  dots  of  final  ^j  are 
frequently  placed  above  it. 

The  first  page  contains  the  following  title, 
written  in  gold,  and  richly  illuminated :  i^^sJ' 

j^j^^  **Jj  O"*^ 

Transcriber:  ^LJJ\  gii]  ^^  ^^  s^  (^  (J* 

The  Kimiya  i  Sa  adat  has  been  printed  in 
Calcutta,  without  date  (Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  756),  and  lithographed  in  Lucknow,  A.H. 
1282.  MS.  copies  occur  in  Stewart's  Catal., 
p.  49 ;  Fleischer's  Dresden  Catal.,  No.  255 ; 
St.  Petersburgh  Catal.,  p.  256  ;  Copenhagen 
Catal.,  p.  5 ;  and  Aumer's  Miinich  Catal., 
p.  61.  See  also  an  account  of  the  work  by 
Gosche,  Abhandlungen  der  Berliner  Aka- 
demie,  1858,  p.  262. 

Add.  16,809. 

EoU.  479  ;  llf  in.  by  7^;  19  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  TJnvan  and 
ruled  margins  ;  dated  Muharram,  A.H.  1023 
(A.D.  1614).  [William  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

Transcriber:   ^\jJj}^L^\  ^jy^Jl  &m  J-fr 

Add.  7604. 

Poll.  227  ;  H  in.  by  6^;  23  Unes,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi  by  various  hands. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 


38 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


A  portion  of  the  same  work,  extending 
from  the  beginning  of  Rukn  I.  to  the  end 
of  Rukn  III. 

The  older  part  of  the  MS.,  foil.  1—50, 
196—225,  appears  to  be  of  the  13th  century. 
Most  of  the  remaining  portion  is  probably  of 
the  15th,  but  a  few  leaves  have  been  sup- 
plied here  and  there  by  still  later  hands. 


Add.  25.841. 

Foil.  248;  9  in.  by  5f  ;  17  Hues,  4>  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  gold  head- 
ings and  mled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
15th  century.  [Wm.  Cubeton.] 

The  first  half  of  the  same  work,  containing 
the  preface,  the  introduction,  and  the  first 
two  Rukns. 

Add.  25,842. 

FoU.  159;  94  in.  by  7;  21  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Cueeton.] 

The  first  half  of  the  same  work,   as  in 
the  preceding  copy. 
Transcriber :  t\si  ^..^  Sij  «131  ju& 

The  first  page  bears  the  name  of  T. 
Macan. 

Add.  16,810. 

Foil.  165;  8^  in.  by  4|;  16  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Indian  Shikastah- 
Amlz,  dated  Shahabad,  Zulka'dah,  the  11th 
year  of  Muhammad  Shah  (A.H.  1142,  A.D. 
17^^)-  [Wm.  Yule.] 

Two  fragments  of  the  same  work,  viz.  :— 

Foil.  1—72.  Eukn  III.,  from  the  be- 
ginning to  the  second  page  of  Asl  6. 

Foil.  73-165.  Eukn  II.,  from"  the  fourth 


section  (Bab)  of  Asl  3  to  the  end  of  the 
Rukn. 
Copyist :  ijj^uj^  ^xs-ljJl  jj* 

Or.  258. 

FoU.  333 ;  8f  in.  by  5|;  12  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margin,  apparently  in  the 
15th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  Sufi  work  treating  of  the  spiritual 
progress  (ti!  4-»)  of  the  soul  through  its  three 
stages,  viz.,  the  original  state,  ^Ijujl,  the 
present  Hfe,  ^jiUJt ,  and  the  world  to  come. 

Author:  Abu  Bakr  'Abd  'UUah  B.  Mu- 
hammad B.  Muhammad  B.  Shahavar  ul- 
Asadi  ur-Razi  ^^i  .i.^  ^^  ^^  ^^  M  ^  j3  ^\ 

Beg.  J^j  ^sn^.  j^  .  .  .  ^^JUJI  ^j  «i)  aJ^ 

The  author  says  in  the  introduction,  that, 
while  several  works  had  been  written  on 
the  above  subject  in  Arabic,  none  existed  in 
the  Persian  language,  and  that,  although 
repeatedly  urged  by  his  disciples  to  supply 
that  deficiency,  he  had  been  prevented  from 
doing  so  by  the  disturbed  state  of  Khorasan 
and  Irak,  which  culminated  in  the  Tatar 
invasion,  A.H.  617.  Finding  his  dwelling- 
place,  Hamadan,  threatened,  he  fled,  with 
some  disciples,  A.H.  618,  to  Ardabil,  from 
whence,  seeking  for  a  country  in  which  the 
true  faith,  safety  and  regard  for  merit,  still 
prevailed,  he  was  a'dvised  to  go  to  Rum 
(Asia  Minor).  Having  reached  Kaisariyyah, 
he  found  there  sufficient  leisure  to  write 
the  present  work,  which,  as  we  learn  from 
the  conclusion,  he  completed  in  Sivas,  A.H. 
620,  under  the  auspices  of  Sultan  Kaikubad 
(A.H.  610-636;  see  Price's  Retrospect 
vol.  ii.,  p.  387). 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


89 


The  work  is  divided  into  the  following  five 
books  (Biib),  variously  subdivided  into  chap- 
ters (Fasl),  a  full  table  of  which  is  given 
in  S.  5  a — 6  b.  1.  Introduction,  in  3  chapters, 
f.  6  6 ;  2.  Origin  of  beings,  in  5  chapters, 
f.  18  6  ;  3.  Present  life,  in  20  chapters, 
f.  58  a ;  4.  Euture  life,  in  4  chapters,  f.  210  a ; 
5.  Spiritual  progress  of  various  classes  of 
men,  in  8  chapters,  f.  253  b. 

Najm  ud-Din  Dayah,  as  the  author  is 
generally  called,  was  a  disciple  of  the  famous 
Sufi,  Najm  ud-Din  Kubra.  His  two  prin- 
cipal works,  the  present  and  Bahr  ul-Haka'ik 
(Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  17),  are  held  in  high 
estimation  by  the  Sufis.  The  Moghul  in- 
vasion drove  him  to  Asia  Minor,  where  he 
associated  with  the  celebrated  mystics,  Sadr 
ud-Din  Kuniyavl  and  Jalal  ud-Din  Rumi. 
He  died  in  A.H.  654,  and  was  buried,  accord- 
ing to  Jami,  in  Baghdad.  See  Nafahat  ul- 
Dns,  Add.  16,718,  fol.  206;  Majalis  ul- 
'Ushshiik,  Or.  208,  fol.  35  ;  Haft  Iklim, 
Add.  16,734,  fol.  43.  His  name  is  written 
as  above  in  the  present  MS.,  fol.  330. 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  v.,  p.  495,  calls  him  ^>^\  ^ 

iii}^_  ^j/^^  5  while  in  Javahir  ul-Asrar, 
Add.  7607,  fol.  49,  his  name  is  written 
_jjl»U.  ^Ji  s^  ^_  ^\  (^.jJ^  ff.  See  Stewart's 
Catalogue,  p.  43,  and  Fliigel,  Vienna  Cata- 
logue, vol.  iii.,  pp.  417  and  453,  where  a 
fourth  reading  of  the  author's  patronymic 
occurs,  namely,  jyiU»  ^^U 

Foil.  329,  320,  and  333  have  been  sup- 
plied by  a  modern  hand. 

This  MS.  bears  the  stamps  of  the  kings 
of  Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah  and  Amjad  *Ali. 

Or.  251. 

Foil.  164  ;  8^  in.  by  5^  ;  21  lines,  3J  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Rabi' I., 
A.H.  1166  (AD.  1753). 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 


A  Sufi  work  in  prose  and  verse. 
Author :  Ahmad  Rumi,  ^^^j  .i-^\ 
Beg.       fi^-j^"^  fj^*-j  c^  ^  ^'^^ 

The  work  begins  with  a  versified  preamble, 
in  which  the  author  says  that  he  has  here  put 
into  verse  some  words  of  religious  admoni- 
tion which  issued  from  the  lips  of  that 
treasurer  of  divine  mysteries,  Maulana  Jalal 
ud-Din,  in  order  to  render  easily  intelligible, 
to  high  and  low,  all  the  profound  truths 
which  he  could  call  to  mind  from  the 
Coran,  the  Tradition,  and  the  discourses  of 
his  Shaikh  : 

^yJ.^  J    jj^    J^U    \i'^y,    sli. 


JL.«J^ 


-r'jjir'^  tti) 


J^    J    U'/j"    '^'^  '^'^-    *?■  ^ 

It  consists  of  eighty  chapters  (Fasl). 
Each  of  these  begins  with  a  Coranic  verse 
or  Hadis  in  Arabic,  as  a  text ;  this  is  followed 
by  a  Persian  paraphrase,  and  some  appro- 
priate quotations  from  the  Magnavi  of  Jalal 
ud-Din  Eiimi.  The  spiritual  meaning  is 
afterwards  developed  in  prose,  and  further 
illustrated  by  some  apologue  or  anecdote,  in 
the  same  metre  as  the  Magnavi. 

The  title  is  found  in  the  following  sub- 
scription, in  which  the  author  is  described 
as  a  disciple  of  Jalal  ud-Din  (d.  A.H.  672), 
^y*.j  ^J^yoJ3J>:i'j\  ^}ji  jiVfla.  ,_j»--*  i^[::^\  \j* 

t^y*Jl    ^^y<,   J^SiyC  J    ijl^\-i.j\    ^J>JJ   .x^^   \J^j- 

sJs.  ji)\  'i^j  ^<jj  (^.jJl  J^  U^)J*Jl^^J\.^i-  CLJ^ 
Haj.  Khal.  gives  the  same  title,  vol.  iii., 
p.  78,  but  without  any  further  notice. 


40 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


This  MS.  bears  the  same  stamps  as  the 
preceding. 

Or.  1229. 

Foil.  84 ;  8  in.  by  6  ;  15  lines,  4  in.  long  ; 
written  in  Nestalik,  A.H.  925  (A.D.  1519). 

[Alex.  Jaba.] 

A  Sufi  -work  in  mixed  prose  and  verse,  in 
which  the  nature  and  rules  of  spiritual 
life  dJjL-  are  explained,  and  illustrated  by 
anecdotes  and  sayings  of  holy  men. 

Author  :  Husain  B.  'Alim  B.  Abil-Hasan 
ul-Husaini  ^J■^r^'  t:r-*    cf^^  nrf  r^^  t>^  ii^^^""^ 

Amir  Husainl,  or  Fakhr  us-Sadiit,  as  he  is 
frequently  called,  is  celebrated  both  as  Sufi 
and  as  poet.  lie  was  born  in  Guziv,  in  the 
country  of  Ghur,  but  lived  chiefly  in  Herat, 
where  he  died  A.H.  718.  See  Nafahat  ul- 
Uns,  Add.  16718,  fol.  281,  Majrdis  ul-'Ush- 
shak,  Or.  208,  fol.  96,  and  Eiyaz  ush- 
Shu'ara,  Add.  16,729,  fol.  116.  Daulatshah, 
however,  places  his  death  in  A.H.  719,  and 
the  Haft  Iklim,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  262,  in 
A.H.  717.  Compare  Hammer,  SchoneEede- 
kiinste  Persiens,  p.  228 ;  Sprenger,  Oude 
Catalogue,  p.  430 ;  and  Haj.  KhaL,  vol.  vi., 
p.  321. 

The  author's  name,  as  written  above, 
occurs,  as  well  as  the  title  and  the  date  of 
composition,  A.H.  711,  in  the  concluding 
lines,  fol.  83.  The  work  is  divided  into 
twenty-eight  chapters  (Pasl.),  the  headings 
of  which  are  given  by  Krafft,  p.  190,  and  by 
Fliigel,  Vienna  Catalague,  vol.  iii.,  p.  418. 
Copies  are  also  mentioned  in  Stewart's 
Catalogue,  p.  29,  No.  XC. ;  the  Copenhagen 
Catalogue,  p.  7;  the  St.  Petersburgh  Cata- 
logue, p.  437 ;  and  Bibl.  Sprenger.,  No.  1604. 

Transcriber:  iJ^^  (y>  j^.jJl  ^^jH 


Add.  7817. 

Foil.  103  ;  7i  in.  by  4i ;  15  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Indian  Shikastah- 
Amiz,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work. 

The  real  title  is  found,  as  in  the  preceding 
copy,  in  the  concluding  section  ;  the  follow- 
ing, however,  has  been  written,  apparently 
by  the  copyist,  on  the  first  page :  ^JU^jIm  i_.>li> 


Egerton,  691. 

FoU.  344  ;  lOf  in.  by  6f ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi  on  tinted  paper, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated 
Eabi'  I.,  A.H.  1084  (A.D.  1673). 

[Adam  Claeke.] 

"  The  Key  of  Paradise,"  or  Guide  to  a 
Godly  life,  containing  directions  relating  to 
prayers,  religious  observances,  and  moral 
conduct,  based  upon  the  precepts  of  Mu- 
hammad and  other  holy  men. 

Beg.  jj^  J  4j*.\  j5li.  jK  jiAjij  j_^U3  J  j)^  s.^1- 

The  author  gives  his  name  in  the  pre- 
face, fol.  2  a,  where  it  is  written  ^^  Jc^ 
>^d\  &-9.J,  probably  for  Muhammad  Mujir 
B.  Wajih-ud-Din,  while  by  Haj.  KhaL,  vol. 
vi.,  p.  11,  he  is  called  simply  Wajih-ud- 
Din.  He  further  describes  himself  as  the 
least  and  humblest  'servant  of  the  Sultan 
of  Shaikhs  and  Walis,  etc.,  etc.,  Nasir  ul- 
Hakk  vash-Shar'  vad-Din,  and  states  that  he 
compiled  the  present  work  from  the  most 
approved  treatises  on  law  and  tradition,  and 
the  best  commentaries  on  the  Coran,  for  the 
use  of  persons  ignorant  of  Arabic,  and  in- 
cluded   in   it   some   forms   of   prayer  j\jj\ 


I 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


41 


wliicli  he  had  learnt  from  his  father  and 
from  his  paternal  uncle,  Maulana  Ziya  ud- 
Din,  the  author  of  a  Tafsir  entitled  ^_^. 

The  work  is  divided  into  twenty- five  books 
(Bab),  variously  subdivided  into  chapters 
(Fasl),  a  complete  table  of  which  concludes 
the  preface ;  foil.  3  a — 5  h.  They  treat  of 
the  following  subjects:  1.  Tahlll,  or  the 
formula  "  La  Ilah  ilia  'llah,"  fol.  5  b ; 
2.  Ablutions,  fol.  31  6 ;  3.  Legal  prayer,  fol. 
42 «;  4.  Fasting,  fol.  102  6;  5.  Alms,  fol. 
110  a;  6.  Reward  promised  to  the  secret 
motives  of  the  believer's  heart,  fol.  137  a; 
7.  Good  manners,  fol.  138  b ;  8.  Indulgence 
and  anger,  forgiveness,  pride  and  humility, 
covetousness  and  envy,  fol.  144  a ;  9.  Mo- 
desty, fol.  154  a ;  10.  Truth  and  lying, 
slander,  continence  of  tongue,  sin,  usury, 
fol.  156  a  ;  11.  Claims  of  kindred,  fol.  179  a; 
12.  Gratitude,  fol.  196  a  ;  13.  Patience  and 
resignation,  fol.  200  a ;  14.  Prayers,  and  the 
best  times  for  their  being  granted,  fol.  205  a ; 

15.  Prayers  for  special  objects,  fol.  212  b  ; 

16.  Prayers  for  safety,  fol.  221  b ;  17.  Prayers 
against  pain  and  sickness,  fol.  235  a ;  18. 
Increase  of  memory,  fol.  250  b ;  19.  Efficacy 
of  various  prayers,  fol.  254  b  ;  20.  Protection 
in  the  trial  of  the  grave,  fol.  258  a ;  21.  The 
causes  of  wealth  and  poverty,  fol.  270 J; 

22.  The  virtues  of  certain  aliments,  fol.  279  a; 

23.  Anecdotes  of  Khalifs  and  kings,  fol. 
282  b ;  24.  Signs  of  the "  resurrection,  fol. 
294  a ;  25.  Prayers  for  special  days  and 
months,  fol.  302  a. 

The  occurrence  of  such  local  terms  as 
sJIj  ,  Jjoa- ,  etc.,  points  to  India  as  the 
author's  country.  With  regard  to  his  time, 
the  work  itself  affords  the  following  indica- 
tions. The  oral  teachings  of  Shaikh  ul-Islam 
Parid  ud-Din  are  frequently  adduced.  This 
Farid  ud-Din  was  himself,  as  it  appears  from 
some  passages,  fol.  15  a,  226  b,  259  a,  etc.,  a 
friend  and  disciple  of  Baha  ud-Din  Zaka- 
riyya  (who  died  A.H.  661;  see  Akhbar  ul- 
Akhyar,  Or.  221,  fol.  26),  and  of  Kutb  ud- 


Din  Bakhtiyar  (d.  A.H.  633 :  see  Saf  inat  ul- 
Auliya,  Or.  224,  fol.  89) ;  he  can  be  no  other 
than  the  celebrated  Indian  saint,  Farid  ud- 
Din,  surnamed  Ganj  i  Shakar,  who  was,  as 
stated  in  the  Safinat  ul-Auliya,  fol.  90,  a 
disciple  and  Khalifah  of  Kutb  ud-Din  Bakh- 
tiyar, settled  in  Ajwadhan,'  near  Debalpur, 
province  of  Multan,  and  died  there  A.H.  664, 
at  95  years  of  age.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
author  records  incidentally  (fol.  292  6)  his 
visit  to  the  tomb  of  Sultan  'Ala  ud-Din,  who 
died  A.H.  716,  and  refers  to  Nizam  ud-Din 
(Auliya),  who  died  A.H.  725,  as  belonging 
to  an  already  somewhat  remote  past. 
Lastly,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  the 
holy  personage,  Nasir  ud-Din,  whose  servant 
he  calls  himself  in  the  preface,  is  the  well- 
known  saint,  Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmiid,  sur- 
named Chiragh  i  Dihli,  who  was  the  most 
eminent  disciple  and  the  successor  of  Nizam 
ud-Din  Auliya,  and  died  A.H.  757  (see 
Akhbar  ul-Akhyar,  Or.  221,  fol.  69).  As  his 
name,  however,  is  followed  by  the  formula, 

it  is  to  be  inferred  that  the  present  work 
was  written  after  his  death. 

The  works  most  frequently  quoted  are 
Tafsir  i  Mughni,  Tafsir  i  Munir,  Tafsir  i 
Zahidi,  Tanbih  ul-Ghafilin,  by  Abul-lais  Sa- 
markandi,  Salat  i  Mas'iidi,  Wasilat  ul-Kulub, 
Khahsat  ul-Haka'ik  (Haj.  Khal,  vol.  iii. 
p.  128),  and  Silk  i  Suliik.  The  last  is,  accord- 
ing to  'Abd  ul-Hakk,  Or.  221,  fol.  90,  a 
work  of  Ziya  ud-Din  Nakhshabi,  who  died 
A.H.  751.' 

Add.  23,983. 

FoU.  169;  7  in.  by  3|;  17  lines  2  in.  long; 
written  in  elegant  Naskhi,  with  five  'Unvans 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Muharram, 
A.H.  858  (A.D.  1454). 

»  Now  Piikpatan ;  see  the  account  of  Farid  Shakar- 
ganj  by  Mohan  Lai,  Journal  of  the  As.  Soc.  of  Bengal, 
vol.  v.,  p.  635,  and  Thornton's  India  Gazetteer,  under 
Pauk  Putten. 

O 


42 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


Five  treatises  by  the  Sufi  Sa'in  ud-Din  'All 
Tarikah  Isfahan!,  ^^^V^i^^  ijy  J*  fj>_^\  t^^' 

Khwajah  Sa'in  ud-Din  is  known  as  the 
author  of  commentaries  upon  the  Fusus 
ul-Hikam,  the  Kasidah  of  Ibn  Fariz,  and 
other  standard  works  on  Sufism.  He  held 
the  office  of  Kazi  in  Yazd,  but,  being  ac- 
cused of  infidelity,  on  the  strength  of  some 
unguarded  expressions  in  his  writings,  he 
was  conveyed,  by  order  of  Shahrukh,  to 
Herat,  where  he  had  much  to  endure  from 
the  fierce  persecution  of  the  'Ulama,  and  died 
in  A.H.  835.  See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Add.  6561, 
fol.  363 ;  Majiilis  ul-Muminln,  Add.  23,541, 
fol.  296  (where  his  death  is  placed  in  A.H. 
830) ;  Taki  Kashl,  in  the  Oude  Catal.,  p.  27 ; 
and  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  vi.,  p.  8.  «iy,  which 
Sprenger  reads  Turkah,  was,  according  to  the 
'Alam-Ara,  Add.  16,684,  fol.  40,  the  name  of 
a  famUy  of  Kazis  in  Ispahan. 

I.  Fol.  2. 

A  treatise  on  the  letters  of  the  Arabic 
alphabet  and  their  mystic  meanings. 

Beg.  <-J>jJb  t^  \  i/j^'^Jji  u^.^  i  o-^-» 

In  the  introduction  three  kinds  of  letters 
are  distingvushed,  viz.  the  written  ^^J, 
spoken  ,_^ifl3,  and  mental  letters  t^^j**,  the 
last  term  applying  to  letters  used  as  numerical 
signs.  These  are  separately  discussed  in  three 
chapters  (Asl);  in  an  Appendix  (Taznib), 
an  instance  of  the  application  of  the  system  is 
given  by  the  interpretation  of  the  words 
^SC^  5-f-».  In  the  concluding  lines,  the 
author  refers,  for  further  developments,  to 
the  work  entitled  ^U^  \jo>\,o^ . 

II.  Fol.  21. 

A  treatise  on  the  splitting  of  the  moon, 
mentioned  in  the  Goran,  and  the  meaning 
attached  to  it  by  various  classes  of  inter- 


preters ;  also  on  the  value  of  the  word  ul*&l-» , 
which  occurs  in  the  same  verse. 

Beg.  */  Ifcjjj  J^  csjjj  •  •  •  »j^^j  w5j  433  ^ 

III.  Fol.  35. 

A  treatise  on  three  classes  of  Sufis,  de- 
signated by  the  names  of  jU-1  j  )j>\  j  ij^lafls? 

Beg.  *)U=»-  Jj:i>-=-  J  »JU^  J^'^''i  i>  *"  '^ 

It  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah  and  three 
chapters  (Asl). 

IV.  Fol.  53. 

Five  contests  or  debates  between  allegori- 
cal personages,  namely,  Beason  and  Love, 

fol.  56 ;  Fancy  and  Reason,  Jac-  b  jb^  'j^li« 
jSjU^^  j,  fol.  95;  Fancy  and  Imagination, 
JUi-  J  jb^  s^li* ,  fol.  99 ;  Hearing  and  Sight, 
j^  J  *■♦«»  Sjiil:* ,  fol.  105 ;  Lover  and  Beloved, 
j^i*«  J  J^lfr  *»bla*  J  jjkU*,  fol.  113. 
Beg.  |,i>T  w!ilis!  Jl*!\  &iji  ^Ua5  (_jk')j  (^iJ\  si3  J-»U 

V.  Fol.  131. 

The  author's  profession  of  faith. 

Beg.  \j^  ^^y^  o-W'  (3  u-^^  J  ^  j«»». 

It  appears  from  the  beginning  of  this  tract 
that  the  author  addressed  it  to  Shahrukh,  in 
answer  to  the  attacks  of  some  'Ulama,  who 
had  impugned  his  orthodoxy.  He  ends  by 
begging  to  be  reliev'ed  of  a  professorship  in 
Naishiipur  to  which,  after  twelve  years  of 
seclusion,  he  had  been  called,  much  against 
his  will,  by  the  Vazir  Fakhr  ul-Mulk.  He 
adds,  in  conclusion,  that  Shahrukh  returned 
a  flattering  answer,  and  declined  to  accept 
his  resignation. 

The  author's  name  does  not  appear  in  this 
MS. ;  but  the  first  four  treatises  are  found 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


43 


ascribed  to  Sa'in  ud-Din  in  anotlier  volume, 
Add.  16,839,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt 
that  the  fifth  is  from  the  same  hand. 

Add.  7607. 

Foil.  226 ;  9^  in.  by  5| ;  19  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins  ;  dated  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1034 
(A.D.  1614).  [CI.  J.  EiCH.] 

"  The  Pearls  of  Mysteries,"  a  work  treat- 
ing of  the  esoteric  meaning  of  various  say- 
ings of  Muhammad  and  other  holy  men. 

Author  :  Shaikh  Azari,  t/j^^  *--» 

Beg.  (--'^  3   j_s-J5  (-.>b    xi^  (_->l_j^!i)^  -SLt  b 

The  author  gives  his  own  name  in  the  pre- 
face, fol.  6  «,  as  foUows  :  ^^  ^Js■  ^Ji  ij^  ^^  Js- 

But  this  is  probably  a  clerical  error  for 
tiiU  Js.  (^  8^  J^  ^\  for  most  biographers 
agree  in  calling  our  author  Hamzah  B. 
'All  Malik,  and  in  the  subscription  of  the 
present  MS.  he  appears  as  Jalal  ud-Din 
Hamzah. 

Azari  was  bom  at  Marv  and  brought  up 
in  Asfara'in,  which  his  father,  a  Sarbadar  of 
Baihak,  governed  under  the  rulers  of  his 
race.  He  cultivated  poetry  from  his  youth, 
taking  his  Takhallus  from  the  month  of 
Azar,  in  which  he  was  born,  and  attracted 
the  notice  of  Shahrukh,  who  promised  him 
the  title  of  Malik  ush-Shu  ara.  But  he  soon 
gave  up  worldly  pursuits,  to  devote  himself 
to  a  religious  life  under  the  guidance  of 
Shaikh  Muhyi  ud-Din  Tusi,  and  subsequently 
that  of  the  famous  saint  Ni'mat  Ullah  Vall. 
After  performing  the  pilgrimage  he  repaired 
to  India,  and  stayed  some  time  at  the  court 


of  Ahmad  Shah  Bahmani,  for  whom  he  wrote 
an  historical  poem  entitled  Bahman  Namah. 
After  his  return  to  his  native  land  he  spent 
the  last  thirty  years  of  his  life  in  retirement, 
and  died  in  A.H.  866,  at  82  years  of  age,  in 
Asfara'in,  or,  according  to  others,  Asfizar. 
See  Daulatshah,  Add.  18,410,  fol.  204, 
where  the  present  work  is  mentioned ;  Habib 
us-Siyar,  Add.  6561,  fol.  392 ;  Majalis  ul- 
Muminin,  Add.  23,541,  fol.  335 ;  Haft  Iklim, 
fol.  325 ;  Eiyaz  ush-Shu'anl,  fol.  42;  Khizanah 
i  'Amirah,  Or.  232,  fol.  12;  Oude  Catalogue, 
pp.  19,70, 315;  Hammer,  Schone  Redekiinste, 
p.  300.  Firishtah,  Add.  6572,  fol.  299,  gives 
a  full  account  of  Shaikh  Azari's  life  and  his 
stay  at  the  Bahmani  court,  a  passage  which 
his  translator.  Col.  Briggs,  has  omitted  with- 
out any  notice. 

The  author  had  written,  as  he  states  in 
the  preface,  on  his  return  from  Syria  in 
A.H.  830,  a  work  on  the  same  subject  en- 
titled ^y.^^)  ^  -.Uflxi.  While  staying  in  India, 
at  the  capital  of  Ahmad  Shah  GhazI  (i.e. 
Ahmad  Shah  Bahmani,  A.H.  825—838),  and 
preparing  to  set  out  on  a  second  pilgrimage, 
he  was  appealed  to  by  many  friends  anxious 
to  obtain  that  book,  and,  on  his  return  home, 
he  yielded  to  their  entreaties  by  writing  it 
over  again  in  a  more  condensed  form,  adding 
to  it  at  the  same  time  some  new  biographical 
notices,  relating  to  holy  men,  which  he  had 
gathered  on  his  travels.  The  preface  is 
dated  A.H.  840. 

The  Jawahir  al-Asrar  is  divided,  like  its 
prototype,  into  four  books  (Bab),  viz., 
1.  Mysteries  of  the  detached  letters  in  the 
Coran,  fol.  9  &  ;  2.  Mysteries  of  some  Hadi§, 
or  sayings  of  Muhammad,  fol.  15  6  ;  3.  Mys- 
teries of  the  sayings  of  the  Shaikhs,  in  prose 
and  in  verse,  fol.  54  a  ;  4.  Mysteries  of  the 
sayings  of  the  poets,  fol.  173  h. 

Copyist :  ij,)j^'^  (i^--»-  "^^ 
This    work    is    mentioned    in    Stewart's 
Catalogue,  p.  38 ;  the  author's  Divan  and  his 
G  2 


44 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


Ghara'ib  ud-Dunya  in  the  S.  Petersburgh 
Catalogue,  p.  399,  and  the  Copenhagen 
Catalogue,  p.  4iO. 

Add.  16,820. 

Foil.  52;  9i  in.  by  5^ ;  9  lines,  2  in. 
long ;  written  in  fine  Nestalik,  with  TJnvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [Wm.  Yulk.] 

"  Lawa'ih,"  a  collection  of  Sufi  apoph- 
thegms, with  paraphrases  in  Rubii'is. 

Author :  Nur  ud-Din  'Abd  ur-Rahmiin 
Jami,  ^U  ijifi'}\  iiJ*  (y?.J^\jy  (d.  A.H.  898; 
see  p.  17  a). 

Beg.  liLJl  jyo  »M  J^j  t_i/tlA)*  *\i  (./a*^  ^ 

The  work  is  so  called  from  the  small 
sections  headed  Lii'ihah,  or  "  flash  of  light," 
of  which  it  consists.  See  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  v., 
p.  344;  Dom,  S.  Petersburgh  Catalogue, 
p.  252 ;  Aumer,Munich  Catalogue,  p.  21;  and 
Biblioth.  Sprenger.,  No.  812. 

The  margins  of  this  copy  are  covered  with 
annotations,  written  in  a  minute  and  neat 
Nestalik,  apparently  by  the  same  hand  as 
the  text,  and  enclosed  in  gold  lines.  Most 
of  them  are  ascribed  to  a  commentator  named 
•>>.»& ,  and  some  to  another  called  c^. 

Copyist :  ,^^  o*»ji 

Add.  22,705. 

Poll.  166;  9i  in.  by  5|;  17  Unes,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  16th  century.     [Sir  John  Campbell.] 


jUaL)  s^\) 


CJy3 


A  treatise  on  the  character,  rules,  and  ob- 
servances,  of  the  religious  order  called  Ahl  i 
Futuvvat. 

Author:    Husain   Kashifi    ^li^ 
(d.  A.H.  910 ;  see  above,  p.  9  b.) 


Beg.  Ul^  iySii^  J>J^  J*?-  [t?^']   «A5  J-»* 

This  order,  which  is  here  represented  as  a 
branch  of  that  of  the  Sufis,  traces  its  origin 
to  All,  the  ^  "par  excellence,"  and  aims  at 
moral  perfection  and  practical  excellence, 
"Futuvvat." 

The  treatise  is  divided  into  an  introduction, 
twelve  chapters  (Bab),  and  a  conclusion. 

This  copy  is  imperfect  at  the  end ;  it  also 
wants  the  rubrics  from  fol.  86  to  the  last. 

Egerton  1026. 

FoU.  121;  8i  in.  by  5;  17  lines,  SJ  in. 
long,  in  a  page;  written  in  neat  Nestalik, 
with  gold-ruled  margins,  in  the  reign  of 
Muhammad  Shah  (A.D.  1719—49). 

A  collection  of  edifying  discourses,  relating 
to  the  Patriarchs  and  Prophets,  to  Muham- 
mad, 'All,  and  divers  saints,  as  well  as  to 
some  other  religious  subjects. 

Author:   Saif  uz-Zafar  Naubahari,    ^Jju* 

The  author,  apparently  a  Sunni  Fakir, 
states,  that  he  had  gathered  the  contents 
from  the  lips  of  the  servants  of  the  faith,  in 
whose  company  he  had  spent  his  life.  The 
work  is  divided  into  thirty-three  chapters 
(Bab),  a  table  of  which  is  given  at  the  end  of 
the  preface ;  the  first  is  headed  cJuk-ii  ^^ 
C^^^V*  Lr^^T,  the  last  j/c-cl^.  Ja\  oljuijjvj 

The  headings  of  the  chapters  have  been 
given  in  full  in  the  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  58, 
by  Aumer,  who  calls  the  author  Saif  uz-Zafar 
B.  ul-Burhan ;  also  by  Fliigel,  Vienna  Cata- 
logue, vol.  iii.,  p.  444,  where,  however,  the 
author  is  not  named.  In  the  Leyden  copy. 
Catalogue,  vol.  i.,  p.  359,  the  work  is  called 
(jJl^jj^,  and  the  author  Saif  ud-Din  Zafar 


ASCETICISM  AND  SUFISM. 


46 


Naubahari.     The  latter's  name  is  given  as 
above  in  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  26. 

The  first  page  of  the  original  MS.  is  lost, 
and  has  been  replaced  by  a  spurious  be- 
ginning. 

Add.  5563. 

Foil.  176  ;  7|  in.  by  5^  ;  12  lines,  4  in. 
long,  in  a  page ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian 
character,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[Chaeles  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

^6g.    J^^     J^j^    colic  j\    sJ   j^j^ 

The  first  page  bears  the  name  of  a  former 
owner,  Robert  Watherston. 

Add.  16,836. 

Foil.  126;  7i  in.  by  3f ;  16  lines,  2f  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  character, 
probably  in  the  18th  century.   [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work,  imperfect.  This  copy 
breaks  off  in  the  middle  of  Bab  22 ;  see  Eg. 


1026,  fol.  77  S.    The  first  page  bears  the 
stamp  of  "  Claud  Martin." 

Add.  16,834. 

Foil.  30 ;  4i  in.  by  2^ ;  11  lines,  If  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik ;  dated  Shav- 
val,  A.H.  1114  (A.D.  1703).       [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  Treatise  on  the  nature  of  the  soul  and 
its  condition  after  death. 

Beg.  Jj\  o-Jj  s-oV  J^  J^  J  «J^^^  i_}>^  w^ 

This  tract  consists  of  eight  chapters 
(Fasl).  It  is  followed,  fol.  19  a,  without 
any  apparent  break,  by  a  section  (Bab) 
treating,  in  six  chapters,  of  prophecy,  mi- 
racles, and  inspiration,  under  the  following 
heading :  oU.]/j  Ol;***  j  o^  jj^Ii-Liji  i_.>b 
ij^  ,_^'ij'  ^jJo  ^JLJ^i  J ,  etc. 

The  copyist,  Hidayat  UUah  Zarrin  Rakam, 
states,  in  the  subscription,  that  he  wrote  this 
MS.  in  the  camp  of  'Alamglr,  then  besieging 
Kundanah. 


PAESISM. 


Author 
Beg. 


Roy.  16  B.  viii. 

FoU.  71 ;  10|  in.  by  6^ ;  15  lines,  3f  in. 
long;  written  in  flowing  NestaHk,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century.  [Thomas  Hyde.] 

hi 

Zaratusht-Namah,  also  called  Zartusht- 
Namah,  a  translation  in  Persian  verse  of 
the  life  of  Zoroaster,  originally  written  in 
Pehlevi. 

Zartusht  i  Bahram,  X^  »^-^jJ 

A  notice  of  this  work,  with  a  table  of  its 
headings,  has  been  given  by  Hyde  ia  his 
"  Historia  religionis  veterum  Persarum, " 
pp.  328-9.  A  review  of  its  contents  will 
be  found  in  J.  Wilson's  Par  si  Religion, 
Bombay,  1843,  pp.  417 — 427,  together  with 
an  English  translation  of  the  whole  work 
by  E.  B.  Eastwick,  pp.  477 — 622.  Its  sub- 
stance is  found  in  Anquetil's  Vie  de  Zo- 
roastre,  Zend-Avesta,  part  ii.,  pp.  1 — 70,  and 
in  the  "  Miracles  of  Zartusht,"  or  Mu'jizat 
i  Zartushti,  published  in  Gujrati  by  Edalji 
Darabji,  Bombay,  1840. 

The  author  gives  his  name,  towards  the 


end  of  the  poem,  fol.  70  a,  in  the  following 
verse : 

from  which  we  learn  that  his  father  was 
Bahram,  son  of  Pazhdu  (not  Pazdawdm,  as 
in  Eastwick's  translation,  p.  522).  On  his 
own  showing,  however,  his  claim  to  author- 
ship is  but  slight,  for,  as  he  tells  us  a  few 
lines  before,  fol.  69  h,  he  merely  followed 
the  words,  i.e.  the  version,  of  a  learned  and 
pious  man,  Ka  us  Kai  (probably  for  Kaika  us, 
which  the  metre  did  not  allow),  son  of 
Kaikhusrau,  of  the  city  of  Kai : 

It  might  be  supposed  that  this  earlier 
version  was  in  prose,  but  it  is  distinctly 
stated  in  another  passage  that  it  was  in 
verse,  so  that  we  are  left  in  ignorance  as  to 
the  process  by  which  Zartusht  made  it  his 
own.  In  the  introduction  of  the  poem, 
fol.  3  a,  the  same  Kaika'us,  who  there  speaks 
in  the  first  person,  relates  how  he  had  been 


.^ 


I    •     i^Mtj^i 


PARSISM. 


47 


urged  to  turn  this  history  into  verse,  first  by 
the  learned  Mobad,  with  whose  assistance 
he  had  read  the  Pehlevi  original,  then  by  a 
divine  messenger  who  appeared  to  him  in 
his  sleep,  lastly  by  the  pressing  advice  of 
his  own  father.  The  latter  is  designated  in 
the  following  lines  as  Kaikhusrau,  the  son 
of  Diira,  of  an  ancient  and  noble  house  of 
Eai: 

^    JW  /  ur^  J^   O-^v  *? 

This  last  passage  has  been  curiously  ren- 
dered by  Eastwick,  who  translates,  p.  479: 
"  'Twas  Kujdpur  the  city  of  my  sire." 
*'The  house  of  Kuja  is  an  ancient  name,"  etc. 
thus  transferring  the  poet's  birthplace  from 
Eai  to  some  undefined  place  in  India. 

Zartusht  states  in  the  concluding  lines, 
fol.  70  a,  that  he  wrote  the  poem  in  the 
course  of  two  days,  working  at  it  day  and 
night,  in  the  month  of  Aban  and  the  year 
647  of  Yazdagard  (A.D.  1277-8) : 

i^ji  ijc   (_^i  tN<a,^.««>  u  '  ".ofri  .  ^y~». 

iji^-Mt  j.^.'Jy   ^r*?"  ji  yf   o^.V 

l»^^    ^JU^!^    ^T^   JjJj    J     *-r*^ 

The  same  date  is  recorded,  in  a  somewhat 
different  wording,  in  another  copy.  Add. 
27,268,  fol.  75  a  : 

It  is  found  also  in  Anquetil's  MSS.  Zend- 
Avesta,  part  ii.,  p.  6,  and  in  Eastwick's 
translation,  p.  521. 


In  an  epilogue  found  in  the  present  copy, 
fol.  70  b,  but  wanting  in  the  other,  as  also 
in  Eastwick's  translation,  Zartusht  adds  that, 
after  completing  the  present  work,  he  was 
called  upon  by  a  heavenly  voice  to  write,  as 
a  companion  to  it,  a  poetical  version  of  the 
book  of  Ardaviraf ;  see  Roy.  16  B.  ii. 

The  last  five  lines,  containing  a  much 
later  date,  the  year  853  of  Yazdagard,  have 
been  added  by  some  transcriber,  who  calls 
himself  Mavandad  B.  Khusrau. 

Roy.  16  B.  ii. 

FoU.  152 ;  11  in.  by  6J ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  on  European 
paper,  by  the  same  hand  as  the  preceding 
MS.;  dated  in  the  month  of  Bahman,  the 
year  1047  of  Yazdagard  (A.D.  1678). 

[Tho.  Hyde.] 

Foil.  106—152. 

^Ir^J  ^^^J  ^^ 
A  poetical  version  of  the  Book  of  Ardiii- 
Viraf,  by  the   same   Zartusht  B.   Bahram, 


Beg.      jbb  J  j\  j-i>.i,l   »llial2> 

The  Pehlevi  original,  Arda-Viraf  Namak, 
has  been  published,  with  an  English  trans- 
lation and  introduction,  by  Dr.  M.  Haug, 
Bombay,  1872.  Another  English  trans- 
lation, principally  based  upon  the  poetical 
version  of  Zartusht,  was  printed  in  London, 
1816,  under  the  following  title,  "Ardai  Viraf 
Nameh,  or  the  revelation  of  Ardai  Viraf, 
translated  by  J.  A.  Pope,"  but  is  not  to  be 
found  in  the  Museum  Library.  Abstracts  of 
the  work,  derived  from  Pope's  translation, 
will  be  found  in  J.  Wilson's  Parsi  Eeligion, 
pp.  435 — 444,  and  in  Spiegel's  Traditionelle 
Literatur  der  Parsen,  pp.  120 — 128.  The 
present  version  is  mentioned  by  Anquetil, 
Zend-Avesta,  vol.  ii.  p.  xxxii.;  and  another 


48 


PAESISM. 


poetical  translation,  by  Ka'us,  Herbad  of 
Nausari,  is  noticed  in  the  same  volume, 
p.  XXX.  See  also  Ouseley  Collection,  No.  560. 
The  author's  name  appears  in  the  follow- 
ing line,  at  the  beginning  of  the  epilogue, 
fol.  150  a,  where  he  calls  himself  Zartusht, 
son  of  Bahram,  son  of  Pazhdu,  exactly  as  in 
the  preceding  work : 

The  time  of  composition  is  not  stated,  but, 
both  works  having  one  and  the  same  author, 
their  dates  cannot  be  far  apart;  moreover, 
as  we  have  seen  in  the  preceding  MS.,  the 
author  proposed  to  write  the  story  of  Ardai 
Viraf  immediately  after  completing  the 
Zartusht  Namah,  i.e.,  in  the  year  647  of 
Yazdagard.  The  date  of  A.Y.  900  (A.D. 
1530 — 1531),  which  Dr.  Haug  assigns  to 
the  present  version  in  his  Introductory 
Essays,  p.  xix.,  is  therefore  inadmissible. 

Transcriber :  Ju-j  j^  jbxa«.\  ^j>  (i^jy*-  <i^jii> 

The  first  part  of  the  volume  contains  the 
same  text,  written  in  the  Zend  character, 
foU.  2 — 94,  and  some  short  notices  and  ex- 
tracts in  the  same  writing,  foil.  95 — 105, 
the  detail  of  which  will  be  found  in 
Prof.  Sachau's  Contributions  to  the  know- 
ledge of  Parsee  Literature,  Journal  of  the 
Eoyal  Asiatic  Society,  1870,  p.  279. 

A  fly-leaf  at  the  end  contains  some  Latin 
notes,  in  the  handwriting  of  Tho.  Hyde. 

Add.  6940. 

Poll.  64 ;  13  in.  by  8 ;  about  25  lines  a  page; 
written  by  the  Eev.  John  Haddon  Hindley 
on  paper  bearing  in  its  water-mark  the  date 
1814. 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  has  at  the  beginning  nineteen 
additional  verses  relating  to  the  conquest 
of  Alexander  and  the  ruin  in  which  it  in- 


volved the  Persian  empire  and  the  Zoroas- 
trian  faith. 

The  subscription  of  the  MS.,  from  which 
the  present  copy  was  taken,  is  transcribed  at 
the  end.  It  is  here  stated  to  have  been 
completed  in  Shavval,  A.H.  1203  (A.D.  1789), 
by  Pishutan  Jiv,  son  of  Hir  Ji  B.  Homji,  of 
Nausari.  This  town,  twenty  miles  to  the 
south  of  Surat,  is  one  of  the  oldest  Parsi 
settlements  in  India. 

The  first  two  leaves  contain  two  notices 
on  the  Viraf  Namah  in  English,  the  fijst  by 
Hindley,  the  second  transcribed  from  the 
original  MS. 

Roy.  16  B.  XV. 

PoD.  65;  84  in.  by  4| ;  15  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  and  dated  Mu- 
harram  A.H.  1050  (A.D.  1640). 

[Tho.  Hyde.] 

A  poetical  version  of  the  Sad  Dar,  or 
Hundred  Gates,  a  popular  exposition  of  the 
Zoroastrian  law,  so  called  from  the  hundred 
sections  which  it  contains. 

Author  :  Iranshah  B.  Malakshah,  sU,  J^j] 

sliilo  ^^ 
Beg.       olio  J  ol  J  iWj^iSi-  Jl> 

Hyde  has  given  an  account,  and  a  con- 
densed Latin  translation,  of  this  work,  with 
the  text  of  the  Prologue,  in  his  "  Historia 
religionis  veterum  Persarum,"  p.  431 — 488  : 
see  also  Spiegel,  Einleitung  in  die  Literatur 
der  Parsen,  p.  182;  Anquetil,  Zend-Avesta, 
Part  ii.,  p.  xxxiv..;  and  Sachau,  Contri- 
butions, etc.,  p.  280. 

The  author  gives  his  own  and  his  father's 
name  in  the  following  verse  of  the  Prologue, 
fol.  4  b  (Hyde,  p.  435). 

2yjj^  'V  u>'  *^  ul;^-^ 
He  states  there  that  having  been  led  by 


PAESISM. 


49 


divine  will  to  Kirman,  he  met  there  a  pious 
learned  and  illustrious  Dastur,  Shahriyar, 
son  of  Dastur  Ardashir  B.  Bahramshah,  with 
other  Dasturs  of  the  same  family,  whom 
he  enumerates  with  great  praises,  stayed 
in  their  service,  and  wrote  this  version  in 
ohedience  to  their  commands.  It  was  com- 
pleted, he  adds  (fol.  4  h,  Hyde,  p.  436,  and 
Eoy.  16  B,  i.,  f.  185),  on  the  sixth  day  of  the 
month  of  Isfandiirmuz,  in  the  year  864  of 
Yazdagard  (A.D.  1495). 

The  corresponding  date  of  the  Hijrah,  900, 
is  expressed  hy  the  chronogram  j;^  in  the 
following  line  at  the  end,  fol.  65 : 

The  original  work  is  said,  fol.  2  b,  to  have 
been  compiled  in  prose,  hy  some  great  doctors 
not  named,  from  the  Avasta,  Zend  and  Pa- 
zend. 

Roy.  16  B.  vii. 

Foil.  65  ;  9^  in.  by  5 ;  15  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  margins ; 
dated  Surat,  in  the  month  of  Ardibihisht,  and 
the  year  1043  of  Yazdagard  (A.D.  1674). 

[Tho.  Hyde.] 

The  same  work. 

Copyist :  ^Jt  ^^  jj*\J  jj^  ^^j  J^j<ji>   .iJ^ 

The  person  for  whom  this  MS.  was  written 
is  named  in  the  following  line  at  the  end  : 

^  elL^y>^\  ^jdyo  ^_yjl^,  wlfcli  4^j^  ^J^\'J  j^ 
Another  MS.,  Boy.  16  B.  vi.,  written  by 
the  same  scribe,  A.Yazd.  1042,  has  a  similar 
colophon ;  see  Sachau,  Contributions,  etc., 
p.  268. 


Roy.  16  B.  i. 

Toll.  330,  11  in.  by  6i ;  16  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  on  European 
paper,  by  the  same  hand  as  Roy.  16  B.  ii., 
in  the  17th  century.  [Tho.  Hyde.] 

I.  Foil.  18—174  a.  The  poetical  version  of 
the  Book  of  Ardai-virrif  (see  Roy.  16  B.  ii.), 
in  the  Zend  and  Persian  characters.  The 
Persian  is  written  in  red  ink  under  each 
line  of  the  Zend  writing. 

II.  Foil.  174  J— 330.  The  poetical  ver- 
sion of  the  Sad-dar  (see  Roy.  16  B.  xv.), 
written  also  in  both  characters. 

.    The  last  thirty  Dars,  or  sections,  are  want- 
ing in  this  copy. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  written:  "This  booke 
is  very  hard  to  be  procur'd,  for  when  I  had 
prevailed  with  the  Priest  to  write  it  for  me, 
he  durst  not  let  his  owne  cast  or  sect  know 
of  it,  but  wrote  it  all  in  the  night,  when  all 
eyes  were  shut  and  asleep." 

Add.  27,268. 

Foil.  98 ;  7  J  in.  by  4|.  [Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

I.  Foil.  1—76;  11  lines,  2|  in.  long; 
written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Surat,  in  the 
month  of  Ardibihisht  of  the  year  1046  of 
Yazdagard  (A.D.  1677). 


mU 


'l^J 


The  poetical  version  of  the   History  of 
Zoroaster  (see  Roy.  16  B.  viii.),  with  the 

heading  jjiJ.'c;-»  j   ^l»Ifl^\   C-^i^^j   jjjy.  t->Ui^ 

Copyist :   ^^  ^  ^y-»^   Jj   cs^J^  w^-'V 

II.  FoU.  77—98  ;  11  lines,  3.f  in.  long ; 
written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Surat,  in  the 
month  of  Bahman  of  the  year  1107  of  Yaz- 
dagard (A.D.  1738),  Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1151. 


60 


PAESISM. 


U) 


,1^ 


XA» 


History  of  the  settlement  of  the  Parsis  in 
India,  in  Persian  verse. 

Author :  Bahman,  son  of  Kaikubad,  j^;^ 
Beg.       ^Ur*  J^^  i/Vib  ijy}  j.Uj 

An  English  translation  of  this  work  by 
E.  B.  Eastwick,  with  notes  by  the  Eev.  John 
Wilson,  has  been  published  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Bombay  Branch  of  the  Asiatic  Society, 
tol.  i.,pp.  167 — 191.  An  abstract  of  it  is  given 
in  "W.  Hamilton's  Description  of  Hindostan, 
vol.  i.,  p.  613  ;  see  also  Dosabhoy  Fram- 
jee,  "the  Parsees,"  London,  1858,  pp.  7 — 
21;  Anquetil,  Zend-Avesta,  Discours  Pre- 
liminaire,  pp.  318 — 324;  Part  ii.,  p.  xxxiv., 
and  J.  Wilson,  Religion  of  the  Parsis,  pp. 
210—213. 

The  author  states  in  the  epilogue  that  his 
name  was  Bahman,  and  his  dwelling-place 
Nausari ;  that  his  father,  Kaikubad,  was  the 
son  of  a  great  Dastur  named  Hurmuzyar, 
and  surnamed,  on  account  of  his  vast  learn- 
ing, Sunjanah.  He  completed  the  present 
work  in  the  year  969  of  Yazdagard  (A.D. 
1600).  He  adds  that  he  wrote  it  down  from 
the  records  of  his  ancestors,  and  that  it  was 
corrected  by  his  master. 

Copyist :   J'^  u^j/  u^  r^  '^^  u^  ^j 

ij>\^  u-j/.  ....  t_j^b 

Both  the  above  works  are  correctly  de- 
scribed in  a  Persian  note  on  the  fly-leaf, 
dated  A.  Yazd.  1180  (A.D.  1810—1811). 

There  is  also  at  the  end  of  the  volume  an 
English  note  of  the  same  date,  in  which  it  is 
stated  that  these  works  were  got  from  Dastur 
Kaus  of  Surat ;  here  the  second  is  called 
"Kessa  Senjan,  or  Story  of  St.  John's."  We 
read,  on  the  same  page,  "  This  MS.  was  given 
to  me  by  Mr.  Duncan."  [Signed]  J.  M.  (i.  e. 
Jolm  Malcolm). 


Add.  24,413. 

EoU  94;  8 J  in.  by  6^;  13  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik  and  Shikastah- 
Amiz,  by  different  hands;  dated  Bombay,  in 
the  months  Tir  and  Khordad,  and  the  year 
1179  of  Yazdagard,  A.D.  1809. 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

A  collection  of  Parsi  tracts,  most  of  which 
were  composed  for  Major  (afterwards  Sir 
John)  Malcolm,  by  Mobad  'Aidal  of  Bombay, 
and  are  written  in  the  author's  own  hand. 

'Aidal,  who  calls  himself  here,  fol.  31,  ^^ 

was  familiarly  known  by  the  name  of  Edal 
Daru,  and  was  the  chief  priest  of  the  Pasmi 
sect  of  the  Parsis.  He  is  the  author  of  a  life 
of  Zoroaster  in  Gujarat!,  entitled  Mujizat 
i  Zartushti,  and  published  in  Bombay,  A.D. 
1840.  He  was  still  alive  in  1843.  See 
J.  Wilson,  The  Parsi  Eeligion,  Bombay,  1843, 
p.  9. 

Contents:  I.  Poll.  1—18.  The  Kissah 
i  Sanjan  (see  Add.  27,268,  II.),  with  the 
heading  :  c*^.^)J  j\  t^  ^j^ji  J^,^  ^^\J^\o  jIpT 

II.  Poll.  22—25.  Fragment  of  a  voca- 
bulary of  Zend  and  Pazend  words,  explained 
in  Persian.  This  is  the  initial  portion  of  the 
fourth  section  of  the  Appendix  to  the  Far- 
hang  i  Jahangiri. 

III.  Foil.  31—44.     «*UfcU.  eiJJjy  . 

A  glossary  of  the  old  Persian,  Pehlevi  and 
Pazend,  words  occurring  in  the  Shahnamah. 

Beg.  o-.l}->  ^j^jj^^ji  u-W4i-^  (ji^.^  J  o-V* 
The  author,  Mobad  'Aidal  B.  Darab,  states 
in  the  preamble  that  he  compiled  this  glossary 
from  various  dictionaries  in  obedience  to  the 
commands  of  Major  Malcolm,  who  was  very 
fond  of  reading  the  Shahnamah. 

IV.  FoU.  49—57.     ^^jj^;>  **5Uj 

The  tract  so  called  in  the  subscription  was 


PARSISM. 


61 


also  written  by  Mobad  'Aidal  for  Major 
Malcolm  in  the  year  1179  of  Yazdagard.  It 
contains  the  following  headings :  Account 
of  the  fire-temple  built  by  Nushirvan,  the 
Just,  »(i;i  \jj  J^lp  ^^\JJiJ:,y  iS  »j£1jT  jjll«»b  jlcT 
i>y.  Story  of  the  Parrukh  Namah,  given 
by  the  Hirbud  Ramish  Aram  to  Abul-Khair 
Amri.  The  oath  of  Nushirvan  and  his  sending 
for  the  Dastur  Yunan.  Account  of  Marghu- 
zan,  the  palace  of  Nushirvan,  which  the 
Khalif  Mamun  attempted  to  demolish.  See 
for  similar  accounts  Anquetil,  Zend  Avesta, 
2nd  Part,  p.  xxxvi.,  and  Sachau,  Contribu- 
tions etc.,  p.  263. 

V.  Pol.  61— 68.  Visit  of  Harunur-Rashid 
to  the  tomb  of  Nushirvan  the  Just,  C^}C^ 

See  Anquetil  and  Sachau,  ib. 

VI.  Poll.  69—74.  "The  assembly  held 
by  Nushirvan,  his  questions  to  Yunan,  and  the 
latter's  answers  in  admonition,  a  fragment 
in  verse,  ^i-^j  u'jtp^y  w^  lt^  j'^^  j^ 

Beg.        j\^/  ^^  ^.j  ^^  ^^yT 

This  fragment  agrees  in  substance,  and 
often  in  words,  with  the  corresponding  por- 
tions of  a  rhymed  history  of  Nushirvan, 
written  about  the  year  980  of  Yazdagard, 
by  Marzuban  Ravari.  See  Sachau,  "  Contri- 
butions "  etc.,  pp.  258—263,  282. 

VII.  PoU.  77—84.  A  tract  on  the  old 
Persian  names  of  the  days  and  months,  and 
on  the  festivals  of  Nauruz,  Mihragan,  and 
Tirgan,  compiled  from  Pehlevi  and  Pazend 
books  by  Mobad  'Aidal  B.  Darab,  for  Major 
Malcolm,  with  the  heading  :  A^  ^'d  ji>  .^ai 

U  *       •  1  • 

VIII.  Poll.  85—94.   A  history  of  Ardashir 


Babagan,    in    Pehlevi,  with   the   following 
Persian  heading  :   ^l^b  ^^}  j^b-^ii  j\*T. 

This  MS.  has  been  described  by  Professor 
Sachau,  "  Contributions  "  etc.,  p.  280. 

Add.  22,378. 

Poll.  63;  9f  in.  by  6^ ;  about  16  lines, 
4  in.  long;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  Gujarat,  in  the  18th  century. 

I.  Poll.  2—9.  A  fragment  of  the  Bun- 
dehesh,  namely,  chapter  xviii.  and  portions 
of  chapters  xix.  and  xx.,  in  Pehlevi,  with 
interlinear  transcriptions  in  Persian  charac- 
ters, and  with  Persian  paraphrase. 

-^^o*        uV?"  ^^•^  'i--»b  jwlj  ^jjM 

II.  Poll.  10—17.  The  beginning  of  Shi- 
kand  Gumani  Guzar,j\j^  ^j^  jo^,  in  Peh- 
levi and  Persian,  as  above. 

III.  Poll.  18—49.  A  Zend-Sanscrit-Per- 
sian vocabulary,  with  the  heading  :  jjj  oU3 
(J1a-»\  OjSL-*>  cjU!  ^y\y  b .  It  is  written  in 
three  columns ;  the  first  contains  the  Zend 
words  in  the  original  character,  with  a  Persian 
transcription  underneath ;  the  second  the 
Sanscrit  words  in  Devanagari,  also  accom- 
panied with  a  transcription,  on  the  first  page 
in  GujaratI,  and  on  the  others  in  Persian 
characters;  the  third,  the  Persian  equivalents. 

It  must  be  noticed,  however,  that  the 
second  column  contains  many  words  which 
are  not  Sanscrit  at  all,  but  only  Zend  words 
transcribed  in  Devanagari. 

The  words  are  arranged  roughly  by  sub- 
jects, but  without  any  division  into  classes. 

IV.  Poll.  50 — 53.  Some  remarks  on  the 
Zend  letters  and  on  the  permutations  whicli 
they  undergo  in  Zend  and  in  the  cognate 
Persian  and  Sanscrit  words. 

h2 


52 


PARSISM. 


Beg.    idl*  J  y  jjjU  C^jyAi  t— »jt»-  J^    a^\si 

This  MS.  has  been  described  by  Professor 
Sachau,  "  Contributions  "  etc.,  p.  282,  and 
by  Dr.  Justi  in  his  Introduction  to  the  Bun- 
dehesh,  p.  17. 

Add.  22,379. 

Poll.  39;  9i  in.  by  5^;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik,  by  the 
same  hand  as  the  preceding,  in  the  18th 
century. 

A  Pehlevi-Persian  vocabulary,  without 
author's  name. 

Beg.        \jMj\^  JO  ^^^T  O...^ 

A  prologue  of  seven  verses,  in  praise  of  a 
king,  whose  name  does  not  appear,  is  fol- 
lowed by  the  Pehlevi  and  Zend  alphabets, 
foil.  2  a — 3  a.  The  vocabulary  is  written  in 
four  columns;  the  first  three  contain  the 
Pehlevi  words  written  respectively  in  the 
Pehlevi,  Zend,  and  Persian  characters ;  the 
fourth  gives  the  Persian  equivalents. 

It  is  arranged  by  order  of  subjects  in 
twenty-four  sections  (Biib),  to  which  are 
added  at  the  end  the  names  of  days  and 
months,  the  numbers  and  the  numerical 
figures. 

This  is  apparently  the  vocabulary  which 
Anquetil's  master,  the  Dastur  Darab  of  Su- 
rat,  arranged  in  alphabetical  order,  and  which 
has  been  published  in  that  form  by  Anquetil, 
Zend  Avesta,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  476 — 526,  and  re- 
produced by  Justi  in  his  Dictionary  of  the 
Bundehesh.  See  Sachau,  "  Contributions " 
etc.,  p.  281. 

The  first  twenty  leaves  are,  more  or  less, 
torn  at  the  bottom. 

Add.  8994. 

Foil.  139  ;  6  in.  by  4 ;  8  lines,  1\  in.  long ; 


written  in  Nestalik,   on    European  papei 
dated  A.H.  1226  (A.D.  1811). 

I.  Foil.  1  J— 37  a.  Ormazd  Yasht,  v.  1— 
33  ;  the  text  in  the  Persian  character,  with 
Persian  paraphrase  and  commentary. 

II.  Poll.  37  a — 45  h.  Saugand  Niimah, 
»*\i  jj/^,  treating  of  the  cases  in  which  the 
oath  should  be  administered,  and  of  the 
forms  to  be  observed  in  taking  it. 

Beg.    SaiUa-  jil    iSb    liJib    j_^-So    ^_^Jj-«  W    |_j-^ 

III.  Poll,  46  a — 61  a.  Rivayat,  or  ordi- 
nances relating  to  the  legal  obligations  and 
religious  observances  of  the  Parsis. 

Beg.  ,_s^.  u,j  t?V  "^yjirK  '^'^./  uih  u^-'^j'^ 

IV.  Poll.  61  b — 73  b.  A  tract  containing 
twenty-three  maxims,  uttered  by  as  many 
sages,  for  the  guidance  of  Nushlrvan,  with 
the  heading :  ji^S^  j  j.^  j^^rjjyi  «^^  ti^s*:^ 

y.  Poll.  74  a— 81  b.  A  Persian  para- 
phrase of  the  Ashem  Vohu,  with  commen- 
tary. 

VI.  Poll.  81  5—84  a.  The  wise  sayings 
of  the  sage  Jamasp,  in  answer  to  questions 
put  to  him. 

Beg.  «S    ^J^tiyo  j\  w    «_jk.*»l<>U-  jl  iWiS^  J^j-» 

VII.  Poll.  84  5—99  b.  Moral  teachings 
of  Buzurjmihr.  They  are  in  the  shape  of 
questions  and  answers,  the  interlocutors 
being  Buzurjmihr  and  his  master.  It  is 
stated  in  the  preamble  that  the  former  wrote 
this  tract  by  desire  of  Anushirvan  and  gave  it 
the  name  of  Zafar-Namah. 

VIII.  Poll.  100  a— 104  a.    A  Persian  para- 


PAESISM. 


53 


phrase  of  the  Yata  Ahu  Vairyo,  with  com- 
mentarv. 

IX.  FoU.   104  ft— 139  a. 

The  book  of  Dadar  B.  Dddukht,jbb  v^ 

Beg.  ^\y>-  «I«.|j  ly.j    fti   cX-i^Jkij    uX.  ^^>} 

It  is  said  in  the  preamble  that  the  work 
was  written  by  the  Mobadan  Mobad,  Dadar 
B.  Dadukht,  a  great  sage  of  the  time  of  Sha- 
pur  B.  Ardashir  Babagan,  that  it  was  subse- 
quently translated  from  Pehlevi  into  Persian 
by  the  great  master,  Jahyad  B.  Mihraban, 

u^jv*  i:;^  "^W^  [^^^]  u^  J- V  '^^^^^  >  ^^^  finally 
put  into  more  modern  language  by  the  Mo- 
badan Mobad,  Abu  Nasr  B.  Surushyar. 

It  consists  of  answers  given  by  Dadar  to 
the  questions  put  to  him  by  some  Greek 
physicians  who  had  been  sent  to  Shapur's 
court  by  the  Emperor  (j«^^\,  and  who  are 
said  to  have  been  utterly  discomfited  by  this 
display  of  Zoroastrian  wisdom.  The  ques- 
tions relate  to  the  constitution,  and  various 
functions,  of  the  human  body. 

This  MS.  has  been  fully  described  by  Pro- 
fessor Sachau;  see  his  "  Contributions  "  etc., 
p.  277.  Tlie  date  1858,  however,  there 
assigned  to  the  transcription,  is  evidently 
wrong ;  for  the  MS.  was  purchased  for  the 
Museum  in  1832.     The  sera  of  the  Hijrah,  by 


which  it  is  distinctly  dated,  fol.  104  a,  has 
been  mistaken  for  that  of  Yazdagard. 
Transcriber  :  j>k-»'>  J^j^  jf^'^  '^J  c^jjs*^^ 

The  same  name  appears  in  a  seal  impressed 
on  fol.  73  b,  as  J^jA>  joy>  .iJj  j:^j 

Add.  26,323. 

Poll.  11;  6i  in.  by  4 ;  11  lines,  2^  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Shikastah-Amlz, 
on  English  paper  water-marked  1809. 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

I.  Poll.  2  b—7  a.  A  portion  of  the  15th 
Fargard  of  the  Jad  Div  Dad  (Vendidad 
Sadeh),  containing  ordinances  against  in- 
fanticide, in  the  Pehlevi  text,  with  Persian 
paraphrase  ;  see  Anquetil,  Zend  Avesta, 
Part  2,  p.  393. 

The  heading  is  as  follows :  ^^.ii  ^C  ,iS^^ 

II.  Foil.  7  6—11  a.  Legal  decisions, 
extracted  from  the  Bivayat,  enjoining  on  the 
Zoroastrians  the  duty  of  giving  Parsi  sepul- 
ture to  the  Hindus  whom  they  have  taken  as 
children  into  their  service,  and  brought  up 
in  their  faith. 

Beg.  -fc<i}i-'  Lr^ji  '*'  *'^  i^^  •— *^3jj  '-r'^J^ 


HINDUISM. 


Add.  5616. 

Eoll.  345 ;  9  in.  by  5 ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Indian  Shikastah-amiz  ; 
dated  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1135  (A.D.  1723). 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

"The  Mystery  of  Mysteries,"  a  trans- 
lation of  the  TJpanishads  of  the  four  Vedas 
by  Muhammad  Dara-Shikuh,  i^  y^  ,i.^ 

Beg.  x^  ji  <jlll  (*-J  4^\j  »iaS3  «5  \j  Ji\^  4i.,»- 

Daril-Shikuh,  the  eldest  son  of  Shahjahan, 
was  born  A.H.  1022.  He  was  put  to  death 
by  his  brother  Aurangzib  A.H.  1069. 

The  translator  states  in  the  preface  that, 
during  his  stay  in  Kashmir,  A.H.  1050,  he 
had  become  a  disciple  of  the  great  Sufi, 
Mulla  Shah  (who  died  A.H.  1072;  see 
Or.  360) ;  that  he  had  read  the  principal  works 
on  Suflsm,  and  written  some  himself.  He  pro- 
ceeds to  say  that,  although  he  had  perused 
the  Pentateuch,  the  Gospels,  the  Psalms, 
and  other  sacred  books,  he  had  nowhere 
found  the  doctrine  of  Tauhid,  or  Pantheism, 
explicitly  taught,  but  in  the  Beds  (Vedas), 
and    more    especially    in    the    Upnikhats 


(TJpanishads),  which  contain  their  essence. 
He  wished  therefore  to  render  these  more 
accessible,  and  as  Benares,  the  great  seat  of 
Hindu  learning,  was  then  under  his  rule,  he 
called  together  the  most  learned  Pandits  of 
that  place,  and,  with  their  assistance^  wrote 
"himself"  the  present  translation.  The  task 
was  accomplished,  as  stated  at  the  end,  in 
the  space  of  six  months,  and  was  com- 
pleted in  Delhi,  on  the  29th  of  Ramazan, 
A.H.  1067. 

A  Latin  translation  of  this  work  has  been 
published  with  notes  by  Anquetil  Duperron, 
with  the  following  title :  Oupnekhat  (i.  e. 
Secretum  tegendum)  opus  ipsa  in  India 
rarissimum,  continens  antiquam  et  arcanam 
doctrinam  e  quatuor  sacris  Indorum  libris 
excerptam,  ad  verbum  e  Persico  idiomate  in 
Latinum  conversam,  etc.    Argentorati,  1801. 

The  work  is  called  in  this  MS.  .L-^l  y^ 
(a  title  also  found  in  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  53,  xxii.),  both  in  the  preface  and  in  the 
conclusion;  but  in  the  next  two  copies,  as 
also  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley's 
Collection,  No.  480,  in  a  copy  belonging  to 
King's  College,  Cambridge,  No.  217,  and  in 
Anquetil's  translation,  vol.  i.,  p.  6,  it  bears 
the  title  oi  j^\  jm. 


HINDUISM. 


65 


It  contains  fifty  TJpanisliads,  a  table  of 
•which  is  found  in  the  following  copies. 
Prefixed  is  a  short  glossary  of  those  Sans- 
crit words  which  are  preserved  in  the  Persian 
translation, Jy«^!lJ-.  OUJ  ^^\x} ,  foil.  17, 18;  see 
Anquetil's  Latin  translation,  vol.  i.,  pp.  7  — 
12.  The  first  sixteen  leaves,  and  the  mar- 
gins throughout  the  volume,  contain  copious 
pencil-notes  in  the  hand-writing  of  Halhed. 

See  for  the  names  of  TJpanishads,  Cole- 
brook  Essays,  pp.  91 — 98,  Weber,  Indische 
Studien,  Heft  2,  and  Vorlesungen,  pp.  148 — 
165. 

Add.  5648. 

Poll.  392;  9  in.  by  6^;  15  lines,  B^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik,  probably 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  century. 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  same  work. 

Prefixed  are  the  glossary  of  Sanscrit 
terms,  and  a  table  of  the  fifty  TJpanishads, 
foil.  1  b — 3  a]  but  the  translator's  preface 
is  wanting. 


Or.  1121. 

Poll.  107 ;  9^  in.  by  6i ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Indian  Shikastah-Amiz, 
apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[Warren  Hastings.] 

Thirty- four  TJpanishads,  extracted  from 
the  preceding  work. 

Beg.  «/  'iJi-'yJ    ^W-^.  J^    "^.Wv^,   i_JLl3 

This  volume  contains  the  TJpanishads 
belonging  to  the  Atharva-Veda,  to  the 
exclusion  of  the  others,  beginning  with  the 
Sarb  and  ending  with  the  Narsingh.  Their 
arrangement,  which  diifers  from  that  of  the 
preceding  copies  or  Anquetil's  translation, 
is  the  following :  Upanishad  vi.,  fol.  1 ; 
ix.,  fol.  4 ;  X.,  fol.  9 ;  xxxi. — xxxvi.,  fol.  12 ; 


iv.,  fol.  22  ;  xliii.,  fol.  29 ;  xxiii. — xxix., 
fol.  31;  xiv. — xvL,  fol.  46;  xviii.,  fol.  58; 
XX. — xxi.,  fol.  61 ;  vii.,  fol.  63 ;  xvii.,  fol.  65 , 
xlii.,  fol.  66;  xxxvii.,  fol.  67;  xli.,  fol.  77; 
xlvi.— 1.,  foil.  78—107. 

Or.  1248. 

Poll.  314;  12i  in.  by  7|;  15  Hnes,  4J  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  1219,  March,  A.D.  1805,  Samvat  1861. 

The  Ramayana  of  Valmiki,  translated  into 
l^ersian  prose. 
Beg.  ujby^j^j  s^  jkJUJ  (_/i^  S'V^-^  '^^j^j^^ji 
liJilji-  f^S^])  ]/^  ii  j^ft^  JJJ6  Ja>\  ^J^  j^  (Jl*-»\ 
Contents. — Introduction  ;  Valmiki's  con- 
versation with  Narada;  invention  of  the 
Sloka  and  composition  of  the  poem ;  its 
recitation  by  Kusa  and  Lava;  its  division 
into  seven  Kandas  and  summary  of  their 
contents  (Gorresio's  translation,  vol.  i., 
pp.  1 — 28) ;  fol.  1  : — Bala-Kanda,  m^  Jb, 
fol.  12;  Ayodhya-Kanda,  .wo  Uiij»-1,  fol.  55; 
Aranya-Kanda,  jjl_^  ^^S ,  fol.  95 ;  Klish- 
kindhya-Kanda,  jJU*  \jS-^JL^,  fol.  121 ; 
Sundara-Kanda,  jjli^joJuJ,  fol.  146  ;  Yuddha 
Kanda  (without  heading),  fol.  179  ;  TJttara 
Kanda,  jji/yj\ ,  fol.  255. 

The  Kandas  are  subdivided  into  short 
sections  headed  ^J\AJl\  (Adhyaya).  These 
are  not  numbered,  except  in  the  last  Kanda, 
in  which  they  amount  to  one  hundred  and 
ten. 

The  translation  is  far  from  literal.  The 
wordy  exuberance  of  the  original  is  much 
reduced,  but  the  substance  of  the  narrative 
is  faithfully  rendered.  Some  explanations  re- 
specting Indian  traditions  are  added  by  the 
translator,  who  speaks  of  what  the  Hindus 
assert,  (^^jJ-3»  *cj  jJ,  in  the  tone  of  one  who 
does  not  belong  to  them. 


d6 


HINDUISM. 


It  is  known  that  Mulla  *Abd  ul-Kadir 
Badii'uni  translated  the  Kamayana  by  com- 
mand of  Akbar.  He  states  himself  in  his 
Muntakhab  ut-Tavarikh  (see  Elliot's  His- 
tory of  India,  vol.  v.,  p.  539),  that  he  was 
engaged  four  years  on  that  M'ork,  and  com- 
pleted it  A.H.  999.  It  is  not  impossible 
that  the  present  MS.  may  contain  his 
version. 

An  abridged  translation  of  the  Ramayana, 
written  A.H.  1097,  by  Chandraman,  son  of 
Sri  Ram,  occurs  in  the  Mackenzie  Collection, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  144. 

Or.  1249. 

Foil.  267 ;  12^  in.  by  8;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Benares, 
November,  1804. 


L^M 


5JWU1 J 

The  Eamayana  of  Tulsi-Das,  translated 
from  Hindi  into  Persian  prose  by  Debidas, 
or  Devi-Dasa,  Kayath,  ayjlS  ;_^b  ^d 

Beg.  \Z^  j\  t^  j^  A  ^JJM  s\:^iv  I*  <i^*^ 

The  Eamayan  of  Tulsidas  is  a  free  imi- 
tation of  the  Sanscrit  poem.  It  was  com- 
menced at  Benares  A.D.  1575.  The  author 
died  in  1624.  SeeWOson,  Asiatic  Researches, 
vol.  xvi.,  p.  48,  and  Garcin  de  Tassy,  Litt(^ra- 
ture  Hindoui,  vol.  i.,  p.  509.  The  second 
volume  of  the  latter  work  contains  a  trans- 
lation of  the  Sundara  Kanda  of  Tulsidas, 
pp.  215—272. 

This  version  is  divided,  like  the  original, 
into  the  following  seven  Kandas  :  Bala- 
Kanda,  jj\5^  Jb  ,  fol.  1.  This  Kanda  begins 
vvith  a  long  introduction,  in  which  Rama  is 
glorified  in  a  dialogue  between  Sankara  and 
Parvati.  Ay odhya- Kanda, .ii  li^Ufcji^\,  fol.  67; 
Aranya- Kanda,  ^^  oJ,< ,  fol.  129 ;  Kish- 
.rndhya-K5,nda,  jjli'^  jJiS',  fol.  147;  Sundara- 
'.anda,  jJ>i/jAa-»,  fol.  157;    Lanka- Kanda, 


jii;  ^  ,   fol.  174 ;    Uttara-Kanda,  jjli'  yj\ , 
fol.  210. 

Two  episodes  connected  with  Rama's  his- 
tory have  been  added  by  Debidas  from  other 
sources : — 

1.  The  history  of  Lava  and  Kusha,  ^  i^ 
^JS.^J,  from  the  Jaimini-Purana,  ij\,Jii,rH!->  (i-6. 
Kusalavopakhyanam  ;  see  Jaimini-Bliarata, 
Weber,  Berlin  Catal.  p.  115) ;  fol.  247. 

2.  The  episode  of  Sulochana,  i^uS-Ho- 
yli>.y^ ,  wife  of  Meghavada,  who  was  slain 
by  Lakshmana;  fol.  258. 

Copyist :  t/jV  *^^  u^^ 

Four  leaves  of  smaller  size  added  at  the 
end,  foil.  264 — 267,  contain  an  abridged  ver- 
sion of  the  episode  of  Duryodhana  and  the 
Rishi  Dvu'vasas,  UibjJ,  from  the  Mahabha- 
rata. 

Or.  1251. 

Foil.  242 ;  12^  in.  by  7| ;  12  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Benares, 
Jumada  I.,  A.D.  1804. 

An  abridged  version  of  the  Eamayana,  in 
Ma§navi  verse. 
Author  :   Girdhar-Das,  (_>«b  ^li/ 
Beg.        \y\s--  i:>jJLit  ^!^  Jl*  J  U5 

The  author  belonged,  as  he  states  himself, 
fol.  6  b,  to  the  Kayath  tribe,  and  lived  in 
Dehli.  He  devotes  a  section  of  his  intro- 
duction, fol.  3  5,  to  the  praise  of  the  reigning 
sovereign,  Jahangir.  His  version  is  not 
divided,  like  the  preceding,  into  Kandas, 
but  into  shorter  sections  with  rubrics. 

It  consists,  as  stated  in  the  concluding 
lines,  of  5900  distichs,  and  was  completed  in 
A.H.  1036,  corresponding  to  the  year  1681 
of  Bikramajit. 

A  poetical  version  of  the  Ramayana  is 
mentioned,  without  author's  name,  in  the 


.HINDUISM. 


57 


Catalogue  of  Sir  "Wm.  Ouscley's  Collection, 
No.  74. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  written  the  name  of 
John  Bridge,  with  the  following  note  :  "An 
ancient  Indian  book,  formerly  belonging 
to  Col.  Charles  Stuart,  afterwards  General 
Stuart." 

Add.  5638-5640. 

Three  volumes,  perfectly  uniform,  and 
containing  respectively  foil.  413,  371,  and 
440 ;  15^  in.  by  9| ;  22  lines,  5|  in.  long ; 
written  by  the  same  hand,  in  large  Nestalik, 
with  ruled  margins ;  dated  Muradabad,  from 
Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  1175,  to  Eabi'  I.,  A.H.  1177 
(A.D.  1761—3).  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  Persian  version  of  the  Mahabharata, 
with  a  Preface  by  Abul-Pazl. 


Beg.  of  Preface ; 


(Jl^wii^ 


*  y  Jr-  j 


y.  o.  ^s^  J 


After  a  long  encomium  on  Akbar,  Abul- 
Pazl  says  that,  having  observed  the  fanatical 
hatred  prevailing  between  Hindus  and  Mus- 
sulmans, and  convinced  that  it  arose  only 
from  their  mutual  ignorance,  that  enlightened 
monarch  wished  to  dispel  the  same  by  ren- 
dering the  books  of  the  former  accessible  to 
the  latter.  He  selected  in  the  first  instance 
the  Mahabharata  as  the  most  comprehensive, 
and  that  which  enjoyed  the  highest  authority, 
and  ordered  it  to  be  translated  by  competent 
and  impartial  men  of  both  nations.  By  this 
means  he  wished  also  to  show  to  the  Hindiis 
that  some  of  their  grossest  errors  and  super- 
stitions had  no  foundation  in  their  ancient 
books,  and  further  to  convince  the  Mussul- 
mans of  their  folly  in  assigning  to  the  past 
existence  of  the  world  so  short  a  span  of 
time  as  seven  thousand  years. 

Abul-Fazl  then  gives  a  general  sketch  of 
the  Hindii  system  of  cosmogony  and  of  the 


contents  of  the  poem.  From  a  mention  of 
the  current  year,  fol.  11  a,  it  appears  that 
this  preface  was  written  in  A.H.  995. 

'Abd  ul-Kadir  Bada'uni,  one  of  the  trans- 
lators, says,  in  his  Muntakhab  ul-Tavarikh, 
that  the  order  for  the  translation  was  given 
by  Akbar  in  A.H.  990,  and  that  he  himself, 
Nakib  Khan,  Mulla  Shah,  and  Muhammad- 
Sultan  Thanesari,  wrote  a  literal  version, 
which  was  then  turned  into  elegant  prose  by 
Paizi.  (See  Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  v., 
pp.  537  and  571 ;  A'in  i  Akbari,  Blochmann's 
translation,  p.  104.)  The  title  of  Eazm- 
Namah,  which,  according  to  him,  was  given 
to  the  version,  is  not  found  in  this  copy. 

In  the  conclusion  of  a  copy  described 
below.  Add.  5642,  fol.  481  6,  Nakib  Khan, 
who  there  calls  himself  Ibn  'Abd  ul-LatIf  ul- 
Husaini,  says  that  he  had  translated  the 
whole  work  from  Sanscrit  by  order  of  Akbar 
in  the  space  of  one  year  and  a  half,  and  that 
he  completed  it  in  Sha'ban,  A.H.  992.  He 
adds  that  he  was  assisted  by  some  Brahmans, 
whom  he  calls  ^^dyjt^  j  ^bj'cu»»  j  j^a*  ^^i 

UJ  V  ^  3  ^ivij^  3  j^ '  i-  e.  Devi-Misra, 
Satavadhiina,  Madhusiidana-Misra,  Chatur- 
bhuja  and  Bhavan. 

It  is  curious  to  find  that  the  principal  trans- 
lator of  the  Hindu  epos  was  a  Mohammedan 
Sayyid  of  Persian  birth.  Nakib  Khan's  father, 
Mir  'Abd  ul-Latif,  son  of  the  well-known  his- 
torian, Mir  Yahya  of  Kazvin  (see  Lubb  ut-Ta- 
varikh,  Or.  140),  repaired  from  Persia,  where 
he  was  persecuted  as  a  Sunni,  to  the  court  of 
Humayiin,  which  he  reached,  however,  only 
after  that  monarch's  death,  in  A.H.  963. 
He  was  well  received  by  Akbar,  who  took 
him  for  his  tutor.  His  son,  Mir  Ghiya§  ud- 
Din  'All,  became  a  great  favourite  with  Ak- 
bar, who  conferred  on  him  the  title  of  Nakib 
Khan  in  A.H.  988.  He  died  at  Ajmir  in  the 
9th  year  of  Jahangir,  A.H.  1023.  See  A'in 
i  Akbari,  Blochmann's  translation,  p.  447 ; 
Maasir  ul-Umara,  Add.  6568,  fol.  561  b ;  and 


58 


HINDUISM. 


Tazkirat  ul-TJmara,  Add.  16,703,  fol.  161  a. 
In  the  latter  work  Nakib  Khan  is  designated 
as  the  translator  of  the  Mahabharata. 

Add.  5638  contains  the  Preface  and  Par- 
vas  i.— iv. ;  Add.  6639,  Parvas  v.— xii.;  and 
Add.  5640,  Parvas  xiii. — xviii. 

This  copy  was  written  for  Eae  Bahadur 
Singh,  in  Muxadabad. 

Copyist :  JJ>f\  ^y  J^  c^\J'  ^j  ^^  ^^ 

These  three  volumes  contain  respectively 
68,  36,  and  30  whole-page  miniatures,  in 
fair  Indian  style.  They  bear  the  Persian 
stamp  of  Chief  Justice  Sir  Elijah  Impey, 
with  the  date  1775,  and  of  Thomas  Edwards, 
Bahadur,  with  the  date  1777. 

Two  diflferent  versions  of  the  Mahabharata 
are  mentioned  in  the  Mackenzie  Collection, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  143, 

Add.  5641,  5642. 

Two  volumes,  containing  respectively  foil. 
870  and  481 ;  11^  in.  by  64  ;  27  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  by  the  same  hand  in  fair, 
small  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled 
margins;  dated  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1007  (A.D. 
1599).  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  same  version,  complete  in  two  vo- 
lumes. 

Add.  5641  contains  Abul  Pazl's  preface 
and  Parvas  i. — xi.  Prefixed,  foil.  7 — 14,  is  a 
very  full  table  of  the  contents  of  the  whole 
work  in  Persian,  with  references  to  the 
folios  of  the  present  copy.  It  is  stated,  at 
the  end,  that  it  was  compiled  by  Basant 
Rae,  son  of  Kasiram,  son  of  Haemal,  a  Kayath 
in  the  service  of  Shayistah  Khan,  in  the 
31st  year  of  Aurangzib,  i.  e.  A.H.  1098. 

Six  leaves  at  the  beginning  contain  a 
descriptive  list,  by  N.  B.  Halhed,  of  the 
first  97  miniatures  of  the  preceding  copy 
(Add.  5638 — 40),  which  illustrate  the  part 
of  the  work  contained  in  the  present  volume. 


Add.  5642  contains  Parvas  xii.— xviii. 
Prefixed  is  the  continuation  of  the  above 
descriptive  list  of  miniatiires,  from  the  98th 
to  the  128th. 

Both  volumes  bear  copious  marginal  notes 
in  the  handwriting  of  Halhed. 

An  English  abstract  of  the  Mahabharata, 
derived  from  the  present  version  by  Halhed, 
in  1791,  is  to  be  found  in  Add.  5657,  foil. 
1—18. 

Add.  16,870. 

EoU.  283 ;  19  in.  by  8 ;  29  lines,  7^  in. 
long ;  written  in  very  close  Indian  Shikastah; 
dated  from  Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1218,  to  Safar, 
A.H.  1219  (A.D.  1803—4).        [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work,  complete  in  one  volume. 

Add.  16,873. 

Poll.  80 ;  10  in.  by  6^ ;  12  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  about  the  close 
of  the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  Persian  translation  of  the  Viriita-Parva, 
or  Parva  iv.,  of  the  Mahabharata. 

Beg.  J»i,y^j>-  o-yj^  i^  ^^  ^J^JJi  C^,_5^r*-»^ 

This  version  is  different  from  the  pre- 
ceding; it  is  much  fuller,  and  keeps  closer 
to  the  text. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  written,  in  the  hand  of 
Major  Yule :  "  Bought  at  the  sale  of  Gen. 
Martin's  effects,  Lucnow,  1802." 

Add.  7036. 

Foil.  206;  12^  in.  by  7f;  written  by 
J.  Haddon  Hindley,  A.D.  1798. 

Notes  on  the  Mahabhjirata  in  English,  with 
some  short  extracts  in  Persian.  They  are 
chiefly  transcribed  from  Halhed's  marginal 
notes  in  Add.  5641-2.  Foil.  187—206 
contain  an  alphabetical  index  of  Sanscrit 
words  and  proper  names. 


HINDUISM. 


59 


Add.  7676. 

Foil.  55;  7|  in.  by  6|;  15  lines  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Shikastali ;  dated  Benares, 
Samat  1822  (A.D.  1765).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  Gita,  i.  e.  Bhagavad-Gita,  translated 
from  Sanscrit  into  Persian  prose.  The 
translation  is  ascribed  in  the  following  head- 
ing to  Abul-Eazl : 

^^J-i.f»  s^..^  ^J>,  ^^.  J/1  *^  ^  ^  j^  4)VV 
Beg.   sfrjj*  tS  <Zj~t<s  j^  iS  c^ y^\  O;*o 

t^    ^j>\^3i   i^^jJJ^.  0&U?-    J    ^^     |»i>;*     C^-JjlS^XJ 

This  version  of  the  Gita  is  no  part  of  the 
translation  of  the  Mahiibharata  written  for 
Akbar,  for  in  the  latter  the  whole  episode  is 
condensed  into  a  few  pages  :  see  Add.  5639, 
foil.  78 — 80.  The  present  version,  on  the 
contrary,  is  full,  and  follows  the  text  very 
closely.  It  is  not  mentioned  amongst  the 
translations  made  for  Akbar  :  see  A'in  i  Ak- 
bari,  Blochmann's  translation,  p.  104. 

A  Persian  version  of  the  same  work,  in 
18  chapters,  is  mentioned  by  Aumer,  Munich 
Catalogue,  p.  140  ;  another  ascribed  to  Abul- 
Pazl  is  found  in  the  Library  of  King's  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  No.  14. 

Copyist:  obUl  j^U  ^jS  a^.\i  ^Ij jJLJj^ 

Add.  5651. 

Foil.  47  ;  8  in.  by  5.  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

I.  Poll.  1—35;  15  lines,  3^  in.  long; 
written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Shahjahanabad, 
Jumada  I,,  the  25th  year  of  Muhammad 
Shah,  A.H.  1155  (A.D.  1742). 

Another  translation  of  the  Bhagavad-Gita. 

This  version,  which  differs  from  the  pre- 
ceding,  is    also  ascribed,  in  the  following 


short  preamble,  to  Abul-Pazl,  who  is  said  to 
have  written  it  by  permission  of  Akbar : 

^^,^\  j!iU  . . . .  j«ir  ^^U;;  J  j5\*^  i^iku  ojW 

This  statement  is  more  probable  in  this 
case  than  in  the  other,  for  the  present  trans- 
lation is  far  less  literal,  and  written  in  a 
much  more  elegant  Persian.    It  begins  thus : 

^a:   dJJo    JLii'    xlia*    «iU*    ^^\  siS  j  (_>»^y«-    ^J>) 

j!/\     ^y-    jJjS-  j>    ^     J^j     Ij^      y5;-J     t^     ^s>A    >j 

Copyist :   ^^y  ,^1^  ^i^ 

II.  Foil.  36—47 ;  19  lines,  4  in.  long  ;  writ- 
ten in  Indian  Shikastah-Amiz ;  dated  the  4th 
year  of  'Alamgir  II.  (A.H.  1170,  A.D.  1757). 

Two  extracts  from  Sanscrit  works,  in 
Persian  translation.    The  first,  foil.  36 — 39, 

is  headed,  sS  oL*^  ^  ^jii  i— >V  »J)/-»  ej^ 

It  treats  of  the  breath  of  the  right  and 
left  nostrils,  and  of  the  hidden  virtues  of 
each. 

The  second,  foil.  40 — 47,  bears  the  follow- 
ing title  :     (— '^^    \\   O,^  ai   CL*-»  eijfi  «-»9-y 

It  is  a  dialogue  between  a  Guru  called 
Goraksha  and  his  disciple,  on  deliverance 
from  the  bonds  of  this  perishable  world. 

See  Gorakshasatakam,  Aufrecht,  Bodleian. 
Catalogue,  p.  236. 

Copyist :  ^^y  «Sou-  <^J 

Add.  6607. 

Foil.  139 ;  10  in.  by  6| ;  19  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  dated  Sironj 
(Malvah),  in  the  reign  of  Aurangzib,  Rajab, 
A.H.  1110  (A.D.  1699).  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

i2 


60 


HINDUISM. 


The  tenth  Skandha  of  the  Bhagavata 
Purana,  or  the  legend  of  Krishna,  translated 
into  Persian  prose.  It  is  divided  into  ninety 
Adhyayas,  the  first  two  of  which  are 
wanting  in  this  copy.  The  third  begins 
thus: 

At  the  end  is  a  table  of  chapters,  in 
the  handwriting  of  the  transcriber,  the 
latter  portion  of  which  is  lost. 

This  copy  was  transcribed,  as  stated  in 
the  subscription,  from  a  MS.  in  the  library  of 
Rajah  Ram,  son  of  Jagajjivan  Das,  Kayath, 
Kanungo  of  Chanderi,  Subah  of  Malvah. 

Copyist :  ^^is  d^  V^  *— "^  i:rt/  f)j 

On  fol.  136  b  is  written  the  name  of  a 
former  owner,  P.  Bradshaw,  with  the  date 
1758. 

A  condensed  English  translation  of  the 
Persian  version,  written  by  Halbed  in  1791, 
is  to  be  found  in  Add.  5657,  foil.  18—111, 
and  a  transcript  of  it  by  J.  H.  Hindi ey  in 
Add.  7025—7027.  The  copy  upon  which  it 
was  made  contained  an  introduction,  want- 
ing in  the  present  MS.,  and  in  which  the 
translation  was  ascribed  to  Faizl. 

An  earlier  Persian  version  of  the  Bhaga- 
vata Purana  is  mentioned  by  Aumer,  Miinich 
Catalogue,  p.  140,  No.  351.  There  is  also 
one  in  two  volumes  in  the  library  of  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  No.  62. 

The  Bhagavata  Purana  has  been  edited, 
with  a  French  translation,  by  Burnouf, 
Paris,  1840. 

Add.  5650. 

Foil.  220;  84  in.  by  5;  12  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Indian  Shikastah- 


Amiz,    about  the  beginning  of   the    18th 
century.  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  same  translation. 

Beg.  ^_^lil»  Jj  J  ij^y  Lf/-  C^^  Jj^  cf^'i^ 

^_ffjM>    m}j>-    »5j\jJ     «!»»-  j\  ^5   «i    lO^Y^^   «»-]j    *s 

This  copy  breaks  off  in  the  beginning  of 
the  88th  Adhyaya. 

It  has  some  pencil  notes,  written  by 
N.  B.  Halhed,  in  the  margins. 

Or.  1122. 

FoU.  48;  111  in.  by  8^;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  In- 
dia, in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  century. 

[Warren  Hastings.] 

Fragment  of  an  account  of  some  legendary 
kings  of  India,  apparently  derived  from  some 
Purana.  It  begins  with  the  story  relating 
to  king  Sagara,  the  Eisbi  Aurva,  and  the 
Asvamedha  performed  by  the  former.  The 
latter  part,  foil.  14 — 48,  is  entirely  taken  up 
with  the  history  of  Rama,  and  breaks  off  in 
the  account  of  the  first  day's  battle  before 
Lanka. 

Beg.  JIp  ^^  j  oiUwi  J^j/^i  ^^  tc\^  ^li 

*^1)  f*"^  u]}^   '^Ay^    «»-^    M^'^  j^  «aki  j\   lib 

The  story  of  Sagara  and  Aurva  is  told  at 
length  in  the  Vishnu  Purana :  see  Wilson's 
Works,  vol.  viii.,  pp.  80—198. 

An  account  of  Rama  and  his  ancestors 
forms  part  of  the  Padma  Purana:  see 
Wilson's  works,  Analysis  of  the  Puranas, 
vol.  iii.,  p.  46. 

Add.  564:4:. 

FoU.  513;  12 J  in.  by  8^;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik  in  India, 
apparently  in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th 
century.  [n.  B.  Halhed.] 


HINDUISM. 


61 


"Jog-Bashishth,"  (Yoga-Vasishtha),  an  ex- 
position of  Hindu  gnosticism,  in  the  form 
of  a  dialogue  between  the  Rishi  Yiisishtha 
and  Ramachandra,  translated  from  the 
Sanscrit, 

Beg.  wl*^ ja-  oU  o.ia-j  jii  \jSxi>  ij'-Uiy 

This  translation,  whose  author  is  not 
named,  was  made,  as  stated  in  the  preamble, 
from  an  abridgment,  by  a  Kashmir  Pandit, 
called  Anandan,  ^li  ^^^j^\  ijjx*^  i^  JJ^>  of  the 
original  work,  Yoga-Vasishtha.  It  is  divided 
into  six  books,  called  Prakaranas  ^JJiJi ,  and 
subdivided  into  Sargas  td)^.  The  six  parts 
are  the  following : 

Vairagya-Prakarana,  ^^^^  ^\;r:>,  fol.  8  a. 

Mumukshu-Prakarana,  ^^/Ji^  &^s^^,foL  53  b. 

TJtpatti-Prakarana,  ^^JQ^  i-Z^\,  fol.  68  b. 

Sthiti-Prakarana,.  ^j^i^  <.l*4l-»^  fol.  186  a. 

Upasama-Prakarana,  j^^i^  Ji^\ ,  fol.  193  b. 

Nirvana- Prakarana,  ^^Jy>^  Joy,  fol.  326  b. 

The  abbreviator,  Anandan,  states  in  his 
introduction,  fol.  7  b,  that  the  original  work, 
as  dictated  by  Valmiki,  and  written  down  by 
Bhrigu,  consisted  of  thirty-two  thousand 
Slokas,  and  that  he  had  reduced  it  to  six 
.  thousand,  and  divided  it  into  the  six  books 
above  mentioned. 

See  Aufrecht,  Catalogue  of  the  Bodl.  MSS., 
p.  353,  and  Weber,  Berlin  Catalogue,  p.  187. 

This  copy  contains  numerous  marginal 
notes  in  pencil,  in  the  handwriting  of 
Halhed. 

A  version  of  the  same  work,  mentioned  in 
Dr.  D.  Forbes'  Catalogue,  p.  61,  is  said  to 
have  been  written  by  order  of  Dara-Shikuh. 
See  also  Biblioth.  Sprenger.,  No.  1661,  and 
the  Catalogue  of  King's  CoUege,  Cambridge, 
No.  28. 


Add.    5637. 

Foil.  155 ;  9|  in.  by  6 ;  15  lines,  3^  and 
4|  in.  long ;  written  by  two  hands,  in  Nes- 
talik  and  in  Shikastah-Amlz ;  dated  Rabi'  I., 
the  26th  year  (of  Shah  'Alam),  Fasli  1192 
(A.D.  1784).  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

Jog-Bashishth,  an  abridged  version  of  the 
same  work. 

Beg.  jii  ftS  Cjj>a>-  JjJ>  |,W>  {J^}^  J  (_)«^ 

It  is  stated  in  the  preamble  that  former 
tra-nslators,  although  giving  a  literal  render- 
ing of  the  Sanscrit  text,  had  failed  to  pene- 
trate its  real  meaning.  Akbar,  having  ex- 
pressed in  his  court,  in  A.H.  1006,  his  wish 
to  procure  a  truer  version,  a  desire  which 
was  increased  by  a  vision  in  which  the  holy 
interlocutors  Vasishtha  and  Ramachandra 
themselves  had  appeared  to  him,  one  of  the 
persons  present  undertook  the  task,  and 
carried  it  out  with  the  assistance  of  some 
learned  Hindus. 

On  the  iiy-leaf  is  written,  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Halhed :  "  The  gift  of  Lala  Her- 
jis  Ray." 

Add.  7030  and  7031. 

Two  volumes,  containing  respectively  foil. 
45  and  24;  7  in.  by  4J;  about  20  lines; 
written,  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only,  by 
the  Rev.  J.  Haddon  Hindley,  in  1805. 

A  short  abstract  of  the  Jog-Bashishth  in 
English,  being  a  transcript  of  Halhed's  mar- 
ginal notes  in  Add.  5644,  with  some  names 
and  short  notes  in  Persian. 

Add.  16,868. 

FoU.  246 ;  10^  in.  by  6J ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 


62 


HINDUISM. 


0J^\    sJj- 

An  exposition  of  some  of  the  elegant  arts 
and  sciences  of  the  Hindus. 

Author :  Mirza  Muhammad  B.  Fakhr  ud- 
din  Muhammad  o^  (^_jJt  jSi  ^Ji  x^  ]j^ 

Beg.  ^_/fjil>-  jjo  U\ (j^^^  i-j,  4JI  jji 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that  he 
wrote  the  present  work,  in  the  reign  of 
*Alamgir,  by  desire  of  Kiikultash  Khan,  for 
the  use  of  Prince  Muhammad  Mu'izz  ud-Din 
Jahandar  Shah. 

Kukultash  Khan  governed  the  province 
of  Multan  in  the  name  of  that  young  prince, 
the  eldest  son,  and  aftei-vrards  the  successor, 
of  Shah  'Alam,  who  was  horn  A.H.  1071. 
As  the  title  of  Khanjahan,  which  Kukultash 
received  in  A.H.  1086,  is  not  mentioned 
here,  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  work  was 
written  before  that  date.  See  Maa§ir  Alam- 
giri,  p.  142,  and  Maagir  ul-Umara,  Add. 
6567,  fol.  194. 

It  is  divided  into  an  Introduction  (Mu- 
kaddimah)  and  seven  Chapters  (Bab),  as 
follows : — 

Mukaddimah,  Hindu  system  of  writing, 
fol.  3  a.  Bab  1.  Prosody  (Pingal),  fol.  43  b. 
2.  Ehyme  (Tuk),  fol.  123  a.  3.  Figures  of 
speech  (Alankar),  fol.  137  a.  4.  The  theory 
of  love  (Singar-ras),  fol.  155  a.  5.  Music 
(Sangit),  fol.  169  a.  6.  The  theory  of  sexual 
pleasure  (Kok).  7.  Physiognomy,  or  the 
art  of  interpreting  the  outward  appearances 
of  men  (Samudrik).  The  last  two  chapters 
are  wanting  in  this  MS. 

All  the  technical  terms  of  the  above 
sciences  are  given  in  their  Sanscrit  form, 
and  spelt  at  full  length. 

The  "  Present  from  India,"  ascribed  to 
Mirza  Khan  by  Sir  Wm.  Jones,  Asiatic 
Eesearches,  vol.  iii.,  p.  65,  is,  no  doubt,  the 
same  work. 

Copies  of  the  Tuhfat  ul-Hind  are  men- 
tioned in  the  Bibl.  Sprenger.,  No.  1655-6, 


and  in  the   Catalogue  of   King's   College, 
Cambridge,  No.  217. 

Egerton  1027. 

Foil.  40 ;  9  in.  by  6 ;  15  lines,  4 J  in.  long ; 
written  in  cursive  Nestalik ;  dated  Ajodhiya 
(Oude),  Rajab,  A.H.  1180  (A.D.  1766). 

An  account  of  the  holy  land  of  Braj,  and 
of  all  the  places  consecrated  by  the  memories 
of  Goprd,  or  Krishna. 

Author:  Rup-Narayan,  son  of  Hariram, 
Khatri  of  Siyalkut,  ^jjx^  Jj>^  Jj  ^,i^lj  <— ^jj 

Beg.    ^  {J^jy^'^h    {J>j    *^'i  ^J\^;J^^  j> 

The  author,  a  devout  worshipper  of  Gopal, 
or,  as  he  is  frequently  called  here,  ^^.iiK^, 
had  spent  four  or  five  years  at  the  holy  shrines 
of  Braj.  He  wrote  the  present  work,  which 
is  also  designated  by  the  name  of  Jl^  -j>, 
or  Vraja-Mahatmya,  in  Lahore,  A.H.  1129, 
a  date  expressed  by  the  title  ^J^J>i>^  ^ys^ 

Copyist :  a.^  '-r!/** 

Add.  5646. 

Foil.  211 ;  lOi  in.  by  8 ;  9  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  large  and  fair  Nestalik, 
with  two  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
iu  the  latter  part  of  the  18th  century. 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

A  code  of  Hindu  laws,  compiled  from 
Sanscrit  sources,  with  a  preface  by  Zain  ud- 
D'm  'All  Ea;Sa'i  ^'^j  ^  ij;J.jJ^  j^j 

Beg.  yli\^  ^j*^  J  j^  j^jj  ulA*^    "^^^  y. 

An  English  translation  of  this  work  has 
been  published  with  the  following  title  : 
"  Code  of  Gentoo  Laws,  from  a  Persian 
translation,  made  from  the  original  written 


.HINDUISM. 


63 


in  the  Shanscrit  language,  by  N.  B.  Halhed," 
London,  1776. 

It  is  stated  in  the  preface  that  the  Gover- 
nor-General, Hastings,  in  order  to  improve 
the  administration  of  justice,  had  directed 
some  learned  Brahmans,  convened  for  that 
purpose,  and  whose  names  are  given  (see 
Halhed's  translation,  p.  6),  to  compile  the 
present  work  from  the  most  approved  San- 
scrit texts,  and  that  it  was  subsequently- 
translated  from  Sanscrit  into  Persian. 

The  preface  is  followed  by  two  introduc- 
tory chapters  treating  of  the  origin  of  the 
Hindu  castes,  fol.  4,  and  of  the  duties  of  the 
ruler,  fol.  1 3,  after  which  is  found  a  table  of 
contents,  fol.  21 — 23,  and,  at  the  end  of 
the  latter,  the  following  list  of  the  Sanscrit 
works  used  for  this  compilation :  ^^j  i>^. 

J\  \^.y\/o  ,\.^jl_)  J}). ,  i-  e.  Vivada-Eatnakara, 
Vivada-Chintamani,  Niti-Chintamani,  Daya- 
Tattva,  Vyavahara-Tattva,  Dharma-Ratna, 
Vyavahara-Matrika,  etc.  The  date  of  com- 
position is  indicated  by  three  versified  chro- 
nograms at  the  end  of  the  preface,  but  they 
are  incorrectly  written  in  the  present  copy. 
According  to  Halhed's  translation,  p.  5,  the 
work  was  begun  in  May,  1773,  and  finished 
in  Pebruary,  1775. 

Add.  5654. 

Poll.  112 ;  lOf  in.  by  7,f ;  17  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  Nestalik, 
apparently  in  the  latter  part  of  the  18th 
century.  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

A  treatise  on  the  cosmogony,  the  geo- 
graphical and  astronomical  systems,  the 
mythology  and  historical  legends  of  the  Hin- 
dus, compiled  from  Sanscrit  sources. 

Author:  Munshi  Karparam,  Ab^j_jli« 

Beg.  ij'^^^j   jjjUjI   ^<iS  o«^   ^J->  u"^^ 


The  author's  name,  as  well  as  that  of  the 
patron  for  whom  he  wrote  this  work,  are  left 
out  in  the  preface.  Both  are  supplied,  how- 
ever, by  the  following  note,  pencilled  by 
Halhed  at  the  back  of  the  first  page : 

"This  book  was  compiled  by  one  Kar- 
param, of  the  Coit  or  Writer  Cast,  for  Mr. 
Hastings.  This  man  was  a  Moonshy  in  the 
Persian  Translator's  ofl&ce  at  Calcutta.  He 
was  well  versed  in  Hindoo  learning,  and 
his  knowledge  of  the  Persian  and  Arabic, 
added  to  the  Sanscrit  and  Bengalee,  gave 
advantage  over  most  of  the  Pandeets."  The 
work  breaks  ofi"  in  the  middle  of  the  story 
of  Sakuntala. 

'The  words  (_^U5  t-*!,  which  occur  in  the 
preface,  have  been  wrongly  taken  for  the 
title  of  the  book;  they  are  only  used  to 
describe  the  "  marrow "  which  the  author 
had  extracted  from  the  original  works. 

Add.  m^^. 

Poll.  27 ;  11-i  in,  by  n\ ;  17  lines,  5  in. 
long  ;  written  in  ill-shaped  Indian  Shikastah 
Amiz ;  dated  Rabi'  I.,  the  26th  year  (of  Shah 
•Alam),  Pasb  1192  (A.D.  1784). 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

Puranartha-Prakasa,  an  exposition  of  the 
system  of  chronology  and  cosmogony  of  the 
Hindus,  of  their  Shastras,  and  the  genealo- 
gies of  their  kings ;  translated  from  the 
Sanscrit  by  Zuravar  Singh,  BiSjj»jj\jjj 

Beg.  ei   Jio*    Jjj>,  S^KiS'S  JJ-e  j^   ]jiSjy^)   fj>. 

The  translator,  after  a  long  panegyric  on 
Governor-General  Warren  Hastings,  states 
that  the  Sanscrit  original  was  written,  in 
obedience  to  his  commands,  by  the  Chief 
Pandit,  Radhakanta  Tarka,  ^^Hj^,  OjJo 
tiJjj  t::*j/l*<ilj ,  and  that  he  was  himself  di- 
rected by  the   same  exalted  personage  to 


64 


HINDUISM. 


translate  it  into  Persian.  The  margins  con- 
tain notes  in  the  handwriting  of  Mr.  Halhed. 
The  Sanscrit  original,  in  the  Bengali  charac- 
ter, is  found  in  Or.  1124, 

An  English  translation  of  the  Persian 
version,  by  Halhed,  is  preserved  in  Add. 
5657,  foU.  163—194. 

Add.  7022. 

Foil.  275 ;  9  in.  by  7 ;  about  15  lines  in  a 
page ;  written,  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only, 
by  the  Eev.  J.  Haddon  Hindley.  The  paper 
is  water-marked  1813. 

A  transcript  of  the  preceding  MS.,  with 
the  English  translation  of  Halhed,  copied 
from  Add.  5657. 

At  the  end,  foil.  235 — 275,  is  added,  from 
the  same  source,  viz.  Add.  5657,  foil.  195 — 
201,  a  Eajavali,  or  genealogy  of  Hindu  Ra- 
jahs, brought  down  to  A.D.  1666,  in  English 
only. 

Add.  24,035. 

Poll.  53;  9i  in.  by  6;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  about  A.D. 
1812.  [H.  H.  Wilson.] 

An  account  of  the  castes  and  sects  of  the 
Hindus. 

Author :  Mathuranath,  a  Malvah  Brah- 
man, (/jJU  ^^j  i^\>\^ 

Beg.  ^3^  i^J  V^^ij'jlr"  »^(^'i^ 

The  author,  as  we  learn  from  the  preface, 
had  been  dwelling  some  time  at  Benares, 
engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  the  various  Hindu 
sciences,  and  in  the  composition  of  some 
original  treatises.  He  wrote  the  present 
work,  A.D.  1812,  A.H.  1228,  at  the  request 
of  Mr.  John  Glyn  Ji^  ^J^,  with  the  object 
of  obtaining  the  favourable  notice  of  the 
Governor-General,  Lord  Moira.  (Mr.  Robert 
Tho.  John  Glyn  was  at  that  time  registrar  of 
the  city  of  Benares.) 


The  account  begins  with  the  primitive 
castes,  as  instituted  by  the  Vedas ;  but  it 
deals  chiefly  with  the  different  sects  and 
religious  orders,  and  includes  also  those 
which  are  out  of  the  pale  of  Hindu  ortho- 
doxy, as  the  Jainas  and  the  Sikhs.  The 
original  Hindu  names,  in  the  Devanagari 
character,  are  added  throughout  between  the 
lines.  Many  coloured  drawings,  showing  the 
costume  and  appearance  of  the  different 
classes,  are  introduced. 

This  is  one  of  the  main  sources  of  Prof. 
H.  H.  Wilson's  "  Sketch  of  the  religious 
sects  of  the  Hindus."  The  author  is  there 
described  as  "late  librarian  of  the  Hindu 
College  at  Benares,  a  man  of  great  personal 
respectability  and  eminent  acquirements." 
His  work,  it  is  added,  is  the  fullest  and  most 
satisfactory.  See  Wilson's  Works,  vol.  i., 
p.  8. 

Or.  476. 

PoU.  98;  9^  in.  by  6^;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  close  Shikastah- 
Amiz ;  dated  Rajab,  A.H.  1266  (A.D.  1850). 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  full  account  of  the  creeds,  traditions, 
and  sects  of  the  Hindus,  and  of  the  Mussul- 
mans of  India. 

Author :  Muhammad  Hasan,  called  Katil, 

Beg.     >w*    J.u-9   ^^^    J^    JU.^^    ^_^j 

Mirza  Katil  was  born  of  a  Khatri  family 
settled  in  Paizabad,  and  his  first  name  was 
Davali  Singh.  In  his  18th  year  he  was  con- 
verted to  Islamism  by  Mirzci  Bakir  Shalnd 
Isfahan!,  who  bestowed  upon  him  the  name 
of  Muhammad  Hasan  and  the  Takhallus  of 
Katil.  His  poetical  talent  ingratiated  him 
with  the  Navvab  Sa  adat  'Ali  of  Oude.  After 


HINDUISM. 


65 


staying  several  years  in  Dehli,  he  returned 
to  Lucknow,  where  he  held  the  office  of 
Head-Munshi,  and  died  A.H.  1233.  See  the 
Tazkirah  of  Mushafi,  Add.  16,727,  fol.  74, 
and  Sprenger,  Oude  Catalogue,  pp.  170  and 
535. 

It  appears  from  the  preface  that  the 
present  work  was  written  in  the  time  of 
Navvab  Sa'adat  'All  Khan,  and  at  the  request 
of  a  pious  and  learned  Sayyid,  Mirza  Mu- 
hammad Husain,  who  came  from  Karbala 
to  Lucknow  in  A.H.  1228. 

It  is  divided  into  seven  chapters,  termed 
Tamasha,  as  follows  : — 1.  Creeds  of  the 
Smartik  or  orthodox  Hindiis,  fol.  6  a. 
2.  Origin  of  mankind  and  its  divisions, 
fol.  19  a.  3.  Creeds  of  the  heterodox  Hin- 
dus, fol.  24  h.  4.  Festivals  of  the  Hindus, 
fol.  43  a.  5.  Manners  of  the  Hindus, 
fol.  53  a.  6.  Manners  and  laws  of  the 
Mussulmans  of  India,  fol.  69  «.  7.  Curious 
facts  relating  to  Indian  Fakirs,  etc.,  fol.  92  h. 

Add.  27,255. 

Foil.  462;  12J  in.  by  8|;  9  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  and  large  Nestalik,with 
a  rich  double  page  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled 
margins,  A.D.  1825.     [Sir  John  Malcolm.] 


^\y'i\  IJ-. 


An  account  of  the  origin  and  occupations 
of  the  various  castes  and  tribes  of  Hindustan, 
with  native  drawings  representing  their 
appearance  and  costumes. 

Author  :    Colonel   James    Skinner,  JJ/ 

Beg.  ^.^^^  ^j..f\  uVr  ^y^  o-V-J  ^-^  ^. 

James  Skinner  was  born  in  India  in  1778. 
He  was  the  son  of  a  Scotch  officer  in  the 
Company's  Service  and  of  a  Rajput  mother. 
He  served  with  distinction  in  the  Marattah 


armies  under  General  de  Boigne,  and  after- 
wards under  General  Perron,  from  1796  to 
1803,  when  he  took  service  under  Lord 
Lake  and  played  a  prominent  part,  as  leader 
of  irregular  horse,  in  the  military  events  of 
the  period.  He  was  rewarded  in  1827  with 
the  rank  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  in  Her 
Majesty's  army  and  the  title  of  Companion 
of  the  Order  of  the  Bath.  He  died  at 
Hansi  in  1841.  His  friend  Mr.  J.  Baillie 
Fraser  has  published  a  full  and  interesting 
account  of  his  adventurous  career  (London, 
1851),  in  which,  however,  we  find  no  mention 
either  of  the  present  work  or  of  his  Tazkirat 
ul-Umara  (Add.  24,051),  which  wUl  be  de- 
scribed further  on. 

We  learn  from  the  preface  that  the  author 
drew  his  materials  chiefly  from  Sanscrit 
sources,  which  he  caused  to  be  translated 
for  him,  and  that  the  work  was  completed 
in  the  cantonments  of  Hansi,  in  August 
1825,  when  it  was  dedicated  to  General 
Sir  John  Malcolm. 

The  work  is  divided  into  three  books 
(Fasl),  as  foUows : 

Book  I.  contains  a  chronological  account 
of  the  Timuride  Emperors,  from  Timur  to 
Akbarshah,  who  ascended  the  throne  A.H. 
1221 ;  fol.  9  a. 

Book  II.,  which  forms  nearly  the  entire 
bulk  of  the  work,  treats  of  Hindu  castes  ;  it 
is  divided  into  two  parts  (Bab),  the  first  of 
which  comprises  the  lay  or  secular  castes, 
(^IjiiUi^ ,  the  second,  the  orders  of  religious 
mendicants,  ^j^ . 

Part  I.  is  again  subdivided  into  the  four 
following  sections,  called  Dafah: 

1.  The  four  original  castes,  viz.,  1.  Brah- 
mans,  with  their  offshoot,  the  Chaube, 
fol.  23  a;  2.  The  Chhatris,  fol.  37  a,  with 
their  braaches,  the  Khatrls,  fol.  64  a,  and  the 
Mewatis,  fol.  71 «  ;  3.  The  Besh  or  Vaishyas, 
fol.  76  a;  4.  The  Shudars  or  Kayaths, 
fol.  97  a. 


/ 


HINDUISM. 


2.  The  mixt  castes  (Barn-Sankar)  derived 
from  the  four  first,  as  follows : 

From  the  Brahman  Caste :  Ganak  (as- 
trologers), Charaj  and  Bhojaki  (mendicants), 
Kapri  (trumpeters),  Dakaut  (fortune-tellers), 
Pilban  (elephant-drivers),  Bazigar  (con- 
jurers ;  see  an  account  of  the  Bazeegurs, 
by  Capt.  D.  Richardson,  Asiat.  Researches, 
vol.  vii.,  pp.  457 — 85)  ;  Bhanmati  (female 
conjurers),  Khirs-walah  (bear-drivers),  Mai- 
mun-walah  (monkey  men),  foil.  107 — 128. 

From  the  Chhatri  Caste;  Bhat  (bards), 
Bandi-jan  or  Kalawant  (singers),  Bisiya  or 
Kanchan  (dancers),  Charan  or  Banjarah 
(corn-chandlers),  Dom,  Ahir  (cowherds), 
Gadaryah  (shepherds),  Jat,  Sikh,  Bhil; 
foil.  129—165. 

From  the  Vaishya  Caste:  Bidhak  (corn- 
vendors),  Magad  or  Jagah  (genealogists), 
Mastuli  (saUors),   foil.  166—174. 

From  the  Shudar  Caste:  Bhangi( sweepers), 
Chamar  (tanners), Khatik  (the  leaf  which  con- 
tained the  account  of  this  caste  has  been  torn 
from  the  MS.),  Mochi  (shoemakers  and  sad- 
dlers), Dhanak  (guides),  Kiinch-band  (makers 
of  brushes  for  cleaning  thread),  Kanjar 
(makers  of  winnowing  fans),  Bawari  (fowlers), 
K'har  (palki-bearers).  Mall  (wrestlers),  Ghu- 
1am  (attendants),  Hajjam  (barbers),  Bari  (men 
who  make  plates  of  leaves),  Jarrah  (sur- 
geons), foil.  175—220. 

3.  The  castes  derived  from  Vishvakarma, 
viz. :  Baghban  (gardeners),  Kunjrah  (fruit-sel- 
lers), Thitherah  (braziers),  Ahangar  (smiths), 
Sankh-kiir  (bell-makers),  Julah  (weavers), 
Niwarbaz  (tape- weavers),  Risman-saz  (rope- 
makers),  Kumhiir  (potters),  Khisht-paz 
(brick-makers),  Bazid  (clay-figure-makers), 
Zargar  (goldsmiths),  Musavvir  (painters), 
Chhipi  (cloth-printers),  Khayyat  (tailors), 
Atu-kash  (embroiderers),  Tanbul-farosh  (be- 
tel-leaf sellers,  foU.  222—268. 

4.  Miscellaneous  castes,  viz. :  Baid  (doc- 
tors),Sathiya  (oculists),  Kan-mail-walah  (ear- 
pickers),  Kalal  (vintners),  Minah  (thieves). 


Raj  (masons),  Khati  (carpenters),  Ganga- 
putar  (degraded  Brahmans  attending  on 
pilgrims),  Bharupiah  or  Bhand  (comedians), 
Gazar  (washermen),  Teli  (oil-pressers),  Nad- 
daf  (cotton-dressers),  Nat  (tumblers),  Sakah 
(water-carriers),  Kaghazi  (paper-makers ;  the 
account  of  this  caste,  with  the  exception  of 
its  concluding  portion,  is  lost),  Agari  (corn- 
sifters),  Niyariyah  (Sanscr.,  suvarnadishodha- 
na,  a  low  caste  that  search  the  sweepings 
or  ashes  for  gold  or  silver),  Bil-dar  (dig- 
gers), Badhak  (butchers),  Biyal-grahi  (snake- 
charmers),  Muniyar  (makers  of  glass  brace- 
lets), Gulkhan-afruz  (anna-bhrajaka,  corn- 
roasters),  Buriya-baf  (mat-makers),  Chik-saz 
(screen-makers),  Saikal-gar  (polishers),  Gan- 
dhi (perfumers),  Mudragar  (seal-engravers), 
Ribari  (camel-drivers),  Chunah-paz  (lime- 
burners),  Paik  (runners),  Loniya  (salt-dig- 
gers), Kamangar  (bow-makers),  Diyah-gar 
or  Kupah-saz  (makers  of  leathern  bottles), 
foil.  270—361. 

Part  II.  treats  of  the  following  orders  of 
Darvishes :  1.  Sannyasi  and  their  branches, 
viz.,  Paramahans,  Dandi,  Sarbang,  fol.  360. 
2.  Bairagi  and  their  offshoot  the  Nanga,  fol. 
377.  3.  Sivarah  or  Jain-dharm,  with  their 
offshoot  Dhundiyah,  fol.  388.  4.  Jogi,  fol. 
400.  5.  Jangam,  fol.  406.  6.  Bhakit  or 
Tiliyah-Rajah,  fol.  409.  7.  Dadu-Panthi, 
fol.  413.  8.  Nanak-Panthi  (Sikhs)  and  their 
offshoot  Akaliyah,  fol.  426.  9.  Sathrashahi, 
fol.  432.  10.  Krdikanthi,  fol.  434.  11.  Cha- 
randasi,  fol.  438.  12.  Nitanandi,  fol.  441. 
13.  Khaki,  fol.  445. 

Book  III.  treats  of  the  following  Mohamme- 
dan families  or  tribes  :  1.  the  Kinsrs  of  Oude, 
from  Burhan  ul-Mulk  Sa  adat  Khan  to  Ghazi 
ud-din  Haidar  Khan,  fol.  447.  2.  The  Afghans 
of  Kusur  (Panjab),  fol.  451.  3.  The  Bhati 
tribe,  fol.  453.  4.  The  Kavvals  or  Moham- 
medan singers,  fol.  458.  5.  The  order  of 
Fakirs,  called  Benawa  or  Banawa,  fol.  460. 

The  sources  most  commonly  quoted  are, 
in  Sanscrit,  the  Mahabharata,  Amara  Kosha, 


HINDUISM. 


67 


the  Bhagavata,  Brahmavaivarta,  and  other 
Puranas,  Bhujap-Praband  (Bhoja-Praban- 
dha?),  said  to  have  been  written  in  the 
time  of  Rajah  Bhoja  by  Kalidas,  of  Ujjain  ; 
in  Bhakha,  the  Prithi  Raj  Siik'ha,  written  by 
Kashi-Nath,  a  Miirwar  Brahman,  a  hundred 
years  after  Prithi  Raj's  death,  and  oral  tra- 
dition. 

The  miniatures,  104  in  number,  are  very 
carefully  executed  by  native  artists.  Some 
of  them,  especially  among  those  which  repre- 
sent Darvlshes,  are  portraits  of  real  persons, 
whose  names  have  been  added.  Prefixed  is 
a  tabulated  index  of  contents,  occupying 
eight  pages,  foU.  1 — 4. 

Egerton  1032. 

Foil.  89 ;  8|  in.  by  5^ ;  from  7  to  13  lines, 
3£  in.  long;  written  in  large  and  cursive 
Indian  Nestalik,  about  A.D.  1815. 

A  Persian  commentary  upon  a  gnostic 
poem  in  Hindi  verse,  entitled  Amit  Charitra, 

Beg.  of  the  poem  : 

Beg.  of  the  comm. :    ^.-lajo  «JiS    ^g^-*  )aii 

J^)j>-  J    Jfr   iJ-«l;^  S-oV»-   lS*M»\ 

The  poem  is  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue 

between    a    Guru   and    his '  disciple.    The 

author  is  Ram-Parshad,  of  Oude,  who,  as 

we  learn  from  the  commentary,  was  treasurer 

to  the  Navvab  Nazim,  Muhammad  Darab 

'All  Khan. 

The  poem  is  said  to  have  comprised  five 

parts,  called  o-j^;  but  the  present  copy  con- 


tains only  the  first  two.  It  is  stated  at  the 
end  that  the  poem  was  completed  in  Zul- 
ka'dah,  A.H.  1227,  and  the  commentary  in 
Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  1230. 

Add.  25,022. 

PoU.  224  ;  94  in.  by  6 ;  11  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  and  dated  A.D. 
1796. 

I.  Foil.  1—63. 

Karma-Kanda,  a  Jaina  work  ascribed  to 
Nemichandracharya,  -jU^jJi*.^,  and  con- 
sisting of  eighty-one  distichs  termed  Giitha, 
in  Jaina  Prakrit,  with  a  Persian  commentary 
by  Dilaram,  son  of  Mansaram,  a  Brahman  of 
Bijnur,  Shahjahanabad. 

The  text  is  written  in  Devanagari.  The 
commentator  states  at  the  end  that  he  wrote 
this  work  for  General  Claud  Martin  (see 
above,  p.  2  a),  and  completed  it  in  Muharram, 
A.H.  1211,  corresponding  to  July,  1796. 


Ui 


II.  Foil.  65—224. 

J^  . 

Panchasat  Gal,  a  Jaina  work,  consisting 
of  346  distichs,  in  Jaina  Prakrit,  with  a 
Sanscrit  translation ;  to  which  is  added  a 
Persian  commentary  by  the  same  Dilaram. 

The  name  of  the  author  of  the  poem 
occurs  twice  in  the  commentary,  fii'st  as 
-jU-ljj,/^^:  fol.  69,  secondly  as  -jWWjJjjjS, 
fol.  223,  probably  for  Govindacharya. 

The  commentary  was  written,  like  the 
above,  for  Gen.  Claud  Martin,  and  completed 
in  May,  1796. 

Both  the  above  works  are  found  in  the 
Bodleian  Library.  See  Aufrecht's  Catalogue, 
p.  372,  Nos.  261,  262. 


K  2 


HISTORY. 


GENERAL    HISTORY. 


Add.  7622. 

Poll.  490;  13  in.  by  9;  33  lines,  61  in. 
long;  written  in  a  clear  and  bold  Persian 
Naskhi,  with  a  double-paged  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins ;  dated  Eajab,  A.H.  734  (A.D. 
1334).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  history  of  the  world  from  the  creation 
to  the  author's  time,  an  abridged  translation 
from  the  Arabic;  see  Arabic  Catalogue, 
p.  142. 

Author :  Abu  Ja'far  Muhammad  B.  Jarir 
ut-Tabari,  ^^^^^^  ^^j  ^^  JiM>-  jj\  (d.  A.H. 
310.) 

Translator  :  Abu  'Ali  Muhammad  B.  Mu- 
hammad B.  'Abd  UUah   ul-Bal'ami,  J^  y\ 

An  excellent  French  translation  of  this 
Persian  version,  by  M.  Hermann  Zotenberg, 
has  been  published  in  four  volumes  for  the 
Oriental  Translation  Fund,  Paris,  1867 — 
1874.  In  his  first  volume,  pp.  1 — 355,  M. 
Zotenberg  has  reprinted  a  translation  pub- 
lished in  1836  by  M.  Dubeux,  and  carefully 
revised  by  himself  on  the  manuscripts.  Ac- 
counts of  Bal'ami's  version  wiQ  be  found  ia 
the  "  avertissements  "  of  Zotenberg  and  Du- 


beux: see  also  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  36; 
Kosegarten's  Taberistanensis  Annales,  Gry- 
phisvaldiae,  1831,  Praefatio,  pp.  x.  xi. ;  Dorn, 
S.  Petersburgh  Catalogue,  pp.  260 — 264 ; 
Morley's  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  His- 
torical MSS.  of  the  Roy.  As.  Soc,  pp.  17 — 
21 ;  Pertsch,  Gotha  Catalogue,  p.  46 ;  Fliigel, 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  64;  Sprenger, 
Journal  of  the  As.  Soc.  of  Bengal,  vol.  xvii., 
part  ii.,  pp.  437 — 471. 

An  edition  of  Tarikh  i  Tabarl,  in  four 
volumes,  has  lately  been  issued  from  the 
press  of  Navalkishor,  Lucknow.  Trans- 
lations of  the  Persian  version  are  found 
both  in  Osmanli  and  in  Oriental  Turkish. 
The  former  has  been  printed  in  Constanti- 
nople, A.H.  1260,  and  is  fully  described 
by  Dr.  G.  Rosen  in  the  Zeitschrift  der 
Deutschen  Morg.  Gesellschaft,  vol.  ii., 
pp.  159—187.  The^  latter,  written  in  A.H. 
928,  is  mentioned  by  Kosegarten,  ib.,  p.  xix., 
and  by  Dubeux,  p.  x. 

The  present  copy  contains  two  short  pre- 
ambles, both  in  Arabic.  The  first,  fol.  1  b, 
is  a  doxology,  apparently  transcribed  from 
the  original  work,  and  begirming  thus  :   J\5 

Jj^^  jy'  Jj^'  J^l  ^-^"^  J«31 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


C9 


The  second,  fol.  2  a,  is  the  translator's 

preface,  and  bears  the  heading :  ^^1  (ji^J-Jk-* 

y  ^^  jyal*  JUa  ^\ .    It  is  here  stated  that, 

in  the  year  352,  the  Amir  Abu  Salih  Mansur 

B.  Nuh,  after  a  careful  examination  of  the 

history    of   Tabari,  issued    his    commands 

through    his    trusted   agent,    Abu-1-Hasan 

Eaik  ul-Khassah,*   *i\    &JL.oli-j    «ju*\    ^J^   i^ 

'iali?^  jJli  ly— ^^,  for  a  translation  of  that 

work.       Accordingly    the    translator,   who 

speaks  here  in  the  first  person,  but  does  not 

give  his  name,  proceeded  to  turn  it  into 

Court- Persian,  Wjii5\  'L^j\si\  'LHj,  introducing 

at  the  same  time  new  headings,  frequently 

altering   the  arrangement   of  the   original, 

collating  the  verses  of  the  Goran  and  the 

traditions,  and    suppressing,    for    brevity's 

sake,  the  long  Isniids  or  enumerations  of 

vouchers. 

After  this,  and  at  the  bottom  of  the  same 
page,  comes  the  first  chapter  of  the  transla- 
tion itself ;  it  treats  of  the  object  of  creation, 
and  begins  with  the  following  heading : 
ftU^  j!^^  ^JJ^  jJi-  Uji  Jyi)\ .  See  Zotenberg's 
translation,  vol.  i.,  p.  9.  The  Persian  preface 
of  other  copies,  ib.,  pp.  1 — 8,  is  here  wanting. 
It  will  be  seen,  from  what  precedes,  that 
our  copy  agrees  very  closely  with  the  cor- 
responding portion  of  the  Gotha  MS.,  as 
described  by  Kosegarten  in  his  preface,  pp. 
X. — xii. 

The  text  is  archaic,  both  in  wording  and 
spelling.  It  is  divided  into  short  chapters 
by  headings,  written  in  large  characters, 
alternately  in  black  and  red.  There  are 
notable  differences  in  the  division  and 
arrangement  of  these  chapters,  as  compared 
with  the  French  translation.  There  is  here 
no  trace  of  the  division  into  volumes,  which 
is  found  in  some  copies. 

»  This  Fa'ik  was  the  Amir's  Hiijib  or  Chamberlain  ; 
see  Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  iv.,  p.  336,  and  Journal 
Asiatique,  5«  Serie,  vol.  iii.,  p.  356. 


The  present  MS.,  as  well  as  the  next  fol- 
lowing, derives  an  especial  value  from  the 
additional  matter  contained  at  the  end. 
Most  copies  of  Bal'ami's  version  bring  the 
full  narrative  to  a  close  with  the  death  of 
Al-Mu'tasim,  A.H.  227  (i.  e.  nearly  a  century 
before  Tabari's  death),  and  conclude  with  a 
meagre  summary  of  his  successors.  In  the 
present  MS.,  on  the  contrary,  the  reigns  of 
the  latter,  down  to  Tabari's  time,  are  recorded 
at  some  length,  more  particularly  those  of 
al-Musta'in  and  al-MuktafI  ;  they  occupy  no 
less  than  twenty-three  leaves,  as  follows: 
al-Va§ik,  fol.  467;  al-Mutavakkil,  fol.  468; 
al-Muntasir,  ib. ;  al-Musta'in,  fol.  469;  al- 
Mu'tazz,  fol.  471 ;  al-Muhtadi,  fol.  478  ;  al- 
Mu'tamid,  fol.  479;  al-Muaffak,  fol.  480; 
al-Mu'tazid,  fol.  481 ;  al-Muktafi,  fol.  484. 

The  account  of  the  last  reign  is  brought 
down  to  the  slaughter  of  the  caravan  of 
pilgrims  by  the  Karmatis  under  Zakruyah, 
in  Muharram,  A.H.  294,  and  the  dispatch 
by  Muktafi  of  an  army  to  Kufah,  under 
command  of  Muhammad  B.  Da'ud  al-Jamih, 
fol.  489  a  (see  Weil,  Geschichte  der  Chalrfen, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  529).  It  is  then  stated,  fol.  489  b, 
that,  after  proceeding  thus  far,  Tabari  was 
overtaken  by  death,  and  left  this  record  un- 
finished. Other  copies,  it  is  added,  do  not  go 
beyond  the  reign  of  al-Mu'tasim.  The  same 
anonymous  writer  gives  then,  from  other 
sources,  a  short  account  of  the  subsequent 
doings  of  Zakruyah,  his  final  defeat  by 
Vasif  B.  Savartikin,  and  his  death  (Rabi*  I., 
A.H.  294).  The  record  of  the  death  of  al- 
Muktafi  and  accession  of  al-Muktadir,  in 
Zulka'dah,  A.H.  295,  brings  this  appendix 
and  the  volume  to  a  close. 

Transcriber :  ,J-^^  c;i~»-  ty^  li*'  w?  ut^ 

Abu  'All  Muhammad  B.  Muhammad  ul- 
Barami  is  mentioned  in  the  Tarikh  i  Guzidah 
and  the  Hablb  us-Siyar,  both  as  Vazir  of  the 
Amir  Mansur  B.  Niih  and  as  translator  of 


70 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


Tabari's  history.  He  died  A.H.  386;  see 
Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  iv.,  p.  363.  His 
father,  Abul-Fazl  Muhammad  B.  'Abdullah 
ut-Tamimi  ul-Barami  (so  called  from  Bal'am, 
a  town  in  Asia  Minor,  and  who  had  filled  the 
office  of  Vazir,  under  the  Amir  Isma'il,  the 
founder  of  the  Samani  dynasty),  died  in  A.H. 
329.  See  Ansab  us-Samani,  Add.  23,355, 
fol.  90,  and  Dustur  ul- Vuzara,  Or.  234,  fol.  56. 
The  first  page  of  this  MS.  contains  a 
circular  ornament  in  shaded  gold,  and  the 
following  title,  written  within  illuminated 

borders  :  *U^\  i»ijolai>  ^J*  i^jtio  v.j\J  i_.*\i/ 

On  the  same  page  is  an  Arabic  note, 
stating  that  it  became  the  property  of  one 
'Abd  ur-Rahman  B.  *Ali,  at  Edreneh  (Adri- 
anople),  A.H.  904. 

Add.  23,497. 

Poll.  404;  9 J  in.  by  7;  21  lines,  5  in. 
long;  written  in  a  small  and  very  neat 
Naskhi ;  dated  Rajab,  A.H.  911  (A.D.  1505). 

[Rob.  Tayloe.] 

The  latter  portion  of  the  Tarikh  i  Tabari, 
comprising  about  two-fifths  of  the  entire 
work. 

It  begins  abruptly,  fol.  28  a,  in  the  Khila- 
fat  of  Abu  Bakr,  and  the  first  page  relates 
to  the  sending  of  Khalid  B.  Valid  against 
the  Persians  in  'Irak  (Zotenberg's  transla- 
tion, vol.  iii.,  p.  320). 

The  first  portion  of  this  MS.  differs  so 
materially  from  the  preceding  copy  and  the 
French  translation,  as  to  be  evidently  de- 
rived from  some  other  source;  while  the 
account  of  the  Persian  war  is  compressed 
into  a  few  pages,  an  excessive  development  is 
given  to  that  of  the  conquest  of  Syria,  into 
which  much  new  matter  is  introduced,  as 
will  be  seen  from  the  following  headings : 


^^J^,  fi  ^\  jj,^jJO^  (fol.  28  a)  ^  L-^^ 
^  «^:,v-J*L».  jJo^  ^laifc  t-joj ,  (fol.  30  b)  ^jj 
^j^  (jalSj  ^_^\  ^  "^  c;>  f-^^  i:Pj  (fol-  36  b) 
_]^  jjjift  ji\  «J  «JiA».  jii-  (fol.  39  b)    j,jj  i~^j>- 

b   j^UU—   j^j/  ^f    (fol.    42  a)   ^^LJ1  ^ 

JU.  «r  4jU  ^^  JI«  ^^^   (fol.  46  b)  ^U. 
(fol.  49  a)  iiji  »j/&flii-  j];«o  \jj\ 

Prom  the  last  heading  the  text  agrees 
substantially  with  the  preceding  copy,  but 
it  is  fuller  and  contains  much  additional 
matter.  Towards  the  end  the  reigns  of  al- 
Mu'tasim  and  his  followers  occupy  con- 
siderable space,  as  follows  : — al-Mu'tasim, 
fol.  339  b;  al-Va§ik,  fol.  361  a;  al-Muta- 
vakkil,  fol.  363  b  ;  al-Muntasir,  fol.  372  a ; 
al-Musta'in,  fol.  373  b  ;  al-Mu'tazz,  fol.  378 a; 
al-Muhtadi,  fol.  387  b;  al-Mu'tamid,  fol. 
390  a  ;  al-Mu'tazid,  fol.  392  a ;  al-Muktaf  i, 
fol.  396  b. 

The  narrative  concludes,  as  in  Add,  7622, 
with  the  slaughter  of  the  pilgrims  by  Zak- 
ruyah,  and  the  sending  of  Muhammad  B. 
Da'ud  ul-Jarrah  to  Kufah. 

This  is  followed,  fol.  403  b,  by  the  anony- 
mous appendix  already  described  under  the 
preceding  number. 

Transcriber  :  jy^  ^  ^^  >i^  ^^  iJll  a^ 

There  is  a  considerable  lacune  after  fol. 
253.  It  extends  from  the  end  of  the  para- 
graph headed,  "Sulaiman  B.  Ka§ir  put  to 
death  by  Abu  Muslim  "  to  the  beginning  of 
the  chapter  in  which  the  death  of  al-Mansur 
is  recorded :  Zotenberg's  translation,  vol.  iv., 
pp.  347—430. 

A  table  of  chapters,  written  apparently  in 
the  present  century,  and  occupying  six 
and  twenty  folios,  has  been  prefixed  to 
the  MS. 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


71 


Add.  16,814. 

FoU.  392;  131  in.  by  10;  27  lines,  7  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  gold-ruled 
margins,  probably  in  the  16th  century. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work,  imperfect  at  the  be- 
ginning. 

The  first  two  leaves,  which  have  been 
added  by  a  later  hand,  supply  but  imperfectly 
that  deficiency  of  the  MS. ;  they  contain  the 
first  portion  only  of  the  Persian  preface, 
beginning :  J^\^  ij\^»-  j^  ^J^.^i  o-'-J-» 
tu4;J  ii«^  ''^ylj  (see  Kosegarten,  p.  xii., 
and  Zotenberg's  translation,  p.  1). 

This  preface  breaks  oflF  near  the  bottom  of 
fol.  2  J,  in  the  passage  relating  to  the 
duration  of  7000  years  assigned  to  the  world 
(Zotenberg's  translation,  p.  7) ;  in  the  last 
two  lines  of  the  same  page  an  attempt  has 
been  made  to  introduce  an  apparent  con- 
nection with  the  next  page. 

The  original  text  begins,  fol.  3  a,  in  the 
midst  of  the  legend  of  the  city  of  brass,  told 
in  connection  with  the  fifteenth  question  put 
to  Muhammad  by  the  Jews  (Zotenberg's 
translation,  p.  49). 

It  comes  to  an  abrupt  termination,  little 
more  than  one  page  after  the  heading  tiij-b  jji- 

middle  of  the  account  of  Af shin's  scheme  to 
draw  Babak  out  of  his  strongholds  near 
Ardabil ;  see  Zotenberg's  translation,  vol.  iv. 
p.  528. 

The  latter  part  of  the  MS.,  foil.  375—380, 
supplied  by  a  more  modern  hand,  completes 
the  account  of  al-Muktafi's  reign,  and  con- 
cludes with  a  brief  and  incomplete  enumera- 
tion of  his  successors,  namely,  from  al- Vagik 
to  al-Mu'tazz,  fol.  379,  and  from  al-Muttaki 
to  al-Mustazhir,  whose  death  (A.H.  511)  is 
recorded.  After  this  the  unknown  con- 
tinuator  says  that  he  has  here  registered  the 
Khalifs  of  his  own  time,  adding,  "  Let  those 
who  shall  come  after  me  do  the  same." 


The  date  of  transcription  is  apparently 
921,  but  the  first  figure  is  of  doubtful 
reading. 

The  division  into  parts  called  Mujallad  or 
volumes,  noticed  by  Dubeux,  p.  vi.,  is  ob- 
served in  the  first  half  of  this  MS.;  the 
beginnings  of  the  second,  fol.  54,  third, 
fol.  118,  and  fourth,  fol.  164,  are  marked  by 
illuminated  headings. 

A  tabulated  index  of  contents,  written  in 
Persian,  apparently  in  the  present  century, 
occupies  twelve  leaves  added  at  the  end  of 
the  volume,  foil.  381—392. 

Add.  26,174. 

'  Foil.  333 ;  9  J  in.  by  6| ;  25  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Naskhi, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated 
Jumada  ii.,  A.H.  906  (A.D.  1500). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work. 

Although  inscribed ji-^l  i^i-oill,  "the  latter 
half,"  this  volume  comprises  nearly  the  last 
two-thirds  of  the  work  (Add.  7622,  ff.  156— 
490). 

It  begins  with  the  short  summary  of  the 
chronology  of  the  world,  which  immediately 
precedes  the  account  of  Muhammad's  gene- 
alogy (Zotenberg's  translation, vol.  ii.,  p.  354) ; 
and  brings  down  the  detailed  narrative  to 
the  death  of  al-Mu'tasim,  fol.  330  a. 

The  last  six  pages  are  taken  up  with  a 
short  summary  of  al-Mu'tasim's  successors. 
It  is  brought  down,  as  in  Add.  16,814,  to  the 
death  of  al-Mustazhir  (A.H.  511),  and  con- 
cludes in  the  very  same  words. 

The  chapters  are  marked  with  consecutive 
numbers,  from  175  to  461,  written  in  Arabic 
figures  in  the  margins. 


Add.  26,189. 

FoU.  266 ;  11^  in.  by  9 ;  21  Hues,  6  in. 
long ;   written  in  a  fine  and  bold  Persian, 


72 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Naskhi,  with  an  'TJnvan,  gilt  headings  and 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  14th 
century.  [Wm.  Ekskine.] 

A  general  history  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  658,  treating  more  especially  of  the 
dynasties  which  flourished  in  Ghur,  Ghaznah, 
and  Hindustan,  in  the  6th  and  7th  centuries 
of  the  Hijrah. 

Author :  Minhaj  i  Siraj    JuzajanT,   _l^ 

The  considerable  portion  of  this  work, 
which  bears  upon  the  history  of  India, 
comprising  sections  xi.  and  xvii — xxiii.,  has 
been  edited  by  Capt.  W.  Nassau  Lees,  in 
the  Bibliotheca  Indica,  Calcutta,  1864.  An 
English  translation  by  Major  H.  G.  Raverty, 
extending  to  the  entire  work  except  the  first 
six  sections,  has  been  printed  for  the  same 
series,  London,  1873 — 1876.  The  contents 
have  been  fuUy  noticed  by  W.  H.  Morley 
in  his  Descriptive  Catalogue,  pp.  21 — 25. 
An  account  of  the  author's  life  and  copious 
extracts  from  the  Tabakat,  in  English,  wUl 
be  found  in  Sir  H.  M.  EUiot's  History  of 
India,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  259 — 383.  See  also  Ilaj. 
Khal.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  153;  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  7  ;  and  Aumer,  Munchen  Catalogue,p.  67. 

The  author  calls  himself  in  various  places 
Minhaj  i  Siraj,  which  is  short  for  Minhaj 
ud-Din  B.  Sufij  ud-Dln.  His  name  is  written 
in  full,  as  follows,  in  the  preface,  Calcutta 
edition,  p.  1 :  ^1^  ^V-^^  ■^  i^^  ^J^  j^  >>^ 
^Wjj*    but    the    Miinchen   MS.   reads  ^\ 

From  some  passages  of  his  work,  in  which 
he  incidentally  refers  to  himself  or  his  family, 
the  following  facts  may  be  gathered.  His 
grandfather,  Maulina  Minhiij  ud-Din  'U§man 
Jiizajani,  a  great  scholar,  who  was  commonly 
called  Imam  Auhad  of  Bukhara,  settled  in 
Sistan  on  his  return  from  Mecca,in  the  reign  of 
Shams  ud-Din  Muhammad,  king  of  Nimruz ; 


fol.  116  h.  His  father,  Maulana  Siraj  ud- 
Din  i  Minhaj,  whom  he  calls  the  most  elo- 
quent of  Persians,  the  wonder  of  the  age,  was 
appointed  by  Sultan  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Mu- 
hammad B.  Sam,  in  A.H.  582,  KazI  of  the 
army  of  Hindustan.  He  subsequently  took 
up  his  abode  in  Eiriizkiih.  Sultan  Baha  ud- 
Din  Sam  called  him  thence  to  Bamiyan,  and 
made  him  Kazi  and  Khatib  of  his  kingdom : 
see  foil.  160  5, 157  a. 

The  author  himself  must  have  been  born 
A.H.  589,  for  he  says,  Calc.  ed.  p.  88,  that  he 
was  eighteen  years  of  age  when  he  witnessed 
the  slaying  of  Malik  Rukn  ud-Din  Mahmud 
in  Eiruzkuh,  A.H.  607.  He  was  brought 
up  in  the  Haram  of  the  princess  Mah  i 
Mulk,  who  was  a  daughter  of  Sultan  Ghiyas 
ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Sam,  and  a  foster- 
sister  of  the  author's  mother,  fol.  133  a.  He 
was  twice  sent  from  Ghur  to  Nimruz  as 
envoy  to  Sultan  Taj  ud-Din  Niyaltigin,  viz., 
in  A.H.  622  and  623,  fol.  119  h.  In  the 
latter  year  he  left  for  India,  and  arrived,  in 
A.H.  624,  at  the  city  of  Uchh,  then  the  seat 
of  Sultan  Nasir  ud-Din  Kabachah,  where  he 
was  appointed,  in  the  same  year,  master  of  the 
Madrasah  i  Eirilzi  and  Kazi  of  the  army 
(Calc.  ed.  p.  143).  In  the  following  year, 
and  after  the  overthrow  of  Kabachah  by 
Shams  ud-Din  Iltatmish,  he  followed  the 
conqueror  to  Dehli,  and  filled  under  him 
and  his  successors  the  highest  ofiices  of  the 
law.  His  Indian  career  is  told  by  Elliot, 
loc.  cit.,  pp.  260  and  261.  'Abd  ul-Hakk 
Dihlavi,  who  calls  him  Kazi  Minhaj  Jiizajani, 
says  that  he  was  much  addicted  to  the  pious 
exercises  of  darvishes,  and  that  the  celebrated 
saint  Nizam  ud-Din  Auliya  used  to  attend  his 
weekly  prayer-meetings.  See  Akhbar  ul- 
Akhyar,  Or.  221,  fol.  69. 

The  present  work  is  dedicated  to  the  son 
of  Iltatmish,  Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmud  Shah 
(A.H.  644—664).  It  was  written  in  A.H.  657 
and  658  ;  the  first  date  is  mentioned  as  the 
current  year  in  the  early  part  of  the  work, 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


78 


fol.  165  b,  and  the  author  says  expressly,  at 
the  end  of  the  22nd  section,  that  he  com- 
pleted it  in  the  month  of  Shavval,  A.H.  658. 
Some  portions  were  written  at  an  earlier 
date ;  thus  the  account  of  the  Abhasides  closes 
with  a  mention  of  the  great  victory  gained 
by  al-Mu'tasim  over  the  Moghuls  before 
Baghdad,  in  Muharram  A.H.  656,  and  with 
a  prayer  for  his  welfare,  his  final  defeat  and 
death  being  recorded  in  a  later  addition  ; 
see  fol.  57  a. 

It  is  divided   into  twenty-three    sections 
called  Tabakat,  i.  e.  classes  or  generations,  as 
follows: — I.  Patriarchs  and  Prophets.    Life 
of  Muhammad,  fol.  2  b.     II.  The  first  four 
Khalifs,  the  sons  of  'Ali,  and  the  ten  favoured 
Companions  (Mubashshar),  fol.  32  a.  III.  The 
Banu  Umayyah,  fol.  39  b.     IV.  The  Abba- 
sides,  fol.  43  b.   V.  The  kings  of  Persia  down 
to  the  rise  of  Islamism,  fol.  57  a.     VI.  The 
Tubba's   and  Kings   of    Yemen,   fol.    76  b. 
VII.   The   Tahiris,    fol.    84  a.    VIII.   The 
Saffaris,  fol.  87  a.    IX.  The  Samanis,  fol.  89  a. 
X.  The  Dailamis,  fol.  95  a.    XI.  The  Subuk- 
tiginis,  fol.  97  a.  XII.  The  Saljukis,  fol.  104  a. 
XIII.  The  Sanjaris,  fol.  112  b.     XIV.  The 
kings   of  Nimruz   and  Sijistan,   fol.  115  b. 
XV.  The  Kurdish  kings,  fol.  120  a.  XVI.  The 
Khwarazmshahis,  fol.  124  b.      XVII.    The 
Shansabanis  and  kings  of  GhQr,  fol.  133  a. 
XVIII.    The    Shansabanis   of    Tukharistan, 
fol.  155  b.  XIX.  The  Shansabanis  of  Ghaznah, 
fol.   158  b.     XX.  The  Mu'izzis,  fol.  167  a. 

XXI.  The  Shamsi  Sultans  of  India,  fol.  175  b. 

XXII.  The  Shamsi  Maliks,  or  the  vassals  of 
the  Shamsi  Sultans,  fol.  197  a.  XXIII.  Dis- 
asters of  Islamism  and  invasion  of  the 
infidels,  fol.  227. 

This  copy  is  slightly  imperfect  at  the  be- 
ginning. The  first  page  is  enclosed  in  a 
tastefully  illuminated  border,  now  partly 
torn.  The  page  which  must  once  have 
faced  it  with  the  like  ornamentation,  and 
which  contained  the  first  eleven  lines  of  the 
preface,  is  lost.     At  the  end  about  ten  leaves 


are  wanting,  and  the  upper  halves  of  foil. 
265  and  266,  now  the  last,  have  been  torn 
off".  Fol.  266  b  contains  the  first  three  dis- 
tichs  of  the  Kasidah  of  Imam  Yiahya  A'kab ; 
see  Calc.  ed.  p.  439. 

The  whole  volume  is  more  or  less  damaged 
by  damp,  and  slightly  torn  at  the  inner 
edge.  The  words  which,  from  that  reason, 
are  sometimes  wanting  at  the  beginning  or 
end  of  the  lines,  have  been  restored  in 
the  margin  in  a  handwriting  of  the  16th 
century. 

Add.  25,785. 

Poll.  317 ;  12  in.  by  9 ;  19  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  clear  Naskhi,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  16th 
century.  [Wm.  Cureton.J 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  wants  about  seven  leaves  at  the 
beginning  and  two  at  the  end.  It  begins 
seventeen    Unes    before    the    heading     J'^ 

^%J\  *>>,  Add.  26,189,  fol.  7,   and  it  ends 

abruptly,  fol.  315  b,  four  and  twenty  lines 

after  the  heading  ^_jJUL-*  ^jid  ooiLa  iji^\^ 
^^li-liJJ  ,  Calcutta  edition,  p.  448. 

The  last  two  leaves,  fi".  316,  317,  contain  a 
text  which,  although  perfectly  uniform  with 
the  preceding,  and  following  it  without  appa- 
rent break,  does  not  belong  to  the  same  work. 

Pol.  316  contains  a  summary  account  of 
the    successive    "usurpers"   of    the    Dehli 
throne,  from   the  time    of    Ghiyas   ud-Din 
Balban  to  the  defeat  and  death  of  Khusrau 
Khan    (A.H.   720).      The    interesting    fact 
about  this  fragment  is  that  the  anonymous 
writer  appears  to  be   no  less   a  personage 
than   Malik  Pakhr  uddin  Jiina,  afterwards 
Sultan  Muhammad  B.  Tughluk  Shah  (A.H. 
725 — 752)  ;  for  he  speaks  in  the  first  person 
of  his  flight  from  the  degrading  yoke  of  the 
"  Hindu's  child  "  «^  jJJ>  (Khusrau  Khjin), 
and  of  the  subsequent  defeat  of  the  same  by 
his  (the  writer's)  father  (Ghazi  MaUk,  after- 

L 


74 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


wards  Ghiyag  uddin  Tughluk),  who  is  stated 
in  the  last  line  to  have  reigned  subsequently 
four  years  and  ten  months.  These  events 
are  related  by  a  contemporary  historian, 
Ziya  i  Bami,  in  his  Tarikh  i  Firuzshahi ;  see 
Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  224— 
229.  Sultan  Muhammad  B.  Tughluk,  who 
was,  according  to  Firishtah,  remarkable  for 
his  literary  and  scientific  attainments,  wrote 
his  memoirs  under  the  title  of  Futuhat  i 
Firuzshahi.  See  Mohl,  Journal  des  Savants, 
1840,  p.  221,  and  Firishtah,  Bombay  edition, 
vol.  i.,  p.  271. 

In  the  next  leaf,  probably  another  de- 
tached fragment  of  the  same  work,  the  author 
dwells  at  length  on  his  religious  doubts,  and 
his  long  and  eager  search  after  the  rightful 
Imam. 

This  copy  of  the  Tabakat  appears,  from 
numerous  corrections  in  the  margins,  to 
have  been  collated  throughout. 

At  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Iltatmish, 
fol.  208,  a  space  of  a  page  and  a  half,  which 
was  designed  to  contain  a  tabulated  list  of  the 
princes  and  Amirs  of  the  reign  (Calcutta 
edition,  pp.  177 — 180),  has  been  left  blank. 

Add.  7628. 

Poll.  728 ;  18  in.  by  11 ;  33  lines,  7i  in. 
long;  made  up  of  quires,  written  by  different 
hands  in  every  variety  of  character,  from  the 
most  formal  Naskhi  to  the  most  cursive  and 
ill- shaped  handwriting;  transcribed  for 
Sultan  Shtlhrukh,  not  later  than  A.H.  837 
(A.D.  1433).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 


^j1^^  ^v 


A  general  history  of  the  world  from  the 
earliest  times  to  A.H.  700,  including  a 
special  account  of  the  Moghuls,  brought 
down  to  A.H.  703. 

Author:   Rashid  Tabib   (p.  413*.),  Joii, 


Beg.  (fol.  404  S)  uiDJJj  \^^^^^  i_^ll^tl«-;^ 

A  portion  of  this  work,  comprising   the 
history  of  Hulagu  Khan,  has  been  edited, 
with  a  French  translation  and  notes,  in  the 
Collection  Orientale,  Paris,  1836,  by  Etienne 
Quatreraere,  who  gives  an  exhaustive  account 
of  the   author's   life    and  writings  in   the 
"M6moire"  prefixed  to  the  text,  pp.  i.— 
clxxv.     The  same  subject  is  fully  treated  by 
Morley  in  his  Descriptive  Catalogue,  pp.  1 — 
11,  and  by  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot,  Bibliographical 
Index,  pp.  1 — 47,  History  of  India,  vol.  iii. 
pp.  1 — 23,  vol.  i.  p.  42,  vol.  ii.  p.  550.     See 
also  Quatremere's  observations  on  Sir  H.  M. 
Elliot's  article  in  the  Journal  des  Savants 
for    1850,    pp.    515—522.     Compare    Haj. 
Klal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  509  ;    D'Ohsson,    Histoire 
des  Mongols,  vol.  i.,  pp.  xxxiii. — xliv. ;  Dorn, 
S.  Petersburg   Catalogue,  p.  279;    Fliigel, 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  179;  Aumer, 
MUnich  Catalogue,   p.  69.     An  account  of 
the  discovery  by  Morley  and  Dr.  Forbes  of 
some  portions  of  the  work,   till  then  sup- 
posed to  be  lost,  will  be  found  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Roy.  Asiat.  Soc,  vol.  vi.,  pp.  11—41, 
and  vol.  vii.,  pp.  267—272. 

Rashid  ud-Din  Fazl  Ullah  B.  'Imad  ud- 
Daulah  Abul-Khair  B.  Muafiik  ud-Daulah 
'All  was  born  at  Hamadan  about  A.H.  645. 
He  commenced  his  career  as  a  physician, 
and  attended  in  that  capacity  the  Sultan 
Abaka  Khan.  In  A.H.  697  he  was  called  to 
the  Vazirate  by  Ghazan  Khan,  and  he  held 
that  office  also  under  Ghazan's  brother  and 
successor,  Uljaitii.  Accused  of  having  caused 
the  latter  sovereign's  death  by  poison,  he  was 
put  to  death  near  Tabriz,  A.H.  718,  by  order 
of  his  son,  Sultan  Abu  Sa'Id.  A  full  account 
of  his  life  is  to  be  found  in  the  Habib  us- 
Siyar,  under  the  reign  of  Abu-Sa'id.  The 
Jami'  ut-Taviirlkh  was  commenced  by  order 
of  Ghazan  in  A.H.  700,  and  was  completed 
under  Uljrdtu  in  A.H.  710.  It  is  divided 
according    to    the    author's   preface,   Qua- 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


76 


tremere's  edition,  p.  50,  into  three  volumes, 
as  follows : 

Vol.  I.,  containing  two  books  (Bab),  viz., 
Bab  1.  Origin  and  history  of  the  Turkish 
tribes,  in  an  introduction  and  four  chapters. 
Bab  2.  History  of  Chingiz  Khan,  his  an- 
cestors, and  his  descendants,  down  to  the 
accession  of  Uljaitu. 

Vol.  II.,  divided  also  into  two  Babs,  as  fol2 
lows :  Bab  1.  History  of  Uljaitu  from  his  birth 
to  the  time  of  composition.  Bab  2,  comprising 
two  sections  (Kism),  namely:  Kism  1,  sub- 
divided into  two  parts  (Fasl) — a.  An  abridge- 
ment of  general  history  from  Adam  to  A.H. 
700;  b.  A  detailed  record  of  all  nations  of 
the  world.  Kism  2.  A  continuation  of  the 
history  of  Uljaitu,  to  be  written  afterwards. 
(This  section  does  not  appear  to  have  ever 
been  written.) 

Vol.  III.  Description  of  countries  and 
roads.  (This  volume  has  not  yet  been 
found.) 

In  a  detailed  list  of  all  his  works,  subse- 
quently drawn  up  by  the  author,  the  above 
arrangement  is  so  far  modified  that  the  con- 
tents of  vol.  ii.  are  distributed  into  two,  thus 
bringing  up  the  total  to  four  volumes:  see 
Quatremere's  edition,  pp.  Ixxii.  and  clix. 

The  present  MS.  contains  the  first  volume 
and  a  considerable  portion  of  the  second, 
namely,  Kism  1  of  Bab  2  (corresponding  to 
vol.  iii.  of  the  author's  later  division) ;  but 
they  have  been  transposed  in  the  binding, 
vol.  i.  being  placed  last. 

Contents  : — Mukaddimah :  History  of  the 
Patriarchs  and  Prophets,  from  Adam  to  Srdih. 
This  section  is  imperfect  at  the  beginning. 
Pol.  3,  the  first  of  the  original  MS.,  begins 
in  the  middle  of  the  story  of  the  sacrifices 
offered  by  Abel  and  Cain.  The  preceding 
page,  fol.  2  a,  written  for  Mr.  Eich,  A.D. 
1818,  in  order  to  give  an  appearance  of  com- 
pleteness to  the  volume,  is  far  from  supply- 
ing the  deficiency,  and  is,  moreover,  evidently 
borrowed  from  some  other  work. 


Kism  1 :  History  of  the  kings  of  Persia, 
with  accounts  of  contemporary  prophets  and 
kings  (the  kings  of  Arabia  and  the  Roman 
emperors),  from  Kayumar§  to  Yazdajird; 
fol.  5  a. 

Genealogy  and  life  of  Muhammad;  fol. 
58  a.  Makalah  2  :  Khilafat  of  the  first  four 
Khalifs  (Rashidin) ;  fol.  104  b.  Makalah  3  : 
Reign  of  the  Banu  Umayyah ;  fol.  126  b. 
Makalah  4:  Khilafat  of  the  Banii  'Abbas; 
fol.  151  a. 

History  of  Saltan  Yamin  ud-Daulah  Mah- 
miid  B.  Subuktigin,  his  ancestors  and  de- 
scendants, including  as  much  of  the  history 
of  the  Dailamis,  Al  i  Buvaih,  and  Al  i  Saman, 
as  is  connected  therewith ;  fol.  204  a.  This 
account  is  brought  down  to  Khusrau  Shah, 
the  last  of  the  dynasty. 

History  of  Al  i  Saljuk  (from  their  first 
appearance  to  the  death  of  Tughril  B. 
Arsalan,  A.H.  590) ;  fol.  237  a.  At  the  end 
of  this  section  is  a  separate  chapter,  foil. 
260  b — 261  b,  called  Zail,  or  supplement, 
treating  at  greater  length  of  the  close  of 
the  reign  of  Tughril,  A.H.  581—590.  The 
author,  who  calls  himself  Abu  Hamid  Mu- 
hammad B.  Ibrahim,  states  that  he  wrote  it 
in  the  month  of  Rabi'  II.,  A.H.  599,  or,  as 
he  adds,  eight  years  and  two  months  after 
the  death  of  Tughril.  This  supplement  is  also 
noticed  by  Morley  in  his  account  of  the 
East  India  House  MS.,  Journal  of  the  Roy. 
Asiat.  Soc,  vol.  vii.,  p.  269. 

History  of  the  Sultans  of  Khwarazm,  from 
the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  dynasty ; 
fol.  263  b.  This  section  is  imperfect  at  the 
end ;  it  comes  abruptly  to  a  close  in  the 
account  of  the  occupation  of  Ghiir  by 
Muhammad  Khwarazm  Shah,  after  the 
death  of  Shihab  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Sam 
(A.H.  602). 

History  of  the  Salghuris  of  Pars,  from  the 
beginning  to  the  end  of  the  dynasty; 
fol.  268  a.  This  section  also  comes  to  an 
abrupt  termination ;  the  last  lines  relate  to 

l2 


76 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


the    march    of    a    Moghul    army    against 
Saljuk  Shah  in  Shiraz  (A.H.  663)/ 

History  of  the  Isma  ilis ;  fol.  273  h.  This 
section  has  a  preface,  in  which  the  author 
states  that  he  wrote  it  after  completing  his 
history  of  the  nations  of  the  world,  and  as  a 
supplement  to  it.  It  comprises  the  follow- 
ing two  parts  (Kism) — 1.  History  of  the 
'Alavi  Khalifs  of  Maghrib  and  Egypt,  with 
an  introduction  treating  of  their  tenets; 
fol.  273  h.  2.  History  of  the  Nizari  Da'is  of 
Kuhistan,  with  an  introduction  on  the 
career  of  Hasan  Sabilh,  called  Sayyidna  ; 
fol.  290  a.  This  latter  part  contains  a  very 
full  account  of  the  Isma'ilis  of  Alamut,  and 
is  brought  down  to  their  extermination  by 
Hulaku  in  A.H.  654. 

History  of  Ughuz  and  the  Turks,  and  of 
the  world-wide  empire  conquered  by  the 
former,  fol.  307  a.  This  section  is  found 
similarly  placed  in  the  MS.  of  the  East  India 
Library :  see  Morley,  ib.  p.  269.  The  narra- 
tive of  the  conquests  of  this  legendary  hero 
of  the  Turkish  race  is  followed,  fol.  315  h,  by 
an  account  of  his  descendants ;  it  closes 
with  a  short  summary  of  the  Subuktiginis, 
Saljukis,  Salghuris,  and  the  Turkomans  of 
Rum,  who  are  all  connected  with  the  lineage 
of  Ughuz. 

History  of  the  races  and  kings  of  Khitai, 
or  Chin,  and  of  Machin,  fol.  323  a.  This 
account  is  brought  down  to  the  final  con- 
quest of  China  by  CktaiKa'an,  in  A.H.  631. 
History  of  the  Jews,  fol.  337  a. 
History  of  the  Afranj  (Europeans),  fol. 
362  a.  This  section  was  written,  as  stated 
at  the  beginning,  in  A.H.  705. 

History  of  India,  fol.  375  a.  This  section 
is  found  in  the  copies  of  the  East  India 
House,  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  and  of 
the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal.  The  contents 
of  the  last  two  have  been  fully  noticed  by 
Morley  in  his  Descriptive  Catalogue,'  p.  8, 
and  by  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot,  History  of  India, 
vol.  iii.,  p.  19.     Considerable  extracts  from 


it  in  English  have  been  published  by  the 
latter  in  the  Bibliographical  Index,  pp.  28 — 
47,  and  his  translation,  carefully  revised  by 
Professor  Dowson,  has  been  reprinted  in  the 
History  of  India,  vol.  i.,  pp.  44 — 73. 

Volume  L  Preface  of  the  Jami'  ut-Tava- 
rikh,  fol.  404  h.  The  text  has  been  printed 
with  a  Erench  translation  in  Quatremere's 
edition,  pp.  4 — 60. 

Preface  of  volume  i.,  fol.  410  h. 

Beg.  t^l^b  ^_j_)  o-Vj  /^3  t)by  *U5  J  .x** 

This  preface  is  addressed  to  Sultan  Mahmud 
Glijizan,  and  the  work  which  was  written 
by  his  order,  and  afterwards  became  the  first 
volume  of  the  Jami'  ut-Tavarikh,  is  here 
called  ^j^J^  i^jV  ftj^  •  The  latter  and  most 
important  portion  of  this  preface  is  printed 
in  Quatremere's  edition,  pp.  60 — 82. 

Bab  1.  History  of  the  origin  of  the  Turkish 
races  (a  term  which  here  includes  the  Mo- 
ghuls),  their  ramifications  and  genealogies ; 
comprising  an  introduction  (Dibajah)  and 
four  chapters  (Easl),  fol.  414  a.  See  the 
detail  in  Quatremere's  edition,  p.  50. 

History  of  the  ancestors  of  Chingiz  Khan, 
fol.  456  a.  History  of  Chingiz  Khan,  fol. 
469  a.  This  chapter  is  divided,  like  all 
the  following,  into  three  sections  (Kism) ; 
the  first  is  genealogical,  and  contains  an 
enumeration  of  the  wives,  children,  and 
relatives  of  the  king ;  the  second  gives  the 
history  of  his  reign ;  the  third  treats  of  his 
disposition  and  character,  anecdotes  relating 
to  him,  and  various  occurrences  of  his  reign 
not  previously  mentioned. 

History  of  Uktai  Ka'an,  fol.  539  a.  History 
of  Juji  Khan,  fol.  556  a.  In  this  last  chapter, 
and  in  all  the  following,  with  the  exception 
of  that  of  Ghazan,  the  third  of  the  three 
sections  above  mentioned  is  omitted,  althoush 
its  heading  is  generally  written.  The  same 
deficiency  is  also  noticeable  in  another  copy. 
Add.  16,688.     History  of  Chaghatai  Khan, 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


77 


fol.  564  b.  History  of  Tului  Khiin,  fol.  570  b. 
History  of  Kuyuk  Khan,  fol.  574  a.  History 
of  Mung  Ga  Ka'an  (also  written  Manggu 
Ka'an,  ^^'\^  .j^^),  fol.  578  a.  History  of 
Kubilai  Ka'an,  fol.  588  b.  History  of  Timiir 
Ka'an,  fol,  603  a.  History  of  Hulagu  Khan, 
fol.  610.  This  last  is  the  chapter  edited  by 
Quatremere  in  the  Collection  Orientale,  pp. 
84—423.  History  of  Abaka  Khan,  fol.  629  b. 
History  of  Takudar  B.  Hulagu  Khan,  fol. 
642  b.  History  of  Arghun  Khan,  fol.  648  a. 
The  history  of  Kaikhatu,  which  should  follow, 
is  wanting.  History  of  Ghazan  Khan,  fol. 
655  a.  This  last  and  extensive  portion  of 
vol.  i.  is  divided  into  the  following  three 
sections :  1.  The  genealogy  of  Ghazan,  his 
life  from  his  birth  to  his  accession,  his  wives 
and  children,  fol.  655  a.  2.  History  of  his 
accession,  and  of  the  wars  and  other  events 
of  his  reign,  fol.  657  a.  3.  His  praiseworthy 
qualities,  his  edicts  and  regulations,  his  wise 
sayings  and  pious  foundations,  fol.  691  a. 
The  second,  or  historical  section,  is  brought 
down  to  Ghazan's  death,  A.H.  703.  The 
third  is  subdivided  into  forty  chapters,  called 
Hikayat,  a  table  of  which  is  given  at  the 
beginning,  and  the  fortieth  of  which  brings 
the  volume  to  a  close.  The  substance  of 
this  third  section  is  found,  much  abridged 
and  differently  arranged,  in  the  "  Institutes 
of  Ghazan  Khan,  by  Capt.  Wm.  Kirkpatrick," 
New  Asiatic  Miscellany,  pp.  171 — 226. 

The  account  of  the  accession  of  Uljaitu, 
which,  according  to  the  table  of  contents, 
fol.  408  b,  should  conclude  the  first  volume, 
is  here  wanting. 

In  that  portion  of  this  volume  which 
treats  of  the  great  Moghul  Emperors,  from 
Chinghiz  Khan  to  Kubilai  Ka'an,  tabulated 
lists  of  contemporary  sovereigns  in  various 
parts  of  the  East  are  introduced  from  time 
to  time,  viz.  for  the  following  periods: — 
A.H.  549—562,  fol.  474  a  ;  A.H.  563—690, 
fol.  479  a  ;  A.H.  591—599,  fol.  487  b  ;  A.H. 
600—606,  fol.  493  b ;  A.H.  607—614,  fol. 


501  b;  A.H.  615—624,  fol.  521  5;  A.H. 
626—631,  fol.  544  a;  A.H.  632—638,  fol. 
547  a  ;  A.H.  639—643,  fol.  577  a ;  A.H. 
648—655,  fol.  586  a;  A.H.  658—693,  fol. 
600  a. 

That  the  present  MS.  was  written  for 
Shahrukh,  and  during  his  reign  (A.H.  807 — 
850),  is  distinctly  shown  by  the  subscription 
of  the  second  volume,  fol.  403  «,  in  which 
the  transcriber  prays  that  "  this  history,  the 
like  of  which  was  never  written,  may  be 
blessed  to  its  owner,  the  Padishah  of  the 
seven  climes,  the  shadow  of  God  upon  earth, 
Shahrukh  Bahadur,"  etc.  That  prince  is  said 
to  have  so  highly  valued  Eashid-ud-Din's 
work,  that  he  ordered  it  to  be  continued  to  the 
end  of  Abu  Sa'id's  reign.  See  D'Ohsson, 
Hist,  des  Mongols,  p.  xlii. 

Shahrukh's  seal,  with  this  inscription,  ^^ 
jC>\^  ~.j  »Ui  |^^\  (j^AaLJl  eJV^  t— Aii",  is  found 
impressed  in  no  less  than  four  places,  viz. 
foil.  157  a,  524  a,  623  a,  728  b. 

By  the  side  of  the  ail)  ^ ,  written  in  gold 
at  the  beginning  of  the  preface  of  vol.  i., 
fol.  410  b,  is  written  in  the  margin,  also  in 
gold,  jjuu-^b  ki- .  This  makes  it  probable  that 
this  Bismillah  is  a  specimen  of  the  penman- 
ship of  Baisunghur,  the  third  son  of  Shahrukh, 
a  prince  well  known  for  his  literary  tastes,  and 
who  died  in  his  father's  lifetime,  A.H.  837. 

By  the  side  of  Shahrukh's  seal,  foil.  524  a, 
623  a,  and,  by  itself,  in  many  other  places, 
as  foil.  237  a,  272  6,  307  b,  404  b,  410  b,  is 
found  another  seal  identical  in  shape  and 
similar  in  character  to  the  first,  with  the 
inscription :  sxfi\  U)j  (j^— »-^l  ,Jj  »i3)  (.^J^— »■ 
^^UaL-  A-^* .  This,  no  doubt,  belonged  to 
Sultan  Muhammad,  second  son  of  Baisun- 
ghur, who,  at  the  time  of  Shahrukh's  death, 
made  himself  master  of  'Irak  and  Ears,  and 
who  fell  in  a  struggle  with  his  brother  Mir^a 
Babar  for  the  empire  of  Khurasan,  A.H.  855. 

In  spite  of  its  royal  origin,  the  present 
copy  is  far  from  correct ;  the  proper  names 


78 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


especially  are  badly  treated ;  they  are  mostly 
written  without  diacritical  points,  and  some- 
times omitted  altogether,  their  place  being 
left  blank. 

At  the  top  of  the  first  page,  fol.  3  a,  is 
found  a  short  notice  of  the  work  written  in 
Turkish,  by  Muhammad  Easmi.  He  states 
at  the  end  that  the  present  copy  had  been 
brought  by  a  bookseller  to  the  imperial  camp 
of  Baba  Taghi,  where  he  was  staying,  in  Mu- 
ll arram,  A.H.  1185,  and  that,  after  inspecting 
it,  he  wrote  in  it  the  above  notice  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  lost  preface. 

Lower  down,  and  in  the  margin,  is  another 
Turkish  note,  dated  A.H.  1210,  and  signed 
*Arif  .  .  .  ,  stating  that  the  present  MS., 
having  been  compared  with  a  copy  kept  in 
the  imperial  palace,  was  found  to  have  lost  a 
little  over  a  quire  (juz). 

The  last  owner  was  Mr.  Rich,  who  pur- 
chased the  MS.  in  Baghdad,  1818,  and  wrote 
an  account  of  it  on  the  fly-leaf,  fol.  1  a. 
From  this  we  learn  that  the  page  of  modern 
WTiting  before  noticed,  fol.  2  5,  was  tran- 
scribed in  Aug.  1818,  from  another  copy,  in 
which  the  life  of  Uljaitu  was  also  wanting. 
Mr.  Rich  supposed  that  the  seal  which  has 
been  attributed  to  Sultan  Muhammad,  son  of 
Baisunghur,  might  have  belonged  to  Uljaitu, 
also  called  Muhammad  Khudabandah.  Hence 
his  erroneous  estimate  of  the  antiquity  of 
our  copy  (A.D.  1314),  reproduced  by  Sir 
H.  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index,  p.  18,  and 
set  aside  by  Morley,  Descriptive  Catalogue, 
p.  6. 

Add.  16,688. 

Foil.  293  ;  11  in.  by  8^  ;  21  lines,  6^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  bold  and  distinct  Naskhi, 
probably  in  the  14th  century.     [Wm.  Yule.J 

The  latter  half  of  volume  i.,  or  Tarikh 


Mubarak  GhazanI,  corresponding  to  foU.  561 
— 728  of  the  preceding  copy. 

Contents  :  The  second  section  (Kism)  of 
the  history  of  Jiiji  Khan,  containing  an 
account  of  his  reign,  fol.  2  b. 

Of  the  third  Kism,  treating  of  that  prince's 
praiseworthy  qualities,  sayings,  etc.,  nothing 
but  the  heading  is  found.  The  same  applies 
to  the  corresponding  section  of  the  following 
notices,  with  the  exception  of  that  of  Ghazan 
Khan. 

History  of  Chaghatai  Khan,  fol.  8  a. 

Three  pages,  foil.  12  a — 13  a,  are  taken 
up  by  the  elaborate  sketch  of  a  pedigree,  in 
which,  however,  the  names  have  never  been 
entered.  The  same  may  be  observed  further 
on,  foil.  21  a  b,  33  a,  86  a  b. 

History  of  Tulul  Khan,  fol.  18  b ;  Miinggu 
Ka'an,  fol.  32  a  ;  Kubllai  Kaan,  fol.  47  b; 
Timur  Ka'an,  fol.  76  b  ;  Hulagu  Khan, 
fol.  81  b  ;  Abaka  Khan,  fol.  116  a ;  Arghun 
Khan,  fol.  143  b  ;  Kaikhatu  Khan,  fol.  156  a ; 
Ghazan  Khan,  fol.  162  b. 

Reviews  of  contemporary  sovereigns  are 
to  be  found  for  A.H.  639—643,  fol.  30  6,  for 
A.H.  648-655,  fol.  45  a,  and  for  A.H.  658 
—693,  fol.  72  b. 

At  the  end  of  the  history  of  Ghazan, 
fol.  291  a,  is  a  curious  note,  written  by  a 
person  calling  himself  "  the  servant  of  His 
Highness,  Muhammad  B.  Hamzah,  known  as 
Rashid-reader,  the  transcriber  of  this  blessed 
book,"  Ajui^  '~-^jj^  *j-*^  1^  <^^  cJji  jjjo 
cu-ijU*  (_jVi5  ^^_}  «^U  s^  ^\y>. ,  who  speaks 
of  the  author  as  still  occupying  the  post  of 
Vazlr,^  UuA  J^\^  |.jj3f ,  and  of  tJljaitu 
as  the  reigning  sovereign,  ^^IkU  cJ,  jU.^b 
&<L«  ^  ^\J}  j^lkL.  JUj  i]]\  Jt  JJLX-, .  After 
enumerating  the  three  volumes  composing 
the  Jami'  ut-Tavarikh,  which  are  thus  desig- 
nated, ^\p  ^J3  ^jj   J\j\s^   i^^u«   ^j\3  ^^\  Jj^ 

oliL-«j ,  he  says  that,  for  the  sake  of  those 
persons  who,  transcribing  the  first  volume 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


79 


alone,  would  wish  to  have  in  it  a  record  of 
the  reign  of  tjljaitu,  he  ventures  to  add  it 
here  as  an  appendix  to  this  book,  hoping 
that  this  liberty  will  be  condoned.  This 
appendix,  which  occupies  the  last  three 
pages  of  the  present  MS.,  contains  a  short 
account  of  tJljriitu's  recall  from  Khorasan  to 
Tabriz  and  of  his  elevation  to  the  throne. 

Eashid  ud-Din  seems  to  have  adopted  the 
suggestion  of  his  scribe,  for  in  his  summary 
of  the  contents  of  the  Jfimi'  ut-Tavarlkh, 
Quatremere's  edition,  p.  56,  the  first  volume 
is  made  to  conclude  with  an  account  of 
Uljaitu's  accession. 

The  first  two  leaves  of  this  MS.  and  the 
last  three,  foil.  2,  3,  291—293,  are  written 
by  a  later  hand,  in  imitation  of  the  old 
writing.  The  subscription,  in  the  same  hand- 
writing, is  dated  on  the  3rd  Zulhijjah,  A.H. 
930  (A.D.  1524),  and  the  copyist  calls  him- 
self jJLi  i—J/o.  ^J..^  ^^  j*ll»  ^\  ^^  ju,s?. 
Foil.  288,  289,  are  also  in  a  later  hand;  but 
not  the  same  as  the  last. 

This  text  is  far  more  correct  than  that 
of  the  preceding  copy,  but  the  diacritical 
points  are  frequently  left  out,  chiefly  where 
they  are  most  wanted,  namely  in  the  proper 
names. 

A  note  on  the  first  page,  dated  apparently 
A.H.  1022,  records  the  purchase  of  the  MS. 
for  six  rupees,  which  amount  has  been  con- 
verted by  a  later  hand  into  thirty-six. 

Add.  18,878. 

Poll.  164  ;  9i  in.  by  6| ;  11  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India ;  dated  September,  A.D.  1828,  Eabi'  I., 
A.H.  1244. 

A  portion  of  volume  ii.  of  the  Jami'  ut- 
Tavarikh,containingthe following  sections:  — 
History  of  China,  fol.  1  b  (Add.  7628,  fol.  23  a 
—336  b) ;  History  of  Europe,  fol.  47  b  (Add. 
7628,  foil.  362  a— 374  b) ;  History  of  India, 
fol.  95  b  (Add.  7628,  foil.  375  6—411  b). 


The  text  of  this  fragment  is  both  incorrect 
and  defective.  The  last  section  breaks  off  in 
the  middle  of  the  chapter  treating  of  the 
prophecies  of  Shakamuni. 

Add.  7626. 

Poll.  167 ;  10  in.  by  7^  ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  an  "Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins  ; 
dated  Muharram,  A.H.  1004  (A.D.  1595). 

[CI.  J.  EiCH.] 

A  general  history  of  the  world,  from  Adam 
to  the  accession  of  Sultan  Abu  Said,  A.H. 
717. 

Author:  Abu  Sulaiman  Da'iid  B.  Abil- 
Fazl  Muhammad  ul-Banakiti,  jijb  i^Ui-»  y)\ 

Beg.  j3-  ^^^  j*j  U\  .  .  .  ix^  j»  ^  jji 

The  author,  whose  name  appears  as  above 
in  the  preface,  calls  himself  in  another  place, 
fol.  161  a,  Abu  SulaimaU  Da'ud,  sumamed 
Eakhr  Banakiti.  He  was  a  poet  as  well  as 
an  historian,  and  does  not  fail  to  give  in  the 
present  work  specimens  of  his  verses  in 
praise  of  Ghazan  Khan,  tJljaitu,  and  Abu 
Sa'id.  We  learn  from  him,  fol.  160,  161, 
that  he  received  from  Ghazan  Khan,  in  A.H. 
701,  the  title  of  Malik  ush-Shu'ara ;  and  that 
his  elder  brother,  Sayyid  Nizam  ud-Din  'Ali, 
son  of  Maulana  Taj  ud-Din  Banakiti,  was  a 
holy  Darvish,  who  stood  high  in  the  regard 
of  the  Moghul  sovereigns,  from  Abakii  to 
Ghazan,  and  died  in  Tabriz,  A.H.  699. 

Banakit,  from  which  the  above  Nisbah  is 
derived,  is  a  town  of  Mavara  un-nahr,  also 
called  Shash,  and  in  modern  times  Tashkand: 
see  Haft  Iklim,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  605.  Fakhr 
Banakiti  is  mentioned  by  Daulatshah,  fol. 
114,  and  by  Khwand  Amir,  Habib  us-Siyar, 


80 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


reign  of  Khudiibandah.  Compare  Quatre- 
mere,  Histoire  des  Mongols,  p.  xcix.,  and 
Hammer,  Geschichte  der  Ilchane,  vol.  ii., 
p.  267. 

The  contents  of  the  present  work  are  given 
in  full  by  Hammer,  Wiener  Jahrbiicher,  vol. 
69 ;  Anz.  Bl.  p.  33 ;  by  Morley,  Descriptive 
Catalogue,  pp.  25—28;  by  Sir  H.  Elliot, 
History  of  India,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  55 — 59 ;  and 
the  Persian  headings  will  be  found  in  the 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  61 ;  see  also 
Dorn,  Asiat.  Mus.,  p.  101.  The  Historia 
Sinensis,  published  by  Andreas  Miiller,  Ber- 
lin, 1677,  and  wrongly  ascribed  to  Abdallah 
Beidavi,  has  been  proved  by  Quatremere, 
Histoire  des  Mongols,  pp.  Ixxxv.  and  425,  to 
be  an  extract  from  the  present  work. 

In  a  preface  dated  on  the  25th  of  Shawiil, 
A.H.  717,  the  author  says  that  this  history 
is  chiefly  derived  from  the  Jami'  ut-Tavarikh 
of  Rashid  ud-Din.  A.H.  717  is  frequently 
mentioned  in  the  course  of  the  work  as  the 
current  year,  as  foil.  11  h,  117  a,  etc. ;  and 
it  appears  again  in  the  following  line,  at  the 
end,  as  the  date  of  the  completion  of  the 
work :  J^j-^  j  -i)-?.  J^— — >. 

This  history,  which  is  commonly  known  as 
Tiirikh  i  Banakiti,  is  divided  into  nine  sec- 
tions (Kism),  as  follows : 

I.  Prophets  and  patriarchs,  from  Adam  to 
Abraham,  fol.  6  b.  II.  Kings  of  Persia, 
from  Kayumars  to  Yazdajird,  fol.  12  b. 
III.  Muhammad,  early  Khalifs,  Imams,  Banu 
Umayyah,  and  Abbasides,  fol.  28  a.  IV. 
Kings  who  reigned  in  Iran  during  the  time 
of  the  Abbasides,  fol.  86  a.  V.  Kings  and 
Prophets  of  the  Jews,  fol.  95  a.  VI.  History 
of  the  Christians  and  Afranj,  fol.    101  b. 

VII.  History  of    the    Hindus,   fol.    108  b. 

VIII.  History  of  Khitai,  fol.  117  b.     IX.  His- 
tory of  the  Moghiils,  fol.  124  b. 

A  Persian  note  at  the  end  relates  to  the 
purchase  of  the  MS.  in  Isfahan,  A.H.  1160, 


by  Haji  Mustafa  Khan  Shamlu,  Persian  am- 
bassador in  Turkey,  for  three  Tumans  and 
five  thousand  Dinars  of  Tabriz. 

Pol.  166  contains  a  statement  by  Mu- 
hammad Amin  Zahid,  of  Balkh,  of  the  number 
of  persons  whom  he  had  gained  over  to  a 
religious  life,  consigned  to  writing  by  one  of 
his  disciples  in  A.H.  1010. 

Add.  7627. 

Foil.  185 ;  10  in.  by  6^ ;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Naskhi;  dated  Hai- 
darabad,  Zulka'dah,  A.H.  1004  (A.D.  1596). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

Another  copy  of  the  same  work. 

The  author's  name  is  here  written  j^U-L*  y)\ 

jjiljuJ^ ,  and  the  title  'Hjm  ^  i-jU!!)!  ^^-^  eJ>jj 
Copyist :    ^?*'-"^  Jj^^  ^\/ 

Add.  22,693. 

PoU.  249  ;  8i  in.  by  6 ;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins  ;  dated 
Rajah,  A.H.  890  (A.D.  1485). 

[Sir  John  Campbell.] 

A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  730. 

Author :  Hamdulla  B.  AM  Bakr  B.  Ahmad 
B.  Nasr  Mustaufi  KazvinljiS  ^_gj\  ^^  all\  j-»o. 

Beg.  ^  jl  tiJl«  e{\j^\LS\^  ^jijll-.  _j  (_>«U-» 

Hamd-ullah  belonged  to  an  ancient  family 
of  Kazvin,  called  the  Mustaufls,  which 
traced  its  origin  to  Hurr  B.  Yazld  Riyahl. 
He  states,  in  the  last  section  of  the  present 
work,  that  his  great  grandfather,  Amin  ud- 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


81 


Din  Nasr,  after  discharging  some  time  the 
office  of  Mustauf  i  of  Irak,  adopted  a  religious 
life,  and  was  slain  at  the  time  of  the  Moghul 
invasion ;  he  adds  that  his  own  brother, 
Zain  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Taj  ud-Din  Abi 
Bakr  B.  Zain  ud-Din  Ahmad  B.  Amin  ud- 
Din  Nasr,  had  been  deputy  comptroller  of 
the  Vizfirat,  0,]jj  uV-"^  '-r*^^  >  under  Rashid 
ud-Din.  Besides  the  Guzidah,  he  wrote  in 
A.H.  740  a  well  known  geography  entitled 
Nuzhatul-Kulub  (Add.  16,736).  See  Reinaud, 
Geographic  d'Aboulfeda,  Introduction,  p.  155 ; 
Hammer,  Geschichte  der  llchane,  vol.  ii., 
p.  268 ;  and,  for  the  contents  of  the  present 
work,  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  v.  p.  79,  Hammer, 
Jahrbiicher,  vol.  69,  Anz.  BL,  pp.  33 — 35, 
Fliigel,  Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  63, 
Aumer,  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  68,  and  Elliot, 
History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  pp.  60—66. 

Erom  a  somewhat  diffuse  preface  it  appears 
that  the  author,  having  imbibed  a  taste  for 
historical  pursuits  in  the  learned  society  of 
his  celebrated  patron,  the  great  Vazir  Rashid 
ud-Din  Eazl-ullah,  had  undertaken  the  com- 
position of  a  full  chronicle  in  verse,  extend- 
ing from  the  Hijrah  to  his  own  time.  Of 
this  he  had  already  written  upwards  of  fifty 
thousand  distichs,  and  intended  to  complete 
it  in  seventy-five  thousand.  But  he  de- 
termined in  the  meanwhile  to  compile  the  pre- 
sent abridgment  in  prose,  bringing  the  history 
down  to  the  time  of  composition,  A.H.  730. 

The  preface  contains  a  dedication  to  the 
son  and  successor  of  his  late  patron,  Khwrijah 
Ghiyas  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Khwajah 
Rashid  ud-Din  Fazl-ullah.  Ghiyas  ud-Din 
was  called  to  the  office  of  VazIr  after  the 
death  of  Dimashk  Khwajah,  A.H.  728,  and 
held  it  till  A.H.  736,  when  he  was  put 
to  death ;  see  the  present  MS.  fol.  177  a, 
Lubb  ut-tavarikh.  Add.  23,512,  fol.  105,  and 
Quatremere,  Histoire  des  Mongols,  pp.  xlvi. 
— Iii.  It  must  be  noticed,  however,  that  in 
the  conclusion  of  Book  iv.  another  patron, 
Shams  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Nizam  ud- 


Dln    ul-Husaini  ul-Yazdl,  also   a  VazIr,  is 
mentioned  with  great  eulogies. 

Among  many  works  which  the  author  had 
consulted  for  this  compilation,  he  mentions 
the  Jami*  ut-tavarIkh  of  Rashid  ud-Din  as 
the  most  important. 

The  Guzidah  is  divided  into  an  Intro- 
duction (Eatihah),  six  books  (Bab),  and  an 
Appendix  (Khatimah),  as  follows:  Fatihah, 
Creation  of  the  world,  fol.  5  a.  Bab  i., 
Prophets  and  sages,  fol.  6  a.  Bab  ii..  Kings 
anterior  to  Islamism,  fol.  23  a.  Bab  iii., 
Muhammad,  fol.  36  a ;  early  Khalifs,  fol.  476 ; 
Imams,  fol.  57  6;  Ashab  and  Tabiln,  in  al- 
phabetical order,  fol.  59  «;  Banii  TJmayyah, 
fol.  71  b  ;  Banu  'Abbas,  fol.  82  a. 

Bab  iv.  Kings  of  the  Islamitic  period,  in 
the  following  twelve  sections  (Ea.sl)  :  1.  Ban! 
Lais  SafRlr,  fol.  103  b.  2.  Samanis,  fol.  105  a. 
3.  Ghaznavis,  fol.  109  a.  4.  Ghiiris,  fol.  113  a. 
5.  Dailaman,  fol.  115  b.  6.  SaljUkis  of  Iran, 
Kirman  and  Riim,  fol.  121  a.  7.  Khwarazm- 
shahis,  fol.  187  a.  8.  Atabaks  of  Diyarbakr 
and  Ears,  fol.  142  b.  9.  Isma  His  of  Maghrib 
and  Iran,  fol.  144  b.  10.  Karakhitfi'ls  of 
Kirman,  fol.  150  a.  11.  Atabaks  of  Lur 
Buzurg  and  Lur  Kuchak,  fol.  152  b.  12. 
Moghuls,  in  three  sections — Genealogy  of 
the  Turkish  tribes,  fol.  100  a.  Genealogy 
of  the  house  of  Chinglzkhan,  fol.  162  b. 
History  of  the  MoghUls  of  Iran,  foil.  165  b — 
177*. 

Biib  V.  Imams  and  Mujtahids,  fol.  217  b  ; 
Readers  of  the  Goran,  fol.  218  b ;  Traditionists, 
fol.  219  a ;  Shaikhs,  in  chronological  order, 
ib. ;  'Ulamii,  in  alphabetical  order,  fol.  233  a ; 
Poets,  similarly  arranged,  fol.  238  a. 

Bab  vi.  Account  of  the  city  of  Kazvln. 
This  last  section  is  much  abridged  in  the 
present  copy,  as  compared  with  the  following. 
It  has  been  translated  by  M.  Barbier  de 
Meynard  in  the  Journal  Asiatique,  5'  Serie, 
vol.  x.,  pp.  257—295. 

Khcitimah,  a  description  of  an  elaborate 
series  of  genealogical  tables,  devised  by  the 


82 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


author  to  illustrate  general  history.  This  last 
section  is  wanting  in  this  copy. 

The  present  MS.  contains  an  extensive  and 
important  addition,  inserted  hetween  the 
fourth  and  fifth  books  of  the  original  work, 
foU.  177  i— 217  b.  It  is  a  detailed  history 
of  the  dynasty  of  the  Al  i  Muzaffar  in  Kir- 
man,  from  its  origin  in  A.H.  718  to  its  over- 
throw by  Timilr  in  A.H.  795.  The  author, 
who  calls  himself  Mahmud  ^jj^  (without 
diacritical  points),  says  in  a  short  preamble 
that,  finding  the  history  of  that  dynasty  by 
Mum  ud-Din  Yazdl  (see  Add.  7632)  over- 
loaded with  metaphors,  far-fetched  phrases, 
and  wordy  eulogies,  it  seemed  to  him  ad- 
visable, while  engaged  in  transcribing  the 
Tarikh  i  Guzidah  in  A.H.  823,  to  insert  a 
plain  but  full  record  of  those  princes,  whom 
he  had  served  himself,  as  his  forefathers  had 
done  before  him  for  several  generations. 

In  the  closing  narrative  Shahrukh,  who, 
although  then  only  seventeen  years  old, 
played  a  brilliant  part  in  the  conquest  of 
Kirman,  is  spoken  of  by  the  author  in  the 
adulatory  style  due  to  the  reigning  sovereign 
of  his  day. 

Add.  7631. 

Foil.  252;  8^  in.  by  6;  25  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  a  small  Turkish  Naskhi; 
dated  Muharram,  A.H.  924  (A.D.  1518). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work,  Tarikh  i  Guzidah. 

There  are  many  marginal  notes  and  addi- 
tions in  Persian,  Arabic,  and  Turkish.  Some 
leaves  at  the  end,  foil.  247—252,  are  filled 
with  miscellaneous  notices  and  extracts. 

Add.  7630. 

Foil.  246;  10  in.  by  7;  19  lines,  4f  in. 
long;  written  in  a  fair  Nestalik;  dated  Ju- 
mada  I.,  A.H.  1009  (A.D.  1600). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 
The  same  work. 

Scribe :  ^jj*  «.^.^j* 


Add.  11,630. 

Foil.  301;  9 J  in.  by  5|;  21  Hues  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  apparently 
about  the  close  of  the  16th  century. 

The  same  work. 

The  margins  contain  some  corrections, 
notes,  and,  in  some  parts,  considerable  addi- 
tions. Those  of  foil.  169 — 232  especially  are 
covered  with  extracts,  drawn  chiefly  from 
Tarikh  i  Bada'uni.  Foil.  292—297  contain 
some  poetical  pieces  and  miscellaneous  ex- 
tracts, and  foil.  298—301,  a  table  of  the 
contents  of  the  work,  with  reference  to  the 
folios  of  this  copy. 

A  note  on  fol.  2  a,  records  the  purchase  of 
the  present  copy  in  Kashmir,  A.H.  1076,  by 
Khwajah  Muhammad  Nazr. 


Add.  23,499. 

Foil.  268 ;  QJ  in.  by  7 ;  21  lines,  4^  in.  long ; 
written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  ruled  margins, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century,  with  the 
exception  of  foil.  2—35,  and  232—263,  sup- 
plied by  a  later  hand,  probably  in  the  18th 
century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  same  work. 


Egerton  690. 

Foil.  198;  lOi  in.  by  7i;  21  lines,  5  in. 
long;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik;  dated 
Calcutta,  Rabi'  II.,  A.H.  1216,  July,  A.D. 
1803. 

The  same  work.   ' 

The  MS.,  from  which  this  copy  was  tran- 
scribed, had  been  written  in  Aurangabtld, 
A.H.  1093,  by  Muhammad  Hashim  B.  Mir 
Muhammad  Salili  ul-Khwaf  i  (the  well  known 
historian  Khafi  Khan). 

On  the  first  page  is  written  "Hen.  Geo. 
Keene,  1803." 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


83 


Add.  16,696. 

Poll.  134 ;  9  in.  by  5 ;  19  lines,  3  in.  long ; 
written  in  small  Nestalik,  with  ruled  margins, 
apparently  of  the  16th  century. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

An  abridgement  of  general  history  from 
the  earliest  times  to  the  death  of  Sultan 
Abu  Sa'id,  A.H.  736. 

Author :  Muhammad  B.  'Ali  B.  Muham- 
mad, 6^^  ^^  ^s-  ^j>  j^ 

Beg.  U-«»  J  lysiy  W\ii«  j-^'  Jjuj-  ^J'^\  aJJ  j-^' 

This  beginning,  as  well  as  the  whole  of  the 
first  page,  fol.  1  b,  has  been  supplied  by  a 
later  hand. 

In  a  copy  belonging  to  the  Asiatic  Mu- 
seum of  S.  Petersburg,  the  author  is  called 
Muhammad  B.  'All  B.  Muhammad  B.  Husain 
B.  Abi  Bakr  ush-Shabangara'I ;  see  Dorn, 
Caspia,  pp.  108, 166.  He  was  therefore  pro- 
bably a  native  of  Shabangarah,  a  district 
situate  between  Ears  and  Kirman,  the  chief 
town  of  which  is  Darabjird;  see  Ouseley's 
travels,  vol.  ii.,  p.  471.  He  appears,  how- 
ever, to  have  dwelt  in  Luristan,  for  he 
professes  to  have  derived  his  account  of 
that  country,  not  from  any  book,  but  from 
oral  information  gathered  from  a  number  of 
trustworthy  persons ;  and  he  shows  himself 
also  well  acquainted  with  Hurmuz.  He  was 
a  poet  by  profession,  for  in  a  Kasidah  ad- 
dressed to  Ghiya§  ud-Din,  fol.  86,  he  says  that 
he  had  been  sending  year  after  year  laudatory 
poems  to  that  Vazir.  He  states,  however, 
speaking  in  A.H.  733,  fol.  2  b,  that  although 
more  than  forty  years  of  his  life  were  spent, 
he  had  done  nothing  yet  to  leave  a  lasting 
memory  behind. 

The  work  begins  with  two  prefaces,  which 
may  be  called  those  of  the  first  and  second 
editions.  Both,  owing  to  the  loss  of  some 
leaves,  are  imperfect  in  the  present  copy. 


The  first  in  point  of  time,  foil.  2,  5 — 9,  is 
dated  A.H.  733.  It  contains  eulogies,  in 
prose  and  verse,  on  the  reigning  sovereign 
Abu  Sa'id,  and  on  his  Vazir,  Ghiyiis  ud-Dln 
Muhammad  B.  llashid  ud-Din,  to  whom  the 
work  is  dedicated.  In  the  second,  foil.  3 
and  4,  the  author  describes  his  grief  at  re- 
ceiving the  intelligence  of  the  premature 
death  of  the  youthful  monarch,  and  deplores 
at  the  same  time  the  loss  of  his  book  in  the 
pillage  of  the  late  Vazir's  house.  (Abu  Sa'id 
died  in  A.H.  736,  at  the  age  of  thirty-six 
years,  and  the  house  of  Ghiyas  ud-Din  was 
plundered  after  his  death,  a  few  months 
later ;  see  Price's  Retrospect,  vol.  ii.,  p.  672, 
and  Quatremere,  Histoire  des  Mongols, 
p.  411.)  With  reviving  hope,  however,  he 
resolved  to  write  it  afresh.  He  then  greets 
the  access  to  sovereign  power  of  the  Nuyan 
'Ala  ud-Din  (a  title  probably  designating 
Shaikh  Hasan,  grandson  of  Amir  Chupiin, 
who  is  termed  further  on,  fol.  131  b,  the 
present  master  of  the  world),  and  praises  his 
Vazir  Mahmud. 

This  second  edition  was  not  completed  till 
A.H.  743,  for  this  date  appears,  fol.  956,  as 
that  of  the  current  year. 

The  division  of  the  work  into  Kisms,  Ta- 
bakahs,  Guruhs,  and  Tai'fahs,  is  extremely 
complicated ;  it  is,  however,  but  imperfectly 
carried  out,  some  sections  being  altogether 
omitted,  while  others  are  too  short  to  be  of 
any  use.  Some  dynasties  are  only  repre- 
sented by  meagre  lists  of  names,  and  others 
are  summarily  disposed  of  in  a  few  lines. 

Contents  : — Introduction :  Creation  of  the 
world,  the  four  elements,  construction  of  the 
human  body,  fol.  9  b.  Account  of  the  in- 
habited world,  the  seven  climates,  and  the 
principal  races  of  mankind,  fol.  30  a. 

Kism  I.  History  of  Adam,  fol.  40  b. 
Kism  II.,  Tabakah  1,  Descendants  of  Shi§ 
(Seth),  Kayumars,  'Ad,  Earldun,  Kayanis, 
Luhraspis,  fol.  45  b. 

Tabakah  2,    in    four    Guruhs : — 1.    Suc- 

M  2 


S4> 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


cessors  of  Alexander,  Ptolemies,  Csesars, 
Arab  kings  of  Irak  and  Yaman,  Aslikiinis, 
fol.  56  a.  2.  Sasanis  and  Akasirah,  fol.  64  a. 
3.  Dailamis,  fol.  78  a.  Saljukis,  fol.  7Sb. 
Malahidah,  fol.  79  a.  Khwarazmslialiis,  fol. 
84  b.  Ghuris,  ib.  4.  Kings  of  Shabangarah, 
fol.  86  a.  Atabaks  of  lYirs,  fol.  87  a.  Kings 
of  Kirman,  fol.  87  b.  Kings  of  Shiraz,  fol, 
88  b.  Kings  of  Hurmuz,  fol.  91  a.  Moghuls, 
in  two  sections,  called  Ta'ifah : — 1.  Chingiz 
and  his  successors  in  China  down  to  Kubilai 
Kaan,  fol.  95  J.  2.  Hulagu  and  his  suc- 
cessors in  Iran  down  to  the  death  of  Abu 
Sa'id,  fol.  117  a. 

The  history  of  Luristan,  which  has  been 
rejected  by  the  author  to  the  end  of  the 
work,  is  wanting  in  the  present  copy,  with 
the  exception  of  a  few  introductory  lines, 
fol.  133  b.  It  is  found  in  a  MS.  belonging 
to  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  and  described 
by  Morley,  Catalogue,  pp.  28—30.  Other 
copies  are  mentioned  in  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  8,  and  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sir  Wm. 
Ouseley's  Collection,  No.  335. 

Besides  the  title  of  i_.^LJ^\  «^,  which 
occurs  in  this  copy  at  fol.  40  a,  we  find  that 
of  L-^LJ^l  ^U,  fol.  86  a;  while  a  third 
^U)i]  jsi  is  written,  apparently  by  the 
transcriber,  at  the  end  of  the  volume. 

Or.  137. 

EoD.  482;  10|  in.  by  7;  17  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  large  and  bold  Nestalik 
apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  general  history  from  the  time  of  Mu- 
hammad to  A.H.  842,  with  special  reference 
to  India. 

Author :  Muhammad  Bihamad-khani,  j^ 


Beg.  b    OjxL*-  ji  jyo^'^   (^^  _j  j^y  i^-»»- 

The  author's  surname  is  derived  from  the 
name  of  his  father,  Bihamad  Khan,  afterwards 
Malik  ush-Shark  Malik  Bihamad,  respecting 
whose  life  we  learn  from  the  work  itself  the 
following  particulars. 

He  was  brought  up  in  the  house  of  Firiiz 
Khan  B.  Malik  Tfij  ud-Din  Turk,  who  w^as 
appointed  Vazir  by  Ghiya§  ud-Din  Tughluk 
Shah  on  his  accession,  and  was  slain  with 
that  prince,  A.H,  791 ;  see  Briggs'  Eerishtah, 
vol.  I.,  p.  466.     After  that  event  the  Vazir's 
son   repaired   to   Kalpi   (Muhammad-abad), 
where  he  made  himself  independent,  assuming 
the  name  of  Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmud  Shah,  and 
conferred  the  title  of  Vazir  on  his  brother 
Junaid   Khan.     Bihamad   Khan,   who    had 
passed  into  the  latter's  service,  distinguished 
himself  as   military  commander  in  several 
campaigns,  and  as  a  reward  received  in  fief 
the  town  of  Irich  in  Bundelcund.     From 
this  he  was  ejected,  some  years  later,  by  the 
troops  of  Ibrahim  Shah  of  Jaunpur,   after 
a  desperate  struggle,  in  which  the  author's 
mother  was  slain,  and  the  author  himself, 
then  a  youth,  was  severely  wounded;  but  he 
was   subsequently  reinstated  in  his  posses- 
sions by  Mubarah  Khan,  the  son  and  suc- 
cessor of  Junaid  Khan.     He  was  still  alive 
in  A.H.  842. 

The  author  relates  various  expeditions,  in 
which  he  was  sent  by  his  father  in  command 
of  the  troops,  and  achieved  brilliant  success. 
He  became,  however,  a  Murid  of  Shaikh 
Yusuf  Budah,  and  a  yision,  in  which  Muham- 
mad appeared  to  him,  decided  him  to  give 
up  the  world  and  embrace  a  religious  life. 
He  then  devoted  his  leisure  to  the  composi- 
tion of  the  present  work,  which  he  called 
after  the  Prophet's  name  Tarikh  i  Muham- 
mad!, and  completed  in  A.H.  842. 

This  year  is  mentioned  in  some  places,  as 
fol.  90  a,  and  108  b,  as  the  date  of  composi- 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


85 


tion,  but  A.H.  839  appears  more  frequently, 
^specially  in  the  second  half  of  the  work,  as 
the  current  year;  see  foil.  308  J,  312  a, 
427  rt. 

The  following  works  are  enumerated,  fol. 
481  a,  as  the  sources  of  this  compilation : 
Tabakat  i  Nasiri,  Taj  ul-Maa§ir,  Tazkirat 
ul-Auliyii,  Matali'  ul-Anvar,  Khizanat  ul-Ja- 
lali,  and  Tarikh  i  Firuzshahi.  Erom  A.H. 
755,  however,  where  the  last-mentioned  his- 
tory comes  to  a  close,  the  work  is  original, 
and,  although  it  principally  deals  with  a  local 
dynasty  of  little  importance,  it  has  the  value 
of  a  contemporary  record,  throwing  some 
light  on  a  very  obscure  period  of  Indian 
history. 

The  author  is  sparing  of  dates,  but  profuse 
of  poetical  quotations,  although  his  own 
verses,  which  he  adduces  on  every  possible 
occasion,  show  plainly  that  he  was  no  poet. 

The  work  is  divided  into  four  parts  (Kism), 
the  contents  of  which  are  as  follows  : 

I.  History  of  Muhammad,  fol.  10  b.  The 
trial  and  anguish  of  the  grave,  abode  of  the 
soul  after  death,  resurrection  and  last  judg- 
ment, fol.  50  a. 

II.  The  early  Khalifs  (Rashidin),  fol.  74  b ; 
the  ten  blessed  Companions  (Mubashsharin), 
fol.  79  b  ;  the  Amirs  of  the  Banu  Umayyah, 
fol.  83  a;  the  Abbaside  Khalifs  down  to 
al-Musta'sim,  fol.  90  a;  Lives  of  Saints, 
fol.  109  a. 

The  history  of  the  Abbasides  is  avowedly 
taken  from  the  Tabakat  i  Nasiri.  The  last 
section  begins  with  a  notice  on  Uvais  Karnl ; 
in  its  latter  half  it  relates  exclusively  to 
Indian  saints,  the  following  forming  a  conse- 
cutive chronological  series :  Zakariyyil  Mul- 
tani,  fol.  138  ;  Muin  ud-Dln  Sijzi,  fol.  140; 
Kutb  ud-Dln  Bakhtiyar,  fol.  142 ;  Farid  ud- 
Din  (Ganj  i  Shakar),  fol.  144 ;  Nizam  ud-Din 
(Auliya),  fol.  146;  Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmud 
Audhi,  fol.  148;  Sayyid  Jalal  ud-Din  Bu- 
khari,  fol.  152;  his  brother,  Sayyid  Sadr 
ud-Din    Raju,    fol.    159 ;    Ikhtiyar    ud-Din 


'TJmar,  of  Irich,  fol.  161;  Jamal  ud-Din 
Shaikh  Yusuf  Budah  jjj  ,  of  Irich,  fol.  164. 
The  last-named  saint,  who  was  the  author's 
spiritual  guide,  is  here  stated  to  have  died  in 
A.H.  834. 

III.  Tahiris,  fol.  175  a.  Sdmanis,  fol. 
180  a.  Dailamis,  fol.  189  a.  Subuktiginis, 
fol.  192  b.  Saljukis,  fol.  207  b.  Sanjaris,  or 
Atjibaks,  of  Irak,  fol.  226  a,  of  Ears,  fol. 
230  a.  and  of  Nishapur,  fol.  234  a,  Kurdish 
kings  of  Syria,  fol.  240  b.  Khwarazmshahis, 
fol.  245  b.  Shansabanis  of  Ghur,  fol.  260  a, 
of  Tukharistan  and  Bamiyan,  fol.  289  b,  of 
Ghaznin,  fol.  292  h. 

The  last  section  is  brought  to  a  close  with 
the  death  of  Taj  ud-Dln  Yilduz,  after  which, 
it  is  added,  Khorasan  and  Ghaznin  fell  under 
the  yoke  of  the  unbelievers,  and  no  further 
record  was  available.  The  entire  preceding 
portion  of  the  third  book  is  stated,  fol.  309  a, 
to  have  been  extracted  from  the  Tabakat 
i  Nasiri. 

History  of  Timur  j^  and  his  successors, 
namely,  Khalil  Sultan  and  Amir  Shahrukh, 
fol.  304  a.  The  last-named  sovereign,  it  is 
said,  was  still  sitting  on  the  throne  which 
he  had  occupied  for  nearly  forty  years,  and 
was  recognized  by  the  kings  of  India  as 
their  suzerain. 

History  of  Chingiz,  the  accursed,  and  of  his 
successors  down  to  Baraka  Khan,  also  from 
the  Tabakat  i  Nasiri,  with  a  short  appendix 
on  subsequent  Moghul  invasions  in  India, 
fol.  313  a. 

IV.  Kings  of  India.  The  fii*st  period,  be- 
srinnina:  with  Kutb  ud-Din  Aibak  ul-Mu  izzi 
and  ending  with  Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmud, 
foil.  330  6— 358  6,  is  taken  from  the  Tabakat 
i  Nasiri  (Tabakah  xx.  and  xxi.).  In  the  fol- 
lowing eight  reigns  the  author  follows  the 
Tarikh  i  Fu-uzshahi  of  Ziya  ud-Din  Barni : — 
Ghiyas  ud-Din  Balband  JJob ,  fol.  259  a. 
Mu'izz  ud-Din  Kaikubad,  fol.  362  b.  Jalal 
ud-Din  Khilji,  fol.  371  b.    'Ala  ud-Din  Shah 


86 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Khilji,  fol.  380  a.  Kutb  ud-Din  Mubarak, 
fol.  391  a.  Ghiyas  ud-Din  Tughluk,  fol.395  a. 
Muhammad  B.  Tughluk,  fol.  398  a.  Kamal 
ud-i)m  Flruz  Shah,  fol.  406  a. 

Here  the  author  states  that  Ziya  ud-Din 
had  recorded  the  first  four  years  only  of 
Firuz  Shah's  reign,  ending  with  A.H.  755. 
For  the  subsequent  period  he  had  to  rely 
on  information  gathered  from  trustworthy 
persons  and  on  his  own  recollections. 

Continuation  of  Firuz  Shah's  reign, 
fol.  409  b.  Tughluk  Shah  B.  Fath  Khan  B. 
Flruz  Shah,  A.H.  790,  fol.  417  6.  Abu  Bakr 
B.  Zafar  Khan  B.  FlrQz  Shrdi,  A.H.  791, 
fol.  420  b.  Nil  sir  ud-Din  Muhammad  Shah 
B.  Firuz  Shah,  who  ascended  the  throne  in 
A.H.  794,  fol.  423  b.  In  this  reign  the 
author  gives  a  rapid  sketch  of  four  local 
dynasties  founded  by  Amirs  of  Muhammad 
Shah,  and  which  were  represented  at  the 
time  of  composition  by  Ibrfdiim  Shah  of 
Jaunpur,  Ahmad  Shah  of  Gujarat,  Sultan 
Muhammad,  grandson  of  Khizr  Khan,  of 
Dehli,  and  'Ala  ud-Din  Mahmud  Shah  of 
Malvah. 

'Ala  ud-Din  Sikandar  Shah  B.  Muhammad 
Shrdi,  fol.  431  a.  Ghiya§  ud-DIn  MahmQd 
Shall  B.  Muhammad  Shah,  the  last  king  of 
the  race  of  Firuz  Shah,  fol.  432  b.  NasTr  ud- 
Dm  Mahmud  Shah  B.  Flruz  Khan  B.  Malik 
Taj  ud-bin  Turk,  fol.  436  b.  This  chief, 
who  held  the  fief  of  Kalpl,  founded  there,  in 
A.H.  792,  a  Mohammedan  city,  which  he 
called  Muliammad-abad,  made  himself  inde- 
pendent after  the  death  of  Ghiya§  ud-Din 
MahmQd,  and  enlarged  his  dominions  by 
successful  wars  with  his  Hindu  neighbours. 
He  died  in  A.H.  813. 

His  son  Ikhtiyar  ud-Din  Abul-Mujahid 
Kadir  Shah,  fol.  446  b.  At  his  death,  A.H. 
835,  his  three  sons  fought  for  the  succession, 
their  powerful  neighbours,  Ibrahim  Shah  of 
Jaunpur  and  Hiishang  of  Malvah,  joining  in 
the  struggle ;  the  second,  Jalal  Khan,  was 
eventually  placed  on  the  throne  by  Hushang. 


Mubarak  Khan  B.  Junaid  Khan  B.  Firuz 
Jang  B.  Malik  Taj  ud-Din  Turk,  fol.  459  a. 
Mubarak  Khan  had  succeeded  to  his  brother 
Daulat  Khan  and  his  father  Junaid  Khan  in 
the  ofiice  of  Vazir  of  the  KalpT  state.  Dis- 
satisfied with  the  accession  of  Jalal  Khan,  he 
repaired  to  Irich,  and  made  himself  inde- 
pendent there  in  A.H.  839. 

Life  of  Malik  ush-Shark  Malik  Bihamad, 
the  author's  father,  fol.  467  a.  The  author's 
exhortation  to  hisson,Nasir  ud-Din  Mahmiid, 
fol.  476  a.  The  author's  account  of  himself 
and  conclusion  of  the  work,  fol.  478  a. 

Copyist :  jyAx^  ^^jL  ^^  kjl*. 

A  full  table  of  contents,  written  in  the 
present  century,  occupies  seven  pages  at  the 
beginning  of  the  MS.  There  the  author 
is  incorrectly  called  Muhammad  Bahadur 
Khan. 

Add.  7629. 

Foil.  482 ;  11  in.  by  6^ ;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  dated  Jaunpiir, 
Zu'1-ka'dah,  A.H.  1012  (A.D.  1604). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  general  history  from  the  earliest  time 
to  the  ninth  century  of  the  Hijrah. 

There  is  neither  preface  nor  title,  and  the 
author's  name  occurs  only  incidentally, 
fol.  349  b,  where,  bringing  his  history  of  the 
rulers  of  Egypt  to  a  close  with  the  record  of 
a  pilgrimage  performed  by  al-Malik  un- 
Nasir,  A.H.  719,  he  adds  that  the  works 
procurable  in  "  this  country  "  (India)  did 
not  contain  any  further  account  of  that 
dynasty.     His  name  is  there  written  rflll  fjoii 

^^Ijs- ,  Faiz  ullah  [B.]  Zain  ul- abidin  B. 
Husam  Ziya,i,  entitled  [Kazi]  ul-Kuzat  Sadri 
Jahan. 

From  a  mention  incidentally  made  by  the 
author,  fol.  2  a,  of  the  king  of  his  day,  whom 
he  calls  ^J>  sU.  j-«»-^  ^^  jU.  j-»^  ^y^  t\L  d^^ 
jUi^la*  ^^>  »li»  li^ ,  it  must  be  inferred  that 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


87 


he  lived  under  Mahmud  Shah  Bigara  of 
Gujarat,  who  reigned  from  A.H.  863  to  917. 
This  work  is  perhaps  the  history  quoted  by 
Pirishtah,  in  his  account  of  the  reign  of 
Mahmud  Shah,  under  the  title  of  Tabakat 
i  Mahmiidshrihi.  But  no  portion  of  the 
contents  of  the  present  volume  comes  down 
to  that  period. 

Contents:    Makalat   I.,  in   two   Eirkahs. 

1.  Prophets  from  Adam  to  Khalid  B.  Sinan, 
fol.  1  6.  II.  Kings  anterior  to  Islamism, 
in   four   Tabakahs  :    1.  Pishdadis,    fol.  37. 

2.  Kayanis,  fol.  40  b.  3.  Ashkanis,  fol.  49  b. 
4.  Sasanis,  fol.  50  6.  Tubba's  of  Yaman, 
fol.  71  a.     History  of  Muhammad,  fol.  80  a. 

Biib  II.  The  first  four  Khalifs  (Rashidin), 
fol.  158  a.  Tabakah  :  Reign  of  the  Banu 
Umayyah,  fol.  197  b.  Tabakah :  Khilafat  of 
the  Banu  'Abbas,  fol.  235  b. 

Kism  iii.,  which  treats  of  kings  pos- 
terior to  Islamism,  contains  two  Makalats. 
The  former  comprises  the  following  Taba- 
kahs :  1.  Safiaris,  fol.  278  b.  2.  Samanis, 
fol.  281  a.  3.  Dayalimah,  fol.  288  a.  4.  Su- 
buktiginis,  fol.  292  b.  5.  Saljukis  of  Iran, 
Kirman  and  Rum,  fol.  299  b.  6.  Khwarazm 
Shahis,  fol.  318  a.  7.  Atabaks  of  Ears,  Irak 
and  Azarbaijan,  fol.  325  b.  8.  Sultans  of 
Egypt  and  Syria  (the  Ayyubis  and  their 
successors  down  to  A.H.  719),  fol.  335  a. 
9.  Isma'ilis  of  Maghrib  and  of  Iran,  fol.  349  b. 

The  following  section,  fol.  355  «,  the  first 
page  of  which  is  alone  extant,  has  no  rubric. 
It  treats  of  the  origins  of  the  Ghur  dynasty, 
and  contains  a  reference  to  the  Tabakat  i 
Nasirl. 

The  rest  of  the  volume  is  taken  up  by 
biographical  notices,  arranged  under  the 
following  classes:  Tabakah  1.  Arab  poets, 
with  some  of  the  early  Persian  poets,  in 
chronological  order,  beginning  with  Labid 
B.  Rabi'ah,  and  ending  with  Ibn  'Unain,  who 
died  A.H.  630,  fol.  356  a.  Many  of  these 
notices  are  extracted  from  Ibn  Khallikan's 
work.     2.    The    most    eminent    Ashab    or 


Companions  of  Muhammad,  fol.  382  6.  3.  The 
great  Tabi'in,  or  successors  of  the  Com- 
panions, fol.  402  b.  4.  The  'Ulama,  Lawyers 
and  Shaikhs,  in  chronological  order,  begin- 
ning with  'Asim  B.  Abi-'n-najiid,  the  Coran 
reader,  who  died  A.H.  128,  and  ending  with 
Hakim  Ibrahim  B.  Muhammad  B.  Tarkhan 
Suvaidi,  who  died  A.H.  690,  fol.  418  a. 

Scribe :   i^je-  ^_pJi\i  ^J\M  J^  -^  ^jA  s^ 

Titles  written  by  various  hands  on  the 
first  leaf,  such  as  i^^y^^  ffVj  d>^  ^j^  ^^ 
and  ^l*Jl  jM  ^jKi  ,  are  of  little  authority. 

Add.  16,672. 

Poll.  235 ;  15  in.  by  9| ;  25  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  NestaUk,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Rajab,  A.H. 
1031  (A.D.  1622).  [Wm.  Yule. J 

A  work  on  general  history,  from  the  crea- 
tion of  the  world  to  the  author's  time. 

Author:  Muhammad  B.  Khavand  Shah 
B,  Mahmud,  J^«^  ^^  »U.  jjjli»-  j^  j-^ 

Beg.  J^  Jls.  ^J[x^\y>.\i^  AirJ  vi— ^  s-*^j 

The  author,  so  well  known  under  the  name 
of  Mir  Khwand,  belonged  to  a  family  of  Say- 
yids,  settled  for  many  generations  in  Bu- 
khara. His  father,  Sayyid  Burhan  ud-Din 
Khavand  Shah,  a  man  of  great  learning  and 
piety,  left  that  place  for  Balkh,  where  he 
died.  Mir  Khwand  himself  spent  most  of  his 
life  in  Herat,  and  found  there  a  generous 
patron,  Mir  *Ali  Shir,  to  whom  the  present 
work  is  dedicated.  His  grandson,  Khwand 
Amir,  says  that  he  died  in  Herat,  on  the 
2nd  of  Rajab,  A.H.  903,  at  the  age  of  sixty- 
six,  and  after  an  illness  of  thirteen  months. 
See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Bombay  edition,  vol.  II., 
pp.  198,  339. 

The  Rauzat  us-Sa^  has  been  lithographed 


88 


GENERAL  HISTOKY. 


in  Bombay,  A.H.  1271,  and  in  Tehran,  A.H. 
1270 — 74.  A  Turkish  translation  has  been 
printed  at  Constantinople,  A.H.  1258.  Mir 
Khwand  and  his  work  have  been  the  subject 
of  numerous  notices,  among  which  the  fol- 
lowing may  be  specially  referred  to:  S.  de 
Sacy,  Notice  sur  Mirkhond,  in  his  Memoire 
sur  les  Antiquit<Ss  de  la  Perse;  Jourdain, 
Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  ix.,  pp.  117 — 274; 
Hammer,  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  69,  Anz.  Blatt, 
pp.  37 — 49;  Quatremere,  Journal  des  Sa- 
vants, 1843,  pp.  170—176;  Morley,  Descrip- 
tive Index,  pp.  30 — 38;  Elliot,  History  of 
India,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  127 — 140.  Eor  editions 
and  translations  of  various  parts  of  the  Rau- 
zat  us-Safa,  see  Morley,  pp.  35,  36,  Elliot, 
pp.  131 — 133,  and  Zenker,  vol.  i.,  pp.  104 — 
106,  vol.  ii.,  p.  59. 

This  vast  compilation  is  divided,  as  stated 
in  the  preface,  into  seven  books  or  volumes, 
called  Kism  (the  last  of  which  was  left  un- 
finished), and  an  Appendix.  The  first 
volume,  contained  in  the  present  MS.,  com- 
prises, besides  the  preface  and  introduction,  a 
history  of  the  Patriarchs  and  Prophets,  and  of 
the  early  kings  of  Persia,  down  to  Yazdajird. 

The  last  folio,  which  contains  the  subscrip- 
tion, appears  to  have  been  transcribed  by 
a  later  hand  from  the  corresponding  leaf  of 
the  original  MS.,  which  had  probably  been 
torn  or  otherwise  damaged. 

Add.  26,177. 

Foil.  298;  12  in.  by  7 ;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik;  dated  Rabi'  II., 
A.H.  146  (probably  for  1046,  A.D.  1636). 

[Wm.  Ebskine.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa. 

Copyist :   s^  j^;-.*^^  j>\  ^\j  ^j>\ 

The  first  page  has  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand. 

Add.  26,175. 

Foil.  357;  11^  in.  by  6^;  23  lines,  4  in. 


long;  written  in  Nestalik,  on  blue-tinted 
paper;  dated  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1064  (A.D. 
1654).  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work. 

Copyist :  t/;Vjj-«»  ^_j:--*'  J^j  J-**? 

Add.  26,176. 

Foil.  396 ;  11  in.  by  7| ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  probably  in 
the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  w^ork. 

Three  leaves  at  the  beginning  and  three 
at  the  end  have  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand. 

Add.  25,775. 

Foil.  436  ;  10^  in.  by  6 ;  21  lines,  3  J  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  I7th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work. 

The  first  page  has  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand.  A  few  lines  at  the  end  are  wanting. 
A  modern  table  of  contents,  foil.  434 — 36,  has 
been  appended. 

This  MS.  once  belonged  to  Turner  Maccan, 
whose  name  is  written  on  the  first  page. 

Add.  17,929. 

FoU.  348 ;  11|  in.  by  7 ;  29  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins;  dated  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  124 
(probably  for  1024,  4.D.  1616). 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work. 


Add.  23,500. 

Foil.  254 ;  11  in.  by  6| ;  25  lines,  4f  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
the  17th  century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  fii'st  volume  of  the  same  work. 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


89 


Foil.  1,  4—6,  244—254,  have  been  sup- 
plied, apparently  in  the  present  century,  by 
'Abd  ur-EahIm  B.  Muhammad  Ardabili. 


Add.  25,769. 

Poll.  344;  12^  in.  by  7|;  25  lines,  4J  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  dated  Sha'ban,  A.H. 
1051  (A.D.  1641).  [Wm.  Ctjreton.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Sa^, 
containing  the  history  of  Muhammad  and 
the  first  four  Khalifs. 

Beg.    iS-y^   c.^j^^     cj\ci\jo    sSLx^  ^^ 
Copyist :  o^  JUj  iiJj  <«U\  j.jkfr 

Add.  23,501. 

Poll.  541;  11  in.  by  6 ;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins ;  dated  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1058 
(A.D.  1648).  "[EoB.  Tatloe.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 


Add.  26,179. 

Foil.  446 ;  15  in.  by  9^ ;  19  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  large  and  elegant  Nestalik, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated 
Safar,  A.H.  1081  (A.D.  1670). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 


Copyist :  ^j]j^  <^  .i^-aiu 


Add.  17,930. 

Foil.  477 ;  11^  in.  by  1\ ;  18  lines,  5  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik;  dated 
Ramazan,  A.H.  1088  (A.D.  1677). 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work, 
wanting  the  first  two  leaves. 


Add.  26,178. 

Foil.  324 ;  12  in.  by  7  ;  25  lines,  4^  in.  long ; 
written  in  plain  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 

Foil.  38,  39,  124—126,  227  and  320—324, 
have  been  supplied  by  a  later  hand;  a  few 
lines  are  wanting  at  the  end. 


Add.  16,673. 

Foil.  407;  15  in.  by  9.f ;  23  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
dnd  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 

The  first  34  leaves,  foil.  5 — 37,  are  in  a 
somewhat  later  hand. 

Prefixed  is  a  tabulated  index  of  contents, 
written  in  Naskhi,  A.H.  1111  (A.D.  1699), 
at  Indore,  by  Sayyid  Ahmad. 


Add.  25,776. 

PoU.  568;  104  in.  by  6.f;  19  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  probably  in 
the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Cureton.J 

The  second  voliune  of  the  same  work. 


Add.   7643. 

PoU.  204;  \\\  in.  by  7f ;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  ruled 
margins,  probably  in  the  16th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  third  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
containing  the  history  of  the  twelve  Imams 
and  of  the  Umayyade  and  Abbaside  Khalifs. 

Beg.   ftv^.  j^b\  jl  i>\  ,^^  ^Ur-*  fti*  j_y\j5  J  j^ 


JUl>t 


■^u;!j^ 


The  last  leaf  is  in  a  later  handwriting. 

N 


90 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Add.  26,180. 


FoU.  166;  13i  in.  by  7|;  30  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  plain  Naskhi;  dated  Safar, 
A.H.  1023  (A.D.  1614).         [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  third  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Sa^. 
Copyist :   ^^  J-^^  O^j*  ;^'  c«--»   u^.'^^  ui*^ 

jviii^^  ^>-jW\  i>  y^.^\  i^^j  ^V  j^  r^^ 


Add.  25,777. 

Foil.  186;  12^  in.  by  7f ;  21  lines,  5  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins ;  dated  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1065  (A.D.  1655). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  third  volume  of  the  same  work. 


Add.  23,502. 

Foil.  271;  11  in.  by  7;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
written   in   cursive   Nestalik ;    dated 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1081  (A.D.  1670). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 
The  third  volume  of  the  same  work. 


long ; 


Copyist :   ^Jt^  ^\  iJ— ^  ^^  i— >y  y\ 

Add.  26,181. 

Foil.  336;  10^  in.  by  7;  19  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  probably 
in  the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  third  volume  of  the  same  work,  wantins 
about  one  page  at  the  end. 

Add.  17,931. 

Foil.  228;  12|  in.  by  7;  22  lines  in 
a  page.  Written  in  a  small  and  neat  Persian 
Naskhi,  probably  in  the  17th  century. 


The  third  volume  of  the  same  work,  wanting 
a  few  lines  at  the  end.  Foil.  211 — 215  have 
been  supplied  by  a  later  hand. 

One  of  the  notes,  written  by  former  owners 
on  the  first  leaf  of  this  MS.,  is  dated  Isfahan. 

Add.  7644. 

Foil.  208 ;  154  in.  by  9i ;  25  lines,  5f  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  ruled 
margins;  dated  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1006  (A.D. 
1598).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
containing  the  history  of  the  dynasties 
contemporary  with  the  Abbasides,  brought 
down,  in  the  case  of  the  latest  of  them,  to 
the  time  of  their  extinction  by  Timur, 

Beg.  es-^^  *?-^.'^  J  L?'^^  obU->  sJ^  »-^^*-^ 

The  dynasties  included  in  this  volume, 
a  full  detail  of  which  has  been  given  by 
Morley  in  his  Descriptive  Catalogue,  pp.  34, 
35,  are  the  following : 

Tahiris,  fol.  1  a.  SafElris,  fol.  3  a.  Samii- 
nis,  fol.  8  b.  Kabus  B.  Vashmagir  and  his 
successors,  fol.  23  a.  Ghaznavis,  fol.  25  a. 
Al  i  Buvaih,  fol.  41  b.  Ismu'ilis  of  the  Magh- 
rib, fol.  52  b,  and  of  Iran,  fol.  57  b.  Saljukis 
of  Iran,  fol.  73  a,  Kirman  and  Rum,  fol. 
102  a.  Khwarazmshahis,  fol.  103  b.  Kara- 
khitais  of  Kirman,  fol.  128  b.  Al  i  Muzaffar, 
fol.  131  b.  Atabaks  of  Mausil,  fol.  177  b, 
Azarbaijan,  fol.  179  a,  Filrs,  fol.  181  a,  and 
Lur,  fol.  186  a.  Ghuris,  fol.  188  b.  Slaves 
of  the  Ghuris  who  became  kings,  fol.  192  b. 
Khiljis,  fol.  193  6;  Shams  ud-Din  Iltatmish 
and  his  successors,  fol.  194  b.  Kings  of  Nim- 
ruz,  fol.  196  a.    Kurts,  fol.  197  a. 

Copyist:  ijji/>  *«»lj>  jU*  (J?-'^  -^-j  <^^"*^  »^ 


Add.  17,932. 

Foil.  186;  121  in.  by  7;  30  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


91 


and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Eabl'  I.,  A.H. 
1010  (A.D.  1601). 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

Copyist :  j^l:J«».  ^jwil  j>^  ^^  JS  sU. 

Add.  23,503. 

Poll.  304 ;  11^  in.  by  6i ;  22  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  clear  Nestalik,  with  ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  same  work, 
wanting  about  three  pages  at  the  beginning, 
and  a  few  lines  at  the  end. 

Or.  1114. 

Foil.  301 ;  12i  in.  by  8^;  23  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  with 
'Unvan  and  ruled  margins,  apparently  in 
the  17th  century.  [Warren  Hastings.] 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  same  work, 
wanting  the  last  page. 

,  Add.  25,778. 

Foil.  250 ;  181  in.  by  9 ;  23  lines,  5|  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  same  work, 
with  corrections  and  additions  in  the  margins. 

The  last  leaf  contains  a  copy  of  a  letter 
written  in  Arabic,  apparently  to  some  official 
of  the  Nizam.  The  writer,  whose  name  does 
not  appear,  relates  his  landing  in  Masulipa- 
tam  after  a  distressing  voyage  of  twenty 
days,  and  sends  greetings  to  a  Major  Palmer. 
He  further  states  that  the  Navvab  had  joined 
the  Mahrattas  against  Tipu  Sahib,  whose 
death  was  rumoured. 

Add.  26,182. 

Fol.   209;  13  in.  by  8 ;   23  lines,  4|  in. 


long ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
on  English  paper,  apparently  in  the  19th 
century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  fourth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

Add.  17,933. 

Fol.  338;  9^  in.  by  6^ ;  17  lines,  4.^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  large  Nestalik ;  dated 
Eabi'  II.,  A.H.  1023  (A.D,  1614),  in  the 
reign  of  Shah  'Abbas. 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
containing  the  history  of  Chingiz  Khan  and 
his  successors,  down  to  the  time  of  Timur ; 
see  Morley,  Descriptive  Catalogue,  p.  36. 

Beg.  xJ,   ^j^%tt  jSu  J  i_.*SU*   *»-U;>>  (jiJJjT 
Copyist:    JjuJ^   ^_g^^    t^*-"-   tji^  u'^ 

Or.  1115. 

Foil.  191 ;  13  in.  by  9^ ;  25  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury. [Warren  Hastings.] 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  same  work, 
wanting  the  first  eight  leaves. 

Add.  23,504. 

Foil.  255 ;  12  in.  by  7 ;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Naskhi ;  dated  Mu- 
harram,  A.H.  1017  (A.D.  1608). 

[EoB.  Tatlor.] 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  same  work. 
Copyist :  j^^   i^   »U»   a.^   ^j)  iy--.»-  .J-^ 

Add.  9995. 

Foil.  222 ;  11  in.  by  8i ;  21  lines,  6^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Zul-ka'dah, 
A.H.  1043  (A.D.  1634). 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

N  2 


92 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Copyist:  f_^.iJL*»-  ^  ^j^ 

On  the  fly  leaf  is  impressed  the  Persian 
seal  of  Henry  George  Keene,  whose  sig- 
nature -w-ith  the  date,  April,  1802,  is  found 
on  the  next  page. 

Add.  26,183. 

Foil.  299 ;  11^  in.  hy  6| ;  19  Hnes,  4J  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  probably  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  fifth  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa. 

Add.  27,236. 

Poll.  341 ;  13i  in.  by  8 ;  23  lines,  4J  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Rajab,  A.H.  1017 
(A.D.  1608).  [Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  same  work,  con- 
taining the  history  of  Timur  and  his  succes- 
sors, down  to  the  death  of  Sultan  Abu  Sa'id, 
A.H.  873. 

Beg.  o"^t?^  x^  <J^  -J  o^V"  J  '^♦*'  ^W 
This  portion  is  probably  the  oldest  of  the 
work.     The  author  states  twice,  towards  the 
end,  fol.  339,  that  he  was  writing  in  A.H.  879. 

Scribe :  jb  ^  (^  ^\^  p-laJl  y>\  ^^  ^^-.s► 

In  the  latter  half  of  the  volume,  foil. 
214 — 337,  the  rubrics  have  not  been  entered. 
On  the  first  leaf  is  impressed  the  seal  of  the 
Nawab  of  the  Carnatic,  'Azim  ud-daulah, 
with  the  date  A.H.  1216.  Beneath  is  written : 
"  Erom  His  Highness  the  Nabob  of  the  Car- 
natic, to  John  Macdonald  Kinneir." 

'Azim  ud-daulah  was  appointed  Navvab 
by  English  influence  in  the  year  1801.  See 
Mill,  History  of  India,  vol.  vi.,  p.  341. 


Add.  23,506. 

EoU.  273;  13  in.  by  7|;  27  lines,  h\  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Shavvrd,  A.H. 
1030  (A.D.  1621).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

The  MS.  contains  ten  whole-page  minia- 
tures on  the  following  foil. :  22  a,  35  h,  52  «, 
70  h,  90  6,  116  h,  152  h,  201  a,  224  h,  254  a. 
They  are  rather  coarsely  painted  in  the  Per- 
sian style,  and  represent  mostly  battle-scenes. 

A  full  table  of  contents,  apparently  drawn 
up  for  Col.  Taylor,  is  prefixed  to  the  volume, 
foU.  1—12. 

Add.  23,505. 

Poll.  370;  12f  in.  by  7i;  23  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Naskhi ;  dated  Rabi' II., 
A.H.  1075  (A.D.  1664).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

Add.  26,184. 

EoU.  425 ;  Hi  in.  by  7 ;  21  lines,  41  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Rajab,  A.H.  1031 
(A.D.  1622).  [Wm.  Erskine.J 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  same  work. 

The  last  page,  which  contains  the  date  of 
the  MS.,  is  apparently  a  modern  transcript 
of  the  original  subscription. 

Add.  17,934. 

EoU.  172;  14  in.  by  9;  30  lines,  7  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursjve  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

The  sixth  volume  of  the  same  work,  imper- 
fect at  beginning  and  end,  and  wanting  most 
of  the  rubrics. 

Two  leaves  are  lost  at  the  be^innins. 
four  after  fol.  2,  one  after  fol.  3,  and  one 
after  fol.  10.  About  fourteen  leaves  are 
wanting  at  the  end. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


93 


Add.  16,676. 

EoU.  125;  15  in.  by  9^;  21  lines,  6^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  bold  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  India, 
in  the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  seventh  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
containing  the  history  of  Abul-Ghazi  Sultan 
Husain  from  his  birth  to  his  death,  and  an 
account  of  his  sous,  brought  down  to  A.H.  929. 

Beg.  Ci*^J6  djjji^  iJ^a-  j^jb  o^l««>  J^-oa- 

In  a  short  preamble  the  author,  who  calls 
himself  Muhammad  B.  Khavand  Shah  (i.  e. 
Mir  Khwand),  says  that  after  completing  the 
previous  six  parts,  he  decided,  by  desire  of 
Mir  'All  Shir,  to  devote  a  seventh  volume  to 
a  record  of  the  life  and  reign  of  his  benefac- 
tor, Abul-Ghazi  Sultan  Husain.  This  pre- 
face, which  is  also  found  in  an  older  copy. 
Add.  7645,  may  have  been  written  by  Mir 
Khwand,  but  the  work  itself  cannot  be 
ascribed  to  him.  It  begins  with  a  short  sum- 
mary of  the  life  of  Sultun  Husain,  which  is 
brought  down  to  his  death  in  A.H.  911,  i.  e. 
to  a  period  by  eight  years  later  than  the 
death  of  the  supposed  author.  A  still  later 
date,  A.H.  929,  is  mentioned  in  several 
places,  foil.  118  a,  124  6,  etc.,  as  that  at  M^hich 
the  work  was  written.  Lastly,  this  so-called 
seventh  volume  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa  agrees 
word  for  word,  excepting  the  preamble,  with 
that  portion  of  the  Habib  us-Siyar,  which 
treats  of  Sultan  Husain's  reign  5  see  Bombay 
edition,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  201—374. 

Khwand  Amir  says,  in  the  Khulasat 
ul-Afkar,  Or.  1292,  fol.  394,  that,  owing  to 
the  want  of  authentic  records  of  the  events 
of  Sultan  Husain's  reign,  the  seventh  volume 
of  the  Rauzat  us-Safii  had  been  left  un- 
finished, and  adds,  that  he  hoped  to  be 
able  to  complete  it  himself  at  some  future 
time,  if  he  could  obtain  the  necessary  ma- 
terials. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  in  the  Bombay 


edition  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa  the  name  of 
Ghiyas  ud-Din  Khondah  Mir  jJw.  »jj^  is  sub- 
stituted in  the  preface  of  this  seventh  volume 
for  that  of  Mir  Khwand. 

Add.  23,507. 

Poll.  80 ;  12  in.  by  8 ;  19  lines,  5  in.  long; 
written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Baghdad,  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  1242  (A.D.  1826).  [Rob.  Tayi.or.J 

The  geographical  Appendix,  «^U-,  to  the 
Rauzat  us-Saffi.. 

Beg.  ,J^.  ji^  ^^^  j.r*»  yj  ^^^^  *^jj  j^j'-"  *«^^ 

In  some  copies  this  heading  is  left  out  and 
•the  text  begins  with  the  next  sentence :  j) 

jjl»i  »JJ^^  ^^ji:^  *-r*^'*lj  ^ji^  '-r'^J^  <-§]) 

A  statement  of  the  contents  has  been 
given  by  Aumer  in  the  Miinich  Catalogue, 
p.  66.  A  portion  of  the  conclusion  of  the 
work,  containing  a  panegyric  on  Mir  'Ali 
Shir,  has  been  translated  by  Jourdain  in  the 
Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  ix.,  pp.  125 — 131, 
and  the  same  writer  shows  further  on  that 
the  Khatimah,  although  probably  the  work 
of  Mir  Khwand,  contains  some  additions  of 
later  date,  apparently  due  to  Khwand  Amir. 

It  has  been  noticed  by  M.  Barbier  de  Mey- 
nard.  Journal  Asiatique  6"  Serie,  vol.  xvi., 
p.  464,  that  the  account  of  Herat  in  the 
Khatimah  is  an  unacknowledged  extract  from 
the  history  of  that  city,  entitled  Rauzat 
ul-Jannat,  by  Mu'in  ud-Din  Asfizari. 

Copyist :  <i^  ^^  ^^ 

Add.  26,305. 

Poll.  148;  7  in.  by  4i;  15  lines,  2J  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Rabi'  L, 
A.H.  981  (A.D.  1573).  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

An  imperfect  copy  of  the  same  Appendix, 
wanting  eight  leaves  in  the  beginning,  three 
after  fol.  50,  two  after  fol.  61,  and  seventeen 
after  fol.  144. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  found  the  following  title 


94> 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


in  the  handwriting  of  Wm.  Erskine:  "Tak- 
vim  ul  Bildan  e  TJlugh  Beg." 

Add.  25,779. 

Poll.  114;  8i  in.  by  4|;  19  lines,  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  ruled  margins, 
probably  in  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 


\Juo}\ 


&*ai 


The  same  Appendix,  also  imperfect.  It 
wants  three  pages  at  the  beginning,  and  two 
leaves  after  fol.  29. 

Add.  25,796. 

Poll.  130;  10  in.  by  5f ;  14  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Cueeton.] 

The  same  Appendix,  wanting  the  first 
page.  A  spurious  beginning,  supplied  by  a 
later  hand,  is  endorsed  ^^ljJ\  oULia  air-* 

This  MS.  bears  the  stamp  of  General  Claud 
Martin. 

Add.  17,935. 

Poll.  78;  Hi  in.  by  7 ;  13  lines  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-rviled  margins ;  dated  A.H.  1263  (A.D. 

1847). 

The  same  Appendix,  with  the  heading  j^ 

\suci\  Laj.   jJiJtA 

Add.  7642. 

FoU.  461  ;  12|  in.  by  8^ ;  29  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  neat  Naskhi ; 
with  two  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins  ; 
dated  RabI'  I.,  A.H.  987,  and  Zul-ka'dah, 
A.H.  988  (A.D.  1579—1581).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

Volumes  I.  and  II,  of  the  Rauzat  us  Safa, 
written  by  the  same  hand,  and  bound  in  one. 

Vol.  II.  begins  fol.  215  b. 

Copyist  :  aUl  ^%j)  ^Ji  ti)i\  Jii 


Or.  1113. 

Foil.  517 ;  13J  in.  by  9|; ;  28  and  29  lines, 
5|  in.  long ;  written  in  neat  Naskhi,  with 
two  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  appa- 
rently in  the  16th  century. 

[Wareen  Hastings.] 

Volumes  I.  and  II.  of  the  Rauzat  us- Safa, 
written  by  the  same  hand,  and  bound  in  one. 
Vol.  II.  begins  fol.  242  b. 

This  MS.  appears  to  have  belonged  to  the 
imperial  library  of  India :  the  first  page 
contains  several  'Arz-didahs  and  seals  of  the 
reigns  of  Akbar,  Jahangir  and  Shahjahan. 

Add.  16,674. 

Foil.  396  ;  14|  in.  by  9| ;  24  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  appa- 
rently in  the  16th  century.        [Wm,  Yule.] 

Volumes  III.  and  IV.  of  the  same  work. 

The  first  few  lines  of  the  text  are  written 
in  white  on  the  first  two  opposite  pages,  in 
the  centre  of  a  broad  and  richly  illuminated 
border.  The  beginning  of  vol.  IV.,  fol. 
173  b,  is  marked  by  a  plainer  'Unvan. 

Add.  16,675. 

Foil.  339  ;  14|  in.  by  9f ;  29  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  two  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins ; 
dated  Shavval,  A.H.  1029,  and  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  1028  (A.D.  1619—1620).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

Volumes  V.  and  VI.  of  the  same  work,  the 
latter  beginning  fol.  109  b. 
Copyist :   i^-^^-J^  xtf 

Add.  7645. 

Foil.  508 ;  15|  in.  by  8f ;  29  lines,  5^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  four 
'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently 
about  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


96 


Volumes  V.— VII.  of  the  Eauzat  us-Safa 
and  the  geographical  Appendix,  beginning 
respectively  on  foil.  1  b,  151  b,  381  b  and 
472  b.  Vol.  VII.  is  the  same  as  that  pre- 
viously described,  Add.  16,676  and  begins 
with  the  same  preface,  in  which  the  author 
calls  himself  Muhammad  B.  Khavand  Shah, 

On  the  first  page  of  this  MS.  is  impressed 
the  seal  of  an  Amir  of  Shahjahan's  court, 
Safshikan  Khan,  with  the  date  A.H.  1039, 
and  above  it  is  a  note  written  by  him,  stating 
that  he  presented  this  volume  to  his  brother 
Mirzci  Hasan,  in  A.H.  1043.  Mirza  Lashkari 
Rizavi,  who  received  at  the  accession  of  Shah- 
jahan  the  title  of  Safshikan  Khan,  died  in 
A.H.  1055.  See  Maasir  ul-Umara,  Add. 
6568,  fol.  370. 

On  the  same  page  is  a  note,  dated  A.H. 
1105,  stating  that  the  MS.  was  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Sharif  ud-Din  Hamid  Muhammad. 

Or.  1112. 

Eoll.  604  ;  15|  in.  by  9^  ;  29  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  three  'Un- 
vans  and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Mu- 
harram,  A.H.  1056  (A.D.  1646). 

[Wakren  Hastings.] 

Volumes  I. — III.  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
written  by  the  same  hand,  and  bound  in  one ; 
they  begin  respectively  on  foil,  lb,  222b,  466  b. 

Vol.  I.  must  have  been  written  at  least  a 
year  before  the  others,  for  we  find  on  its 
first  page  a  note  stating  that  it  was  pur- 
chased at  Dehli,  A.H.  1055,  by  Muhammad 
Salih  Tabib  Shirazi,  for  400  rupees. 

Add.  5546,  5547. 

Two  volumes  perfectly  uniform,  contain- 
ing respectively  foil.  267  and  365,  12  in.  by 
9 ;  25  lines,  6^  in.  long ;  written  in  Nes- 
talik  by  the  same  hand,  apparently  in  India, 
in  the  17th  century.  [Cha.  Hamilton.] 

Volumes  II. — IV.  of  the  same  work,  viz. 
vol,  II.,  wanting  the  last  leaf,  Add.   5546; 


vol.  III.,  Add  6547,  foil.  1—157,  vol.  IV., 
ib.  foil.  158—365. 

Copyist :  j^^x^^  Jtjcr 

On  the  first  leaf  of  Add.  5546  are  written 
the  names  of  two  former  owners,  Cha. 
Hamilton,  with  the  date  "Belgram,  1777," 
and  Rob.  Watherston. 

Add.  25,770-25,774. 

Eive  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  113,  135,  133,  189,  and  68 ; 
12  in.  by  7^  ;  35  lines,  4^  in.  long ;  written 
by  the  same  hand,  in  small  Nestalik,  with 
'IJnvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently 
.in  the  17th  century.  [Wm.  Cueeton.J 

Volumes  III, — VII.  of  the  same  work. 
Volume  VII.  is  simply  the  liistory  of 
Sultan  Husain's  reign,  transcribed  from  the 
Habib  us-Siyar,  without  any  preface.  There 
is  nothing  to  connect  it  with  the  Rauzat  us- 
Safa  but  the  endorsement  Jii*  liL*. .  The 
last  three  volumes  bear  evidence  of  havins: 
once  been  bound  together,  for  a  large  hole, 
apparently  the  work  of  rats,  goes  through 
the  back  of  all  three,  destroying  more  or 
less  of  the  writing. 

Add.  26,185. 

FoU.  223 ;  10|  in.  by  6f ;  21  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi ;  dated  Shavval, 
A.H.  1070  (A.D.  1660).        [Wm.  Erskine.J 

Volume  VII.  of  the  same  work  and  the 
geographical  Appendix,  the  latter  beginning 
fol.  151  b. 

Volume  VII.  has  the  preface  already  de- 
scribed :  see  Add.  16,676. 

Copyist  :    Ji'  c>^ 

Add.  18,540. 

Poll.  480 ;  21  in.  by  llf ;  50  lines,  8  in, 
long  ;  written  in  a  fair  Nestalik,  by  two  dif- 
ferent scribes,  with  seven  'Unvans  and  gold- 
ruled  margins ;  dated  A,H.  1256—1261  (A.D. 
1841 — 1845).  [J.  H.  Stekxschuss.] 


.  GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


The  Rauzat  iis-Safa,  complete  in  one 
volume.  This  fine  and  carefully  written 
copy  comprises  seven  parts,  namely  vols. 
I. — VI.  and  the  geographical  Appendix, 
which  is  here  entitled  vol.  VII.,  ^xaa  jAs-  , 
as  follows  :— Vol.  I.  fol.  1  h.  Vol.  II.  fol.  91  &. 
Vol.  III.,  fol.  205  h.  Vol.  IV.,  fol.  255  h.  Vol. 
v.,  fol.  322  h.  Vol.  VI.,  fol.  376  b.  Geogra- 
phical Appendix,  fol.  466  h. 

The  name  of  the  first  scribe  ^^  yb  i,.^ 
w-15  &j  (,>»liV'  J-s*.**"'  ix^  occurs  at  the  end 
of  the  first  and  fourth  volumes,  and  the 
dates  of  the  first  five  volumes  range  from 
A.H.  1256  to  1258. 

The  name  of  the  later  transcriber^'li!!  ^^ 
^_^bjjiC\  ,*-»'JD\  \jj^  ur?"^  d'^  ^^  found  at  the  end 
of  volume  VI.  with  the  date  A.H.  1260,  and 
also  in  the  final  colophon,  where  it  is  stated 
that  the  whole  work  was  transcribed  by 
order  of  the  noble  Sayyid,  Haji  Mir  Husaina, 
and  completed  in  Safar,  A.H.  1261. 

This  volume  is  bound  in  richly  painted 
and  glazed  wooden  covers.  The  paintings 
on  the  outer  sides  represent  an  encounter 
between  a  Persian  and  an  Indian  army,  led 
by  their  respective  kings;  those  on  the 
inner  sides,  horsemen,  apparently  Kajar 
princes,  hunting  the  lion,  the  boar  and  the 
gazelle. 

Add.  16,677. 

Eoll.  166;  12i  in.  by  7;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Zul-Hijjah,  A.H. 
1018  (A.D.  1610).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

This  MS.,  although  written  by  one  hand, 
and  having  all  the  appearance  of  a  con- 
tinuous text,  is  made  up  of  three  detached 
portions  of  the  Rauzat  us-Safa. 

I.  Eoll.  1 — 19.  Geographical  Appendix, 
from  the  beginning  to  the  middle  of  the 
chapter  on  islands. 

II.  Eoll.  20-41.    Another  fragment   of 


h  e  same  Appendix,  from  the  beginnino  of 
the  second  climate  to  the  end  of  the  account 
of  Shahrukh's  embassy  to  China. 

III.  Foil.  42— 166.  A  fragment  of  vol.  iii., 
from  the  rising  of  Mukhtar  at  Kufah,  A.H. 
64,  to  the  end  of  the  volume. 

Or.  1292. 

Foil.  406;  9J  in.  by  6^;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long,  in  a  page;  written  in  a  small  and  neat 
Naskhi,   with   'Unvan,    gold-ruled  margins 
and  gold  headings;    dated  Ramazan,  A.H 
917  (A.D.  1511). 

An  abridgment  of  general  history  from 
the  creation  of  the  world  to  A.H.  985. 

Author  :  Ghiya§  ud-Din  B.  Humam  ud- 
Dln,  surnamed  Khwand  Amir,  ^^  ^^.Jl  ^^U 

Beg.  }i^\s^  ^UjJ\  ^bj\^  our  *^i)^ 
European  writers  agree  in  calling  Khwand 
Amir  the  son    of   Mir   Khwand.      This  is 
nevertheless  an  error.     He  says  himself  in 
his  Habib  us-Siyar  (Bombay  edition,  vol.  ii., 
p.  198),  that  the   great  historian   was    his 
maternal  grandfather,  and,  if  such  testimony 
needed  confirmation,  it  would  be  found  in 
the  concurrent  statements  of  contemporary 
writers,    as    Sam    Mirza,   Tuhfah    i    SamT 
Add.  7670,  fol.  63  a,  and  Amin  Razi,  Haft 
Iklim,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  591  a.   He  was  born 
m  Herat,  A.H.  879  or  880,  and  found,  like 
his  grandfather,  a  kind  patron  in  Mir  'Ali 
Shir.     After  many  years  spent  in   bterary 
pursuits  in  his  native  city,  and  afterwards  in 
Basht,  a  village  of  Gharjistr.n,  he  repaired  in 
A.H.  934  to  India,  where  he  was  favourably 
received  by  Babar  and  held  in  high  honour 
by   his    successor    Ilumayun  ;    he   died   in 
Gujarat,  A.H.  941.     His  last  work,  Humayun 
Namah,  comes  down  to  the  end  of  A.H.  940. 
His    son   served  under   Akbar,    who    gave 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


97 


him  the  title  of  Sayyid  'Abd  Ullah  Khan. 
Khwand  Amir's  life  has  been  very  fully 
told  by  Quatremere,  Journal  des  Savants, 
1843,  pp.  386—394,  and  by  Elliot,  His- 
tory of  India,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  141—145,  and  v., 
p.  116;  see  also  Reinaud,  Biogr.  Univ., 
under  Khondemyr.  Eor  the  contents  of  the 
present  work  compare  Morley,  Descriptive 
Catalogue,  pp.  38—42,  and  the  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  68.  A  considerable 
portion  of  the  Khulasat  ul-Akhbar  has  been 
translated  by  Major  David  Price  in  his  Re- 
trospect of  Mohammedan  History. 

The  author  says  in  the  preface  that  his 
literary  pursuits  had  gained  for  him  the 
notice  and  kind  encouragement  of  Mir  'AH 
Shir,  who  in  A.H.  904  placed  all  the  his- 
torical works  of  his  library  at  the  disposal 
of  the  youthful  student.  He  immediately 
set  about  abstracting  their  contents,  and 
condensing  them  in  the  present  epitome, 
which  he  dedicated  to  his  noble  patron.  He 
states  at  the  end  that  he  had  performed  that 
task  in  the  space  of  six  months.  Although 
the  history  proper  in  the  Khulasat  ul-Akh- 
bar comes  to  a  close  with  the  second  accession 
of  Sultan  Husain  in  A.H.  875,  some  notices 
relating  to  the  sons  of  Abu  Sa  id,  foil.  374—5, 
are  brought  down  to  A.H.  905,  which  is 
stated  in  several  places,  foil.  374,  376,  391,  to 
be  the  year  in  which  the  work  was  written. 

It  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah,  ten 
Makalahs,  and  a  Khatimah,  as  follows:— 
Mukaddimah  ;  creation  of  the  World,  fol.  3  a. 
Makalah  I.  Prophets,  fol.  5  o.  II.  Philoso- 
phers, fol.  61  a.  III.  Early  kings  of  Persia, 
fol.  54  b.  Arab  kings,  viz.,  Lakhmis,  Ghas- 
sanis,  Himyaris,  fol.  79  a.  IV.  Muhammad, 
fol.  90  a.  V.  The  first  Khalifs  (Rrishidin) 
and  the  twelve  Imams,  fol.  122  a.  VI.  The 
Umayyades,  fol.  146  b.  VII.  The  Abbasides, 
fol.  169  6.  VIII.  Tahiris,  fol.  202  a.  Safiaris, 
fol.  203  6.  Samanis,  fol.  204  6.  Al  i  Buvaih, 
fol.  210  a.  Kabus  B.  Vashmagir,  fol.  216  a. 
Ghaznavis,  fol.  216  o.    Ismuilis  of  Maghrib, 


fol.  222  b,  of  Iran,  fol.  225  b.  Saljukis, 
fol.  229  a.  Khwarazmshahis,  fol.  244  a. 
Atabaks  of  Mausil,  Azarbaijan,  Ears,  and 
Luristan,  fol.  254  b.  Karakhitais,  fol.  259  b. 
Al  i  MuzafiFar,  fol.  261  b.  Sarbadars,  fol.  274  b. 
Ghuris,  fol.  277  b.  Slaves  of  the  Ghuris, 
fol.  279  b.  Kings  of  Sistan,  fol.  281  a. 
Kurts,  fol.  281  b.  IX.  Chingizkhan  and  his 
successors,  fol.  286  a.  X.  Timur  and  his 
successors,  down  to  A.H.  875.  Khatimah ; 
description  of  Herat,  and  biographical  no- 
tices on  eminent  contemporaries,  fol.  382  b. 
Copyist :  i^^\  ^j^  ^^.ii^\  u-*-* 

Add.  19,626. 

Foil.  390 ;  11  in.  by  6^  ;  23  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
the  17th  century.  [Sam.  Lee.] 

The  same  work. 

On  the  first  page  is  found  the  name  of 
Dr.  Woodburn,  with  the  date  "  Surat  1782." 

Add.  25,780. 

Poll.  200  ;  11  in.  by  6f  ;  19  Hues,  3|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins, probably  in  India,  in  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Cuketon.] 

The  latter  part  of  the  same  work,  be- 
ginning in  the  middle  of  the  account  of  the 
Khwarizmshahi  Dynasty,  Makalah  VIII. 

The  fly-leaf  contains  the  name  of  Francis 
Gladwin  and  William  Moorcroft,  of  Hajee- 
poor. 

Add.  25,781. 

FoU.  267;  12^  in.  by  7i;  20  lines,  5\  in. 
long ;  written  on  English  paper,  apparently 
in  India,  about  the  close  of  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  latter  half  of  the  same  work,  beginning 

with  the  heading  of  Makalah  VIII.    On  the 

fly-leaf  is  found  the  name  of  William  Franck- 

lin,  with  the  date  A.D.  1813. 

o 


98 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Add.  23,508. 

EoU.  315;  11|  in.  by  7^;  22  Hnes,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  fair  small  Nestalik ;  dated 
Eabr  I.,  A.H.  1025,  and  Jumada  II.,  A.H. 
1027  (A.D.  1616—1618).       [Eobt.  Tayloe.] 

A  work  on  general  history,  from  the 
earliest  times  to  A.H.  930,  by  the  same 
author,  viz.,  Ghiyiis  ud-Din  B.  Humam  ud- 
Din,  called  Khwand  Amir,  -Ufc  ^^  ^J>,iii^  i^Ufr 

Beg.  jlji^ls.  ^bui\jUi  J^Xi^^  J^}^ 

We  learn  from  the  preface  that  this  com- 
pilation was  undertaken  at  the  request  of 
the  author's  patron,  the  Sayyid  Ghiyas  ud-Din 
Muhammad  B.  Yusuf  ul  Husaini.  It  is  stated 
,  in  another  part  of  the  work  that  this  Ghiyas 
ud-Din  had  been  selected  by  Sultan  Husain 
for  the  mastership  of  one  of  the  Madrasahs 
of  Herat,  and  was  treated  with  great  favour 
by  that  Sultan's  successors,  Badi'  uz-zaman 
and  the  Uzbak  Shaibani.  Appointed  Kiizi  of 
Khorasan  and  civil  administrator  of  Herat 
by  Shah  Isma'  il  Safavi,  he  was  treacherously 
put  to  death  in  A.H.  927  by  Amir  Khan, 
who  governed  the  province  in  the  name  of 
Prince  Tahmasp. 

Khwand  Amir  proceeds  to  say  that  he  was 
engaged  on  the  first  volume  of  his  work 
when  he  thus  lost  his  patron,  and  such  was 
then  the  disturbed  state  of  Herat,  that  he 
had  given  up  all  hopes  of  completing  it,  when 
order  was  restored  by  the  arrival  of  the  new 
governor,  Diirmish  Khan,  who  was  sent  in 
the  same  year  by  the  Shah,  and  who  con- 
fided the  civil  administration  to  Karim  ud- 
Din  Khwjijah  Habib  ullah.  The  latter,  a 
man  of  great  learning  and  much  versed  in 
history,  and  who  is  referred  to  in  the  con- 
clusion of  the  Habib-us-Siyar  under  the 
name  of  his  native  place,  Savah,  received 


the  author  kindly  and  encouraged  him  to 
resume  his  interrupted  labours. 

From  the  conclusion  of  the  fourth  chap- 
ter of  vol.  iu.  (Add.  6532,  fol.  109  a)  it 
appears  that  the  author  brought  his  account 
of  the  reigning  sovereign,  Shah  Isma  il,  to  a 
close  in  the  month  of  Eabi'  I.,  A.H.  930  (a 
few  months  before  Shah  Ismail's  death). 
At  the  end  of  the  geographical  Appendix 
the  same  date,  A.H.  930,  is  given  in  two 
different  chronograms,  for  the  completion  of 
the  whole  work.  Some  verses  follow  in 
praise  of  the  author's  patron,  in  which  it  is 
said  that  the  work  was  called  Habib  us- 
Siyar  after  his  name. 

The  Habib  us-Siyar  has  been  printed  in 
Tehran,  A.H.  1271,  and  in  Bombay,  A.H. 
1273.  The  contents  have  been  fully  de- 
scribed by  Morley,  in  his  Catalogue,  pp.  42 
— 50.  Compare  Quatremere,  Journal  des 
Savant's,  1843,  pp.  386—394;  Elliot,  His- 
tory of  India,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  154 — 158 ;  Aumer, 
Miinich  Catalogue,  pp.  75—78  ;  Eliigel, 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  393  ;  and  Haj. 
Khal.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  14. 

The  work  is  divided  into  three  volumes 
(Mujallad),  each  subdivided  into  four  chap- 
ters (Juz). 

The  present  MS.  contains  the  first  volume. 

Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Introduction 
(Iftitah),  creation  of  the  World,  fol.  7  a. 
Juz  1.  Prophets  and  Sages,  fol.  9  b.  Juz  2. 
Kings  of  Persia  and  Arabia  before  Mu- 
hammad, fol.  97  b.  Juz  3.  Muhammad,  fol. 
153  b.  Juz  4.  The  first  four  Khalifs,  fol. 
244  b. 

Copyist:  i_jo..i^  V's^  MjJlt  sii\  c^\,ijt>  ^^\ 

Add.  27,237. 

Foil.  515 ;  9  in.  by  5| ;  19  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  four  'Un- 
vans  and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Rajab, 
A.H.  1005  (A.D.  1597). 

[SiK  John  Malcolm.] 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


09 


The  second  volume  of  the  same  work, 
divided  into  four  Juz,  as  follows  :  1.  The 
twelve  Imams,  fol.  1  h.  2.  The  Banu  Umay- 
yah,  fol.  91  b.  3.  The  Abbasides,  fol.  169  b. 
4.  The  following  dynasties :  Tahiris,  SaffTiris, 
and  Sfimanis,  fol.  277  b.  Ghaznavis,  fol. 
292  b.  Kings  of  Tabaristan,  fol.  315  b. 
Kings  of  Mazandaran,  fol.  329  a.  Al  i 
Buvaih,  fol.  333  a.  Aulad  i  Ziyar,  fol.  346  a. 
Ikhshid,  fol.  353  b.  The  Ismri'ilis  of  Magh- 
rib, fol.  355  a,  and  of  Iran,  fol.  363  b.  Sal- 
jQkis,  fol.  379  b.  Saljukis  of  Kirman  and 
Rum,  fol.  427  b.  Kings  of  Mausil  and  Syria, 
fol.  431  a.  Atabaks  of  Mausil,  fol.  433  b, 
Azarbrdjan,  fol.  438  a,  Ears,  fol.  440  a. 
Kings  of  Spain,  Ifrikiyyah  and  Maghrib, 
fol.  447  a.  Al  i  Ayyiib,  fol.  457  a.  The 
Ghuris,  fol.  468  b.  Slaves  of  the  Ghuris 
and  kings  of  Dehli,  fol.  475  a.  Kings 
of  Sistan,  fol.  482  b.  Khwarazmshahis,  fol. 
484  a. 

Copyist ;   j/obliyU.-  lij.^  ^^  jS-'^  i^>  e;*~»- 

Add.  17,925. 

Poll.  585;  15i  in.  by  10;  from  25  to  29 
lines,  5|;  in.  long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik, 
■with  ruled  margins  ;  dated  RabI'  I.  and  Ra- 
mazan,  A.H.  1022,  (A.D.  1613). 

Volume  III.  of  the  same  work,  containing 
four  Juz  and  an  Appendix,  as  follows  : 

I.  The  Khans  of  Turkistan.  Chingiz  Khan 
and  his  descendants  in  Iran  and  Turau,  fol. 
1  6—101  a. 

II.  Mamluk  kings  of  Egypt,  fol.  147  b. 
Karakhita'is  of  Kirman,  fol.  154  b.  Al  i  Mu- 
zaffar,  fol.  157  a.  Atabaks  of  Luristan,  fol. 
179  b.  Kings  of  Rustamdar  and  Mazanda- 
ran, fol.  180  b.  Sarbadrirs,  fol.  191  a.  Kurts, 
fol.  195  a. 

III.  Timur  and  his  descendants,  fol.  202  b. 
This  section  closes  with  an  account  of  the 
sons  of  Sultan  Husain,  which  is  brought 
down  to  the  time  of  writing,  i.  e.  A.H.  929. 


IV.  The  History  of  Shah  Ismail  Safavi, 
brought  down  to  AH.  930;  fol.  469  b. 

Conclusion  (Ikhtitam) ;  description  of  the 
inhabited  quarter  of  the  globe  and  its  curio- 
sities, fol.  555  a.  This  last  section  is  to 
sdme  extent  identical  with  the  Khatimah  of 
the  Rauzat  us-Safa,  which,  as  stated  above, 
has  been  partly  written  by  Khwand-Amir. 
In  the  present  copy  it  wants  a  few  lines  at 
the  end. 

Poll.  101 — 147  contain  a  duplicate  copy 
of  tlie  latter  portion  of  Juz  II.,  with  an  addi- 
tional chapter  not  found  in  other  copies. 
This  chapter,  which  is  inserted  between  the 
.account  of  the  Atabaks  of  Luristan  and  that 
of  the  kings  of  Rustamdar,  foil.  103  a — 120  a, 
is  headed  (^IL-jjifc  td)jl*  j^J,  and  treats,  at 
some  length,  of  the  kings  of  Dehli,  from  the 
accession  of  Ghiya§  ud-Din  Ball)an  to  the 
reign  of  Eiruz  Shah  B.  Rajah.  The  latest 
date  mentioned  is  A.H.  764,  and  the  last 
event  is  the  dismissal  of  Jam  Junah  to  his 
government  in  Sind,  which  is  said  to  have 
taken  place  a  few  years  later;  see  Briggs' 
Eirishtah,  vol.  i.,  p.  455,  vol.  iv.,  p.  424. 
The  author  states  here  that  this  account  ol 
Eiruz  Shah's  reign,  down  to  his  war  Avith 
Shams  ud-Din  Ilyas,  is  extracted  from  the 
Tarikh  i  Eiruzsliahi  of  Ziya  Barni,  and  the 
remainder  from  a  Risiilah,  written  by  Eiriiz 
Shah  himself,  adding  that  he  had  been 
unable  to  procure  any  further  information. 

A  note  written  on  fol.  202  b,  states,  that 
in  A.H.  1215,  this  MS.  became  the  property 
of  Muhammad  Rizii  B.  Abd  ur-Rashid  in 
Shlraz. 

Add.  16,678,  16,679. 

Two  uniform  volumes  containing  respec- 
tively foil.  496  and  497 ;  15^  in.  by  8| ;  28 
lines,  5|  in.  long  ;  written  in  cursive  Nesta- 
lik,  with  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
apparently  in  India ;  dated  A.H.  1104  (A.D. 
1692—3).  [Wm,  Ytjle.] 

2o 


100 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


jh^^     ^-r*Jf 


The  same  work  complete. 

Add.  16,678  contains  volumes  i.  and  ii.,  the 
second  beginning  on  fol.  241  b.  Eight  leaves 
at  the  end  are  occupied  by  a  full  table  of 
contents,  written  in  AH.  1217. 

Add.  16,679  contains  the  four  Juz  of 
volume  iii.  and  the  Conclusion,  beginning 
scveraUy  on  foil.  2  b,  77  b,  127  b,  372  b  and 
438  6. 

Both  volumes  bear  the  seal  of  an  Amir  of 
the  Court  of  Dehli,  Muzaffar  'All  Khan,  ser- 
vant of  Shah  *Alam  Padishah  Ghazi,  with  the 
date  A.H.  1123. 

Add.  6559. 

Poll.  290;  llf  in.  by  7i;  25  lines,  4f  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Un- 
van  and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the 
16th  century.  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  Habib  us-Siyar, 
with  marginal  corrections.  The  four  Juz 
begin  respectively  on  foil.  18  a,  89  a,  137  a, 
222  a. 

On  the  first  page  is  a  note  stating  that 
this  volume  was  bought,  together  with  two 
others  in  the  same  handwriting,  by  Ya'kub 
Beg  Chaghatai  out  of  the  estate  of  the  late 
Shari'at  Khan,  in  Shahjahanabad,  A.H.  1139. 
On  the  same  page  is  impressed  the  ofldcial 
seal  of  Mr.  James  Grant,  with  the  date  1193 
of  the  Bengal  sera. 

A  very  full  index  of  contents,  neatly  drawn 
up  in  tabular  form,  probably  in  the  18th 
century,  is  prefixed  to  the  MS.,  foil.  1 — 10. 

Add.  6560. 

Foil.  483;  llf  in.  by  7i;  26  lines,  4f  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  straggling  Indian  Nesta- 
lik ;  dated  Rajab,  A.H.  1195  (A.D.  1781). 

[J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 

The  four  Juz  begin  respectively  on  foil. 
11  a,  78  b,  149  a,  256  b. 


The  first  nine  leaves  contain  a  full  table  of 
contents. 

This  volume  bears,  like  the  preceding  and 
the  two  following,  the  seal  of  Mr.  James 
Grant. 

Add.  6561. 

Foil  569;  llf  in.  by  7^;  25  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India,  in  the  18th  century.        [J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  first  three  Juz  of  volume  iii.  of  the 
same  work,  beginning  respectively  on  foil. 
8  b,  143  a,  228  b. 

Scribe:   »jb^<i  ^^^  *?.l*  i^t^ 

A  full  table  of  contents,  written  by  the 
same  hand  as  the  text,  occupies  the  first 
seven  leaves. 

Add.  6562. 

Foil.  162 ;  llf  in.  by  7^ ;  25  lines,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [J.  F,  Hull.] 

The  fourth  and  last  Juz  of  the  same 
volume  iii.,  and  the  Conclusion,  beginning 
respectively  on  foil.  5  b,  and  118  a. 

At  the  end  is  a  versified  chronogram,  in 
the  hand  of  the  transcriber.  It  is  headed 
■^:-.*-»r  ]jj-i*  *'^]}  M'^'^  CjS^j  ^j\J  ,  and 
relates  to  the  birth  of  a  child  in  A.H.  993, 
a  date  probably  posterior  to  that  of  the 
transcription. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  contents,  foil.  1 — 4, 
uniform  with  that  of  Add.  6559,  and  written 
by  the  same  hand.  . 

Add.  22,692. 

Foil.  361 ;  11  in.  by  7  ;  23  lines,  4|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Sir  John  Campbell.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work.  The 
four  Juz  begin  respectively  at  foil.  11  b, 
113  a,  179  b,  277  b. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


101 


The  first  page,  a  few  lines  at  the  bottom 
of  fol.  360,  and  the  last  two  pages,  fol.  361, 
have  been  supplied  by  another  hand  in 
A.H.  1207. 

Add.  17,924. 

FoU.  397  ;  10  in.  by  5^ ;  23  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  probably  in  the 
17th  century. 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work,  imper- 
fect. It  wants  three  pages  at  the  beginning, 
and  about  sixteen  at  the  end  (Bombay  edition, 
vol.  i.,  pp.  77 — 84).  Moreover,  about  eight 
pages  of  the  preface,  containing  the  praises 
of  the  author's  patron,  Hablb-ullah,  have 
been  left  out  by  the  transcriber.  The  four 
Juz  begin  severally  on  foil.  8  a,  121  a,  198  «, 
and  309  b. 

At  the  top  of  the  first  page  is  impressed 
the  seal  of  Abu  Muhammad  Nasir  ut-TabrIzi, 
with  the  date  A.H.  1118. 

Add.  23,509. 

Foil.  197  ;  11  in.  by  6^ ;  25  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  with  TJnvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  dated  Sha'biin,  A.H. 
1011  (A.D.  1603).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

Juz  2 — 4  of  the  same  first  volume,  begin- 
ning respectively  at  foU.  2  b,  51  6,  133  b. 

An  Arabic  note  on  the  first  page  states 
that  this  volume  was  purchased,  A.H.  1213, 
of  Haji  Husain  Gul-khor  of  Isfahan. 

Add.  7640. 

Foil.  207  ;  15  in.  by  9i  ;  31  Hnes,  6|  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  with  ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work,  with 
marginal  notes  and  corrections.  The  four 
Juz  begin  respectively  on  foil.  1  b,  36  b,  64  b, 
107  b. 

An  old  folioing,  which  begins  at  195,  shows 


that  this  second  volume  was  once  bound  up 
with  the  first. 

At  the  end  is  a  note  stating  that  this  MS. 
was  purchased  in  Herat,  A.H.  1106. 


Add.  26,186. 

Foil.  196;  11|  in.  by  6^ ;  17  lines, 
4^  in.  long  ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated 
Shawal,  A.H.  1009  (A.D.  1600). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  fourth  Juz  of  volume  iii.  of  the  same 
work,  and  the  cosmographical  Conclusion. 
The  latter  begins  on  fol.  163  b. 

The  first  page  has  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand. 

Add.  7641. 

FoU.  151 ;  12  in.  by  7 ;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  ruled 
margins,  dated  A.H.  1026  (A.D.  1617. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  fourth  Juz  of  the  same  volume  iii., 
and  the  cosmographical  Conclusion,  the  latter 
beginning  on  fol.  Ill  b. 

Scribe  :   ^j\^  Jlo  j-»a^  ^^\  ^\  ^^] 

On  the  margins  of  foil.  125  b,  148  b,  and 
149  a,  there  are  some  notes  in  Shikastah,  re- 
lating to  a  plague  and  other  occurrences  at 
Baghdad  and  Karbala,  in  A.H.  1216—1218. 


Add.  23,510. 

Foil.  328 ;  11^  in.  by  7 ;  25  lines,  4J 
in.  long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik ;  dated 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1051  (A.D.  1641). 

[Rob.  Taylob.] 

The  last  two  Juz  of  the  same  volume  iii., 
beginning  respectively  on  foil.  1  b  and  230  a. 

Copyist :  t^J-ijJ  ,JV  t:;?'  •^--^  -^ 


102 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Add.  23,511. 

Foil.  241;  lOi  in.  by  7^ ;  17  lines,  4| 
in.  long;  written  in  Nestaltk,  dated  Jahan- 
glrnagar,  Rajab,  A.H.  1227  (A.D.  1812). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  fourth  Juz  of  volume  iii.,  and  the 
cosmographical  Conclusion,  the  latter  be- 
ginning on  fol.  176  6. 

Copyist :  y;i-»-  <^^ 

Add.  7639. 

Foil.  386 ;  13  in.  by  7^  ;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  dated  Charpadkan, 
Rabl'  II.,  A.H.  1031,  and  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1032 
(A.D.  1622—1623).  [CI.  J.  Rich]. 

Three  detached  portions  of  the  Habib  us- 
Siyar,  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  first  half  of  volume  i.,  breaking  off, 
fol.  139  a,  in  the  midst  of  the  account  of 
the  Himyarite  king,  Zu-Nuvas  (Bombay 
edition,  vol.  ii.  p.  56). 

2.  The  fourth  Juz  of  volume  ii.,  fol.  140  b. 

3.  The  first  Juz  of  volume  iii.,  fol.  291  b. 

Copyist :    j^_>^»-jJI  jb  jd    JUjb^   Jj^j 

A  note  on  the  first  page  states  that  this 
MS.  was  bought  in  Ispahan,  A.H.  1160,  by 
Haji  Mustaft.  Khan  Shamlu,  Persian  Am- 
bassador to  Turkey. 

Add.  6934. 

Foil.  376 ;  12  in.  by  7i ;  from  18  to  20 
lines,  4  or  B  in.  long ;  written  on  one  side  of 
the  paper  only,  by  the  Rev.  J.  Haddon 
Hindley.     The  paper  is  water-marked  1814. 

The  history  of  Hulagu  Khan  and  his  suc- 
cessors down  to  Abu  Sa'id,  from  the  first 
Juz  of  volume  iii.  of  the  Habib  us-Siyar 
(Bombay  edition,  p.  63 — 118). 


Add.  6935. 

Foil.  173  ;  9  in.  by  7 ;  from  13  to  15  lines, 
about  4  in.  long ;  written  by  the  same  hand 
as  the  preceding,  on  paper  water-marked 
1813. 

The  latter  portion  of  the  same  Juz,  from 
the  accession  of  Arpah  Khan  to  the  end. 
(Bombay  edition,  pp.  126 — 141.) 

Add.  26,188. 

Foil.  353 ;  lOf  in.  by  OJ  ;  19  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Ebskine.] 


J^jJ^j^\  ^Jo 


A  work  on  general  history  from  the  crea- 
tion of  the  world  to  the  10th  century  of  the 
Hijrah,  closing  with  a  detailed  account  of 
the  reign  of  Abul-Khair,  Khan  of  Kipchak. 

Author:  Mas  udi  [sic, for  Mas  ud]  B.  'U§man 

Kuhistani,  ^lL»ft^i'  ^J^^  i^  fj^yt,^ 

In  a  long  and  wordy  preface,  the  first  page 
of  which  is  wanting,  the  author  expatiates  on 
the  praises  of  his  sovereign,  Abul-Ghazi 
Sultan  'Abd  ul-Latif  Bahadur  Khan,  who, 
although  young  in  years,  was  leading  a  life 
of  austere  piety  and  devotion  to  his  people's 
welfare,  and  by  whose  commands  he  had 
written  the  present  work. 

The  Uzbek  'Abd  ul-Latif  Khan,  son  of 
Kiichkiinji,  succeeded  to  his  brother  Abd 
nUah  on  the  throne  of  Mavara  an-Nahr  in 
A.H.  947,  and  died  A.H.  959.  See  Jahan- 
ara.  Or.  141,  fol.  159;  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh, 
Add.  23,512,  fol.  168 ;  and  Eauzat  ut-Tahirin, 
Or.  168,  fol.  365. 

The  founder  of  the  Uzbek  Dynasty,  Abul- 
Khair  B.  Daulat  Shaikh  Oghlan,  from  whose 
name  the  title  of  the  work  is  derived,  was 
a  descendant  of  Juji,  son  of  Chingiz  Khan, 
He  added  Khwarazm  to  his  hereditary  estate 


GENEKAL  niSTORY. 


103 


of  Kipchak  in  A.H.  839,  and  died,  as  stated 
in  the  present  work,  in  A.H.  874.  See 
Senkowski,  Suppl6ment  k  I'histoire  des  Huns, 
p.  18;  Do  Guigues, vol.  iv.  pp.  432 — 35 ;  Ham- 
mer, Geschichte  der  Goldenen  Horde,  p.  397  ; 
Erskine,  History  of  India  under  Baber,  vol.  i., 
p.  29  ;  and  Abulgasi,  Histoire  Gen^alogique 
des  Tatars,  Leyde,  pp.  499 — 514. 

The  work  is  written  in  a  florid  prose, 
freely  interspersed  with  verses ;  it  is  much 
wanting  in  historical  precision,  and  contains 
no  reference  to  the  author's  sources.  Its 
latter  portion,  which  relates  to  the  little 
known  Uzbek  Dynasty,  but  is  imperfect  in 
the  present  copy,  alone  gives  it  some  value. 

Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  2  a ;  creation, 
Prophets  and  ancestors  of  Muhammad, 
fol.  11  b ;  Life  of  Muhammad,  fol.  28  a. 
Tabakah  1.  The  early  Khalifs  and  the  twelve 
Imams,  fol.  34  b.  Tabakah  2.  Banu  Umayyah, 
fol.  56  a.  Tabakah  3.  The  Abbaside  Khalifs, 
fol.  57  «  ;  The  early  kings  of  Persia  from 
Kayumars  to  Yazdajird,  fol.  77  b.  This 
section  is  made  up  to  a  great  extent  of 
extracts  from  the  Shahnamah.  Saffaris, 
fol.  170  b  ;  Samanis,  fol.  172  b ;  Ghaznavis, 
fol.  173  b ;  Saljukis,  fol.  189  b  ;  Chingiz 
Khan  and  his  successors,  down  to  the  accession 
of  Timiir  Ka'an  in  A.H.  694  ;  Hulagu  Khan 
and  his  successors,  fol.  272  a. 

This  last  section  breaks  off  on  fol.  321  5, 
in  the  account  of  the  defeat  of  Sultan  Ahmad 
Jalair  by  the  Turkoman  Karii  Yusuf,  near 
Tabriz  (A.H.  813;  see  Price's  Eetrospect, 
vol.  iii.  p.  513). 

The  last  heading  is^^.^  :>.^\JS  A:i\jiJJsi^ 

The  remainder  of  the  volume  is  taken  up 
by  the  history  of  Abul-Khair  IQian.  It 
begins  abruptly  on  fol.  322  a,  in  the  midst  of 
the  account  of  a  battle,  in  which  Mustafa 
Khan  was  routed  by  Abul-Khair  Khan,  and 
is  said  to  have  lost  4500  men.  The  next 
section  relates  to  Abul-Khair's  expedition 


against  the  fortress  of  Sighnak  jUi- 
where  he  spends  the  winter,  and  receives  in 
the  following  spring  intelligence  of  the  death 
of  Shrdirukh  (A.H.  850).  In  the  next  fol- 
lowing pages  the  author  dwells  at  some 
length  on  the  conflicts  that  ensued  upon  the 
death  of  Ulugh  Beg,  the  arrival  of  Abu 
Sa'id  Mlrza  at  the  Khan's  court,  and  the 
latter's  march  upon  Samarkand,  in  A.H. 
855,  in  support  of  Abu  Said's  claim  (see 
Price's  Eetrospect,  vol.  iii.  p.  576),  and,  after 
going  rapidly  over  the  latter  part  of  Abul- 
Khair's  reign,  he  brings  the  narrative  to  a 
close,  fol,  319,  with  the  record  of  Abul- 
Khair's  death  in  A.H.  874,  at  the  age  of 
fifty-seven.  Here  follows  an  enumeration  of 
his  children,  and  a  short  sketch  of  those  of 
his  descendants  who  reigned  in  Samarkand 
and  Khorasan.    These  last  are — 

His  grandson  Muhammad  Shaibani  Khan, 
who  ascended  the  throne  in  Samarkand, 
A.H.  906,  and  fell  in  an  encounter  with 
Shah  Ismail,  A.H.  916  ;  Abul-Khair  Khan 

Sivlnj,  ^>.yf,-^,  son  of  Abul-Khair  Khan,  who 
came  from  Tashkand  to  seize  upon  Samar- 
kand after  his  nephew's  decease,  but  resigned 
it  some  years  later  to  his  elder  brother, 
Abul-Mansur  KuchkOnji  Khan,  whose  reign 
lasted  about  twenty  years ;  the  latter's 
eldest  son,  Sultan  Abu  Sa'id  Bahadur,  who 
died  young,  after  a  reign  of  three  years ; 
Abul-Ghazi  'Abd  ul-Latif  Bahadur  Khan, 
who  was  Amir  of  tJratapa,  and  by  whose 
order  the  present  work  was  written,  succeeds 
to  his  brother  in  Samarkand,  while  another 
brother  'Abd  Ullah  Sultan  is  proclaimed  in 
Turkistan.  As  the  latter,  who  died,  after  a 
reign  of  six  months,  in  A.H.  947,  is  here 
spoken  of  as  still  reigning,  it  must  be  in- 
ferred that  the  author  was  writing  before 
that  date.  The  above  account  appears  to 
refer  exclusively  to  the  principality  of  Sa- 
markand ;  it  difiers  materially  from  the 
order  of  succession  recorded  in  the  Lubb  ut- 


104 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Taviirikh,  Jalianara,  and  Rauzat  ut-tahirin, 
which  is  as  follows  :  Kuchkunji,  A.H.  916 — 
936.  Abu  Sa'id  B.  Kuchkunji,  A.H.  936— 
939.  IJbaid  Khan  B.  Mahmud  Sultan  B. 
Abul-Khair,  A.H.  939—946.  'Abd  UUah  B. 
Kuchkunji,  A.H.  946—947.  'Abd  ul-Latif 
B.  Kuchkunji,  A.H.  947—959. 

At  the  end  of  this  volume,  fol.  352  a,  the 
descent  of  Abulkhair  Khan  from  Chingiz 
Khan  is  set  forth  as  follows : — 

(See  de  Guigues,  vol.  i.  p.  291,  and  Sen- 
kowski,  Supplement,  p.  17.) 

The  names  of  some  Amirs  of  his  court 
are  then  given,  and  finally  the  author  says 
that  he  will  now  proceed  to  record  the  life 
and  deeds  of  Muhammad  Shaibani  Khan. 

The  history  was  probably  brought  down 
to  the  time  of  the  reigning  Khan,  'Abd  ul- 
Latif. 

The  following  subscription  shows  that  this 
copy  was  written  for  a  Hindu  retainer  of  an 
Amir  of  the  Dehli  court,  called  Allah  Virdi 
Khan  :— 

^^     ^]j\j    ^^   i^\i,^y^_    ^J  <^   •   ■  .  ■  jUi» 

Or.  140. 

Poll.  77  ;  13  in.  by  7 ;  27  lines,  4f  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

^M   ^ 
An  abridgment  of  general  history,  from 
the  earliest  times  to  A.H.  948. 

The  author,  whose  name  does  not  appear 


in  the  text,  is  known  to  be  Amir  Yahya 
B.  'Abd  ul-Latif  ul-Husaini  ul-Kazvini,  jx*\ 

Beg.  j>  ^J^  cHi^^  "   \}^}"^   o-'^  J   '5-^ 

Amir  Yahya,  who  belonged  to  the  Saifi 
branch  of  the  Kazvin  Sayyids,  is  said  to  have 
been  so  thoroughly  versed  in  history'  as  to 
have  known  by  heart  the  dates  of  all  the  im- 
portant events,  as  well  as  those  of  the  death  of 
celebrated  men,  from  the  Hijrah  to  his  own 
time.  After  enjoying  some  favour  at  court 
he  was  denounced  to  Shah  Tahmasp  as  chief 
of  the  obnoxious  Sunnis  of  Kazvin,  and  died 
in  prison  at  Ispahan,  A.H.  962,  at  the 
age  of  seventy- seven.  See  Haft  Hdim, 
Add.  16,734,  fol.  493,  Maa§ir  ul-Umara, 
Add.  6568,  fol.  561,  and  Blochmann,  Ain  i 
Akbari,  vol.  i.,  p.  447.  His  grandson  Nakib 
Khan,  who  lived  at  the  court  of  Akbar,  has 
been  mentioned  above,  p.  57  b. 

The  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh  has  been  described 
by  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index, 
p.  134,  and  History  of  India,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  293 — 297.  Some  extracts  have  been 
given  by  Dr.  Dorn,  Asiatisches  Museum, 
p.  670,  and  Mdlanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  i.  p.  3. 
A  Latin  translation,  "  Medulla  Historiarum," 
has  been  published  in  Biisching's  Magasin 
fiir  die  Neue  Historic,  Halle,  1783.  See  also 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  v.  p.  307,  the  Vienna  Cata- 
logue, vol.  ii.  p.  71,  KraflFt's  Catalogue, 
p.  87,  Ouseley  Collection,  No.  322,  Ouseley's 
Travels,  vol.  ii.,  p.  401,  and  Uri,  Bodl.  Cata- 
logue, p.  279. 

The  work  was  written,  as  stated  in  the 
preface,  by  the  desire  of  Prince  Abu  l-Fath 
Bahram  Mirza,  the  fourth  son  of  Shah  Isma*!! 
Safavi  and  uterine  brother  of  Shah  Tahmasp 
(see  fol.  76  o),  and  was  completed  in  Zul- 
Hijjah,  A.H.  948  (see  fol.  77  a).  (Bahram 
Mirza  is  mentioned  by  his  brother,  the 
author  of  Tuhfah  i  Sami,  who  states  that  he 
died    A.H.  956.)    It  is  divided   into    four 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


106 


parts  (Icism)  of  very  unequal  length,  which 
are  enumerated,  with  all  their  subdivisions, 
as  follows : 

Kism  I.,  in  two  chapters  (Fasl).  1.  Mu- 
hammad, fo].  2  b.  2.  The  twelve  Imams, 
fol.  5  a. 

Kism  II.  Kings  anterior  to  Islamism,  in 
four  chapters  : — 1.  Plshdadis.  2.  Kayanis. 
3.  Muluk  ut-Tava'if.    4.  Siisanis,  fol.  10  a. 

Kism  III.  Kings  posterior  to  Islamism. 
It  contains  the  following  three  discourses 
(Makalah)  and  six  sections  (Bab)  : — Ma- 
kalah  1.  Abu  Bakr,  TJmar,  'Ugman,  fol.  18  a. 
Makalah  2.  Banu  Umayyah,  ib.  Makalah  3. 
Banu  'Abbas,  fol.  20  a. 

Bab  1.  Kings  of  Iran  in  the  time  of  the 
Abbasides.  It  contains  eleven  chapters 
(Fasl),  treating  of  the  following  dynasties : 

1.  Tahiris,  fol.  23  b.      2.  Saffaris,  fol.  24  a. 

3.  Samanis,  fol.  24  b.  4.  Ghaznavis,  fol.  25  b. 
5.  Ghuris,  fol.  26  b.  6.  Buvaihis,  fol.  27  b. 
7.  Saljfikis,  fol.  29  a.  8.  Khwarazmshahis, 
fol.  32  a.  9.  Atabaks,  fol.  33  a.  10.  Isma'ilis 
of  Maghrib  and  of  Iran,  fol.  35  a.  11.  Kara- 
khitais  of  Kirman,  fol.  37  a- 

Bab  2.  Moghuls,  from  Chingizkhan  to 
Abu  Sa'id,  fol.  38  a. 

Bab  3.  Muluk  ut-Tava"if,  or  local  dynas- 
ties which  succeeded  to  the  Moghuls  in 
Iran;  Five  chapters  : — 1.  Chupanis,  fol.  43  a. 

2.  Ilkanis,  fol.  44  a.  3.  Amir  Shaikh  Abu 
Ishak  Injii  and  the  Muzaffaris,  fol.  46  a. 

4.  Kurts,  fol.  48  b.     5.  Sarbadars,  fol.  50  b. 
Bab  4.  Timur  and  his  successors  in  Iran, 

fol.  52  b. 

Bab  5.  Turkish  kings,  i.  e.  Karakuyiinlus 
and  Ak-kuyunlus,  fol.  61  a. 

Bab  6.  Uzbeks  of  Mavara-unnahr  and 
Khorasan,  from  A.H.  900  to  the  date  of  com- 
position, fol.  67  b. 

Kism  IV.  History  of  the  Safavis,  the 
principal  object  of  the  work,  fol.  68  a.  This 
section  concludes  with  a  very  summary 
account  of  the  reign  of  Tahmasp,  to  the  full 
record  of  which  the  author  intended,  as  he  I 


states  in  his  last  lines,  to  devote  a  separate 
work. 

Add.  16,707. 

Foil.  159;  8  in.  by  4^;  21  lines,  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  TJnvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

Foil.  67 — 64  have  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand;  one  leaf  is  wanting  after  fol.  147. 
The  fly-leaf  contains  a  short  notice  of  the 
author,  from  the  Haft  Iklim. 

Add.  23,512. 

-  Foil.  187;  12  in.  by  7| ;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Bombay, 
Rabi'  II.,  A.H.  1242  (A.D.  1826). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  same  work. 

The  text  of  this  copy  contains  a  great 
number  of  obituary  notices  of  learned  men 
and  poets,  which  are  not  found  in  the  pre- 
ceding MSS.,  although  such  notices  are 
mentioned  by  the  author  in  his  preface  as 
coming  within  the  design  of  the  work. 
Other  additions,  however,  are  evidently 
foreign  to  the  original,  as,  for  instance,  the 
mention  of  the  death  of  Humayun  in  A.H. 
963,  fol.  148. 

At  the  end,  and  in  the  same  hand  as  the 
text,  is  found  an  extensive  notice  on  the  au- 
thor, foil.  185  b — 187  a,  in  which  his  amazins 
knowledge  of  history  and  his  facetious  dis- 
position are  dwelt  upon  at  some  length. 
Amir  Nasir  ud-Din  Yahya  ul-Husaini  ur- 
Razi,  as  he  is  here  called,  was  born  in  A.H. 
885,  and  discharged  during  fifty  years  the 
office  of  Kazi-l-kuzat  in  Kazvin.  In  A.H. 
960  he  was,  by  order  of  Tahmasp,  transferred 
in  custody  to  Ispahan,  where  he  died  on  the 
23rd  of  Rajab  A.H.  962.  The  latter  date  is 
confirmed  by  a  versified  chronogram,  written 
by  a  contemporary  poet,  Maulana  Nazuki. 

Copyist :  j<X^  ^^\M  Jp  J-^  j,^ 


106 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Add.  26,286. 

Foil.  248;  9^  in.  by  7;  19  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik ; 
dated  ShaTian  A.H.  970  (A.D.  1563). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

"Picture-gallery,"  a  collection  of  interesting 
narratives  and  curious  notices,  culled  from 
the  standard  works  of  Mohammedan  history. 

Author :  Ihn  Muhammad  Ahmad,  .x^  ^^\ 


Beg.  jjUu«,\G  sjjjlG  ^j\j  jjU-jjl^  sjjjy^  ^^\ 

The  author,  who  calls  himself  in  the  pre- 
face simply  Ibn  Muhammad  Ahmad,  is 
generally  known  by  the  name  of  Kazi  Ahmad 
Ghaffari.  His  surname  is  derived  from  the 
name  of  his  ancestor,  a  Shafi'i  lawyer  of  great 
repute,  Imam  Najm  ud-Din  'Abd  ul-GhaflPar 
Kazvini,  who  died  A.H.  665.  He  wrote, 
besides  the  present  work,  an  excellent  com- 
pendium of  history  called  Jahanara,  and  died 
in  the  port  of  Daibal,  Sind,  on  his  return  from 
a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  A.H.  975 ;  see  Haft 
Iklim,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  494,  and  Bada'uni, 
Oude  Catalogue,  p.  56.  Sam  Mu'za  mentions 
both  Kazi  Ahmad  and  his  father,  Kazl  Muham- 
mad Ghaffari,in  his  Tuhfah  i  Sami,  Add.  7670, 
fol.  70;  he  states  that  the  father,  who  was 
Kazi  of  Rai  and  wrote  poetry  under  the  name 
of  Visali,died  A.H.  933,and  that  the  son,Kazi 
Ahmad,  an  elegant  writer  of  prose  and  verse, 
had  been  some  time  staying  in  his  (Sam  Mir- 
za's)  house.  The  contents  of  the  Nigaristan 
have  been  very  fully  stated  by  Krafft,  Cata- 
logue, pp.  87 — 90.  See  also  Hammer,  Schone 
Redekiinste,  pp.  307—9  ;  Morley,  Descriptive 
Catalogue,  p.  50 ;  Dorn,  S.  Petersburg  Cata- 
logue, p.  276,  and  Asiatisches  Museum, 
p.  676 ;  lastly,  Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  ii. 
p.  504.  The  work  has  been  lithographed  at 
Bombay,  A.H.  1245  and  1275.  A  Turkish 
translation  is  preserved  in  MS.,  Add.  7852. 


The  preface  contains,  in  some  copies,  a 
dedication  in  prose  and  verse  to  the  reign- 
ing Shah  (Tahmasp),  which  is  not  found  in 
the  present  copy,  but  occupies  three  pages  in 
the  next.  Add.  23,767,  foU.  3  b—4>  b.  At  the 
end  of  the  preface  the  author  enumerates  all 
the  works  which  he  has  used  in  the  present 
compilation.  The  following  are  mentioned 
in  this  copy  and  in  Or.  240,  in  addition  to 
those  given  by  Krafft,  p.  87,  and  by  Dorn, 
Asiat.  Mus.  p.  677 :  No,  15.  Eirdaus  ut-Tavii- 
rlkh,  by  Maulana  Khusrau  Abarkuhi.  No.  23. 
Futuhiit  i  Miranshahi,  by  Maulana  Sa'd  UUah 
Kirmanl.  No.  24.  Masalik  i  Mamillik,  by 
Maulana  'Abd  ur-RahIm  Mashhadi.  No.  25. 
Tarikh  i  Sayyid  Zahir  Mazandarani.  No.  26. 
Tarikh  i  Vasit,  by  Sayyid  Ja'far  B.  Muhammad 
B.  Hasan  ul-Ja'fari. 

The  narratives  are  arranged  under  the 
dynasties  to  which  they  relate,  in  a  series 
extending  from  the  time  of  Muhammad  to 
the  beginning  of  the  10th  century  of  the 
Hijrah,  and  short  chronological  notices  of 
the  various  dynasties  are  inserted  in  their 
proper  places.  The  date  of  composition, 
A.H.  959,  is  expressed  by  the  words  ^^^J^^J^ 
^\j,  in  a  versified  chronogram  with  which 
the  work  concludes. 


Or.  240. 

FoU.  278 ;  8^  in.  by  5| ;  17  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

FoU.  9 — 39  have  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand,  to  fill  up  a  lacune  of  the  original  MS. 
The  same  hand  has  restored  foil.  2 — 8,  the 
bottom  part  of  which  had  been  torn  off. 

The  first  and  last  leaves  bear  the  stamps 
of  the  kings  of  Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah  and 
Amjad  *Ali  (see  above,  p.  28  b). 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


107 


Add.  23,767. 

Foil.  215;  81  in.  by  5;  17  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  on  tinted 
paper,  with  TJnvan  and  gold-ruled  margins ; 
dated  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1014  (A.D.  1605). 
Bound  in  gilt  and  stamped  leather  covers. 

The  same  work. 

Add.  22,694. 

FoU.  254 ;  11  in.  by  6 ;  18  lines,  S^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  1044  (A.D.  1634). 

[Sir  John  Campbell.] 

The  same  work. 

The  first  two  leaves  are  slightly  torn.  The 
last  two  have  lost  a  few  lines  at  the  top. 

Copyist:  i^a^/ji  j^l/j.^  oJj  j^J^j** 

Add.  7648. 

Foil.  261  ;  8|  in.  by  5 ;  17  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  fair  Nestalik  ;  dated 
Surat,  Eabi'  I.,  A.H.  1080  (A.D.  1669). 

[01.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work,  wanting  a  few  lines  at 
the  beginning. 

This  copy  was  written,  as  stated  at  the 
end,  for  Mirzii  Eiza  KuH,  at  the  time  that  he 
arrived  at  Surat  to  fill  the  post  of  Divan  and 
Vaki'ah-Navis,  by  a  writer  in  his  service. 


Add.  23,513. 

Foil.  489  ;  14|  m.  by  9^ ;  27  lines,  6^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestaiik,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins;  dated  Zul  Hijjah,  A.H.  1095 
(A.D.  1684).  ■   [Rob.  Tayloe.] 

A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  970. 


Author:  Khwurshah  B.  Kubad  ul-IJusaini 
Beg.    Ll*»«li-j   o'<jj9-^   JiMjii   «ic-*  &»-U>.i 

The  first  two  lines  have  been  written  by  a 
later  hand,  to  supply  a  defect  of  the  ori- 
ginal MS. 

The  author  is  called  in  the  next  copy, 
Or.  153,  the   Envoy  of  Nizamshah  of  the 
Deccan,   ^J^li   »ll*liaij_j;^-^  .      He  tells  us 
himself,  in  his  account  of  the  Safavi  Dynasty, 
Or,    153,  fol.  60  a,  that    he  was   sent   by 
Nizamshah  on  an  embassy  to  Shah  Tahmiisp, 
and  arrived  at  Rai  in  the  month  of  Rajab, 
A.H.  952.     He  sent  on  his  credentials  to  the 
Shah,  who  was  then  encamped  at  Firuzkuh, 
and  by  whose  order  he  proceeded  to  Kazvin. 
There  he  obtained,  a  month  later,  his  first 
audience,  offered  to  the  Shah  the  presents  he 
had  brought,  to  the  value  of  a  thousand 
Tumans,  and  answered  his  gracious  inquiries 
after  his   sovereign   (Burhan  Nizam  Shah) 
and  the  holy  Sayyid,  Shah  Tahir,  who  had 
brought  over  the  latter  to  the  true  faith  of 
the  Shi'ah.     He  remained  for  a  year  and  a 
half  in  attendance  on  the  Shah,  whom  he 
followed  in  his  campaign  in  Gurjistan  and 
Shirvan.      His  stay  in  Persia  was  of  long 
duration ;  for  nineteen  years  later,  A.H.  971, 
we  still  find  him  at  the  court  of  Tahmasp 
(Or.  153,  fol.  45  a).    The  Shah  was  then 
preparing  to  send  Kaba  Beg,  a  KurchI,  on  a 
mission  to  Kutub  Shah,  king  of  Tilinganah, 
and  among  the  presents  intended  for  the 
latter  was  a  record,  drawn  up  by  the  Shah 
himself,  of  his  deeds  from  the  beginning  of 
the  Turkish  war  to  the  latest  date.      The 
author  being  at  that  time  engaged  on  the 
present  work,  which  had  been  perused  by 
His   Majesty,   this    record    was    graciously 
communicated  to  him  for  his  own  use  ;  and 
indeed  we  find  his  account  of  that  period 
enriched  with  several  extracts  from  that  in- 
teresting autobiography,  in  which  Tahmasp, 

p2 


108 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


like  his  contemporary  Biibar,  speaks  in  the 
first  person;  see  Or.  153,  foil.  45,  63,  70. 
The  author's  long  residence  at  the  Persian 
court,  and  the  rare  opportunities, which  he 
enjoyed,  there,  give  an  exceptional  import- 
ance to  that  portion  of  his  history.  He 
also  visited  Gilan  and  Mazandaran,  and  his 
detailed  account  of  the  later  rulers  of  those 
countries  is  therefore  of  no  ordinary  value. 

Our  author  is  mentioned  by  Pirishtah  at 
the  beginning  of  his  account  of  the  Kutub- 
shahs,  Bombay  edition,  vol.  ii.  p.  328.  He 
says  that  Shah  Khwurshah,  a  native  of  Irak, 
had  written  in  the  time  of  Ibrahim  Kutub- 
shah  (A.H.  957 — 988)  an  extensive  historical 
work,  comprising  a  full  account  of  that 
dynasty,  but  that  he  had  not  been  able  to 
procure  a  copy.  A  record  of  the  author's  death, 
found  at  the  end  of  the  next  copy,  Or.  122, 
is  entitled  to  some  credit ;  for  it  was  written 
at  the  time,  and  by  the  transcriber  who 
completed  the  MS.  only  five  days  before  that 
event.  He  died,  as  there  stated,  in  Golconda, 
on  the  25th  of  Zul-Ka'dah,  A.H.  972. 

In  his  preface  the  author,  after  expatiating 
on  the  usefulness  of  history,  states  that,  in 
spite  of  the  troubles  of  exile  and  the  pressure 
of  many  duties  and  cares,  the  thought  had 
occurred  to  him  to  write,  in  plain  and  easy 
language,  a  compendium  of  history  from  the 
beginning  of  the  world  to  the  time  of  com- 
position, and  to  grace  it  with  the  exalted 
name  of  a  sovereign,  whose  eulogy  follows. 
But,  in  a  long  string  of  pompous  titles,  the 
name  is  the  very  thing  that  is  wanting.  It 
is  added,  however,  that  the  history  of  that 
monarch  will  be  fully  told  in  the  sixth  Guf- 
tar  of  Makalah  VII.,  and  as  the  last  section 
is  entirely  devoted  to  India,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  the  author's  own  sovereign  is 
here  meant.  This  was  Shah  Husain  Nizam 
Shah,  who  succeeded  to  his  father  Burhan, 
the  convert  of  Shah  Tahir,  in  A.H.  961, 
and  died  on  the  7th  of  Zul-Ka'dah,  A.H. 
972,  consequently   a    few   days   before   the 


author.     See  Burhan  ul-Maa§ir,  Add.  9997, 
fol.  128  b. 

The    author    then    gives    the    following 
account  of  his  sources : 


^V  J 


^1)15:2^  **w 


^^-  J  ijji^   j£j 


u  "iJlk.  j\ 


j\  J  ^dj  ^j^  ^5LJ^  in*'*  ^^  ?:-^J  f?.W  J^  J 
J  i3m>\J{  )b\sit\  vl*«^L-^  «5  \Le^\  'Lojj  tl*3\S  jJj»- 
Cj\)3\j    ^j^jJl  t— *5  ji  J  tiy^    (_s^^     iS^Mt\    a-->)^ 

djj  I  ^^\JJ  jjLs-  ji  Obl^  ui*>  (read  ^^j)  ji  ,xZt 

In  addition  to  the  above,  we  find  also  fre- 
quent quotations  from  Tarikh  i  Guzldah, 
Habib  us-Siyar,  Zafar-Namah,  and  its  Mu- 
kaddimah. 

The  work  bears  no  specific  title.  It  is 
called  after  its  author's  ofiicial  designation, 
s'^  ^Uai  j_y=:V.'  ^J3 .  It  has  been  stated  above 
that  the  author  was  engaged  upon  it  in  A.H. 
971 ;  that  year  is  several  times  mentioned 
in  the  body  of  the  work  as  the  current  year ; 
namely,  foil.  280  b,  431  a,  and  Or.  153, 
foU.  110  b,  112  b,  113  b;  but  in  another 
place,  fol.  267  b,  we  find  A.H.  970. 

It  is  divided  into  an  Introduction  (Mukad- 
dimah)and  seven  books  (Makalah),  subdivided 
into  discourses  (Guftar),  as  follows : 

Alukaddimah.  Object  of  the  creation  of  the 
world  and  of  Adam;  Adam's  descendants, 
down  to  Noah,   and  the  deluge,  fol.  5  a. 

Makalah  I.,  in  five  Guftars :  1.  Pishdadis 
and  contemporary  prophets,  fol.  13  b.  2.  Ka- 
yanis  and  contemporary  prophets,  fol.  45  a. 
3.  Alexander,  the  Aslikanis,  and  Muluk  ut- 
tava'if;  prophets  and  philosophers  of  the 
same  period,  fol.  59  a.  4.  Sasanis,  fol.  69  b. 
5.  Kings  of  Yaman  and  some  of  the  Roman 
emperors,  fol.  82  a. 

Makalah  II.,  in  five  Guftars:  1.  Life  of 
Muhammad,  fol.  86  6.     2.  The  first  three 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


109 


Khalifs,  fol,  110  b.  3.  'Ali  and  the  Imams, 
fol.  114  b.  4.  The  accursed  Banu  Umayyah 
and  the  Shi'is,  who  as  Mukhtar  and  others 
rose  against  them  to  avenge  the  hlood  of 
Husain,  fol.  135  b.  5.  The  downfall  of  the 
Banu  Umayyah,  and  the  rise  and  rule  of  the 
Banu  'Abhas,  the  accursed,  fol.  141  b. 

Makfilah  III.     Dynasties  which  rose  in  the 
time  of  the  Abbasides,  in  thirteen  Guftars: 

I.  Tahiris,  fol.  149  a.     2.  Safiaris,  fol.  150  a. 

3.  Samanis,  fol.  153  b.  4.  Al  i  Buvaih, 
foh  160  b.  5.  Ghaznavis,  fol.  168  b.  6.  Kings 
of  Ghur  and  Gharjistan,  fol.  180  a.  7.  Isma'i- 
lis  of  Maghrib,  fol.  183  b,  and  of  Iran,  fol. 
189  b.  8.  Saljukis,  fol.  198  a.  9.  Kings  of 
Nimruz,  fol.  217  a.     10.  Kurts,  fol.  217  b. 

II.  Atabaks  of  Mausil,  Azarbaijan,  Ears,  and 
Luristan,  fol.  222  a.  12.  Khwarazmshahis, 
fol.  226  b.  13.  Karakhita'is  in  Kirman,  fol. 
238  a. 

Makalah  IV.,  in  four  Guftars  :  1.  Genealogy 
of  the  Turkish  tribes  and  ancestors  of  Chin- 
giz  Khan,  fol.  239  a.  2.  Chingiz  Khan,  fol. 
243  b.  tJkta'i  Ka'an  and  his  successors,  down 
to  Kubila  Ka'an,  fol.  254  a.  Karii  Hulagu  and 
his  successors  in  Mavara-unnahr,.  down  to  the 
time  of  Timur,  fol.  260  b.  Descendants  of 
JujI  in  the  North  and  in  Mavarii-unnahr, 
down  to  Pir  Muhammad,  the  reigning  Khan 
in  Balkh,  in  the  author's  time,  A.H.  970,  fol. 
263  b.  3.  Hulagu  Khan  and  his  successors 
in  Iran,  down  to  the  defeat  of  Sultan  Ahmad 
Jalair  by  Kara  Yusuf  (A.H.  813),  fol.  2i87  b. 

4.  The  MuzafFaris,  fol.  296  a. 

Makalah  V.,  in  three  Guftars:  1.  Amir 
Timur,  fol.  312  b.  This  section  is  abridged 
from  the  Zafar  Niimah.  2.  Shahrukh  and 
his  successors,  down  to  the  submission  of 
Mirza  Muhammad  Zaman  to  Babar,  A.H.  923, 
and  his  subsequent  restoration  of  the  Kha- 
nate of  Balkh,  fol.  361  a.  3.  Babar,  fol. 
407  a.  Humayun,  fol.  418  b.  Akbar,  fol. 
430  b.  The  account  of  the  last  reign  is  very 
brief.  It  is  chiefly  taken  up  with  the  rebel- 
lion and  death  of  Bairam  Khan,  and  closes 


with  the  defeat  of  Miran  Mubarak  Shah  by 
•Abdullah  Khan  (Uzbak,  A.H.  970.) 

Makalah  VI.,  in  five  Guftars:  1.  Kara 
Kuyunlus,  fol.  431  a.  2.  Ak  Kuyunlus,  fol. 
436  b.  3.  Shah  Imail  Safavi,  fol.  445  a. 
Shah  Tahmasp,  fol.  464  b. 

A  comparison  of  this  last  section,  with  the 
corresponding  part  of  the  next  copy,  Or.  153, 
shows  that  its  latter  portion,  foil.  477  b — 
482  a,  extending  from  A.H.  943  to  972,  al- 
though in  appearance  a  continuation  of  what 
precedes,  is  no  part  of  Khwurshah's  work. 
It  is  taken  from  Nusakh  i  Jahanara  (see 
p.  Ill,  Or.  121,  foil.  220  6—237),  with  some 
intentional  alterations  in  the  wording.  The 
'  same  remark  applies  to  the  next-following 
Guftar,  headed  c^^  j  O^U  j^Lj  jit  J^LiS 
^JImj^  j^^^U.,  the  contents  of  which,  with 
the  corresponding  portions  of  Ghaffari's  work, 
are  as  follows :  Sultans  of  Tabaristan,  from 
Husain  B.  Zaid,  A.H.  250,  to  Gllan  Shah, 
A.H.  470,  fol.  482  a=Nusakh  i  Jahanara, 
Or.  141,  foil.  57  5—61.  Second  Sayyid 
Dynasty  of  Gilan,  or  the  Kar  Kiyas,  from 
AH.  763  to  972.  The  Mar'ashi  Sayyids  of 
Mazandaran  and  the  Ruz-afzunis,  fol.  483  b  = 
Or.  141,  foil.  68  o— 75  b.  Kings  of  Rustam- 
dar  or  Gaoparah,  and  kings  of  KujQr,  fol. 
485  6= Or.  141,  foil.  144  6—149  b.  Bavan- 
dis  and  Jalavis,  fol.  487  a=Or.  141,  foil. 
140  a— 144  b.  The  Musha'sha'  Sayyids  of 
Khuzistan,  fol.  488  6= Or.  141,  foil.  75  b— 
77  a.  Here  the  present  volume  ends.  Accord- 
ing to  the  preface,  the  remaining  sections 
are   the  following:     Guftar   5  of  Makalah 

VI.  Padishahs  of  Rum  (Turkey).     Makalah 

VII.  Sultans  of  India,  in  five  Guftars- 
1.  Sultans  of  Dehli.  2.  Afghan  Dynasty 
of  Dehli.  3.  Khiljis  of  Bengal  and  Mandu, 
4.  Kings  of  Gujarat.  5.  Bahmanis  of  the 
Deccan. 

Transcriber :  ^JJ^.i>^}^  ,_/-J  «>-^  ij>.  Ji-»»- 
This  MS.  contains   marginal  additions  of 
some  extent,  written  by  the  same  hand  as  the 


no 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


text,  such  as  the  history  of  Mukhtar  from  the 
Tarikh  i  Tabarl,  foil.  149—157,  the  Hfe  of 
Safl  ud-Din  from  the  Lubb  ut-tavarlkh, 
foil.  464—468,  and  others.  On  foil.  269— 
274  is  the  tale  of  Bahram  and  Bihriiz,  two 
brothers  who  lived  in  Tabaristan,  written  by 
another  hand  in  A.H.  1182. 

Or.  153. 

Foil.  122  ;  lOJ  in.  by  5^ ;  23  lines,  3f  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins ;  dated  the  20th  of  Zul-Ka'dah,  A.H.  972 
(A.D.  1565).  [Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy,  which  was  completed  five  days 
before  the  author's  death,  is  far  more  correct 
than  the  preceding.  It  contains : — Guftar  3 
ofMakalahVI.  Shah  Ismail,  fol.  2  6.  Shah 
Tahmasp,  fol.  32  b.  The  very  full  account 
of  the  latter's  reign  is  brought  down  to  the 
confinement  of  Sam  Mirzfi  in  the  fortress  of 
Kalikahah,  A.H.  969,  and  closes  with  a  chap- 
ter on  the  praiseworthy  quaUties  of  Tahmasp. 

Guftar  4.  Rulers  of  Tabaristan  and  adjoin- 
ing countries,  who  reigned  in  the  time  of 
Shah  Isma  il  and  Tahmasp,  and  acknowledged 
their  sovereignty.  It  comprises  the  following 
dynasties : 

1.  Kings  of  Shirvan,  fol.  79  :  Shirvan  Shah 
Farrukh-yasar,  who  defeated  Sultan  Haidar 
Safavi  in  A.H.  893,  and  fell  in  battle  with 
Shah  Isma'il,  A.H.  906.  His  son  Shaikh 
Shah,  who  submitted  to  Shah  Isma'il  A.H. 
914.  Sultan  Khalil,  who  died,  after  a  reign 
of  twenty-five  years,  in  A.H.  943.  Shah- 
rukh  Sultan,  brother's  son  of  Khalil,  who 
drove  the  usurper  Kalandar  Beg  from  Sha- 
makhi,  and  finally  surrendered  to  Tahmasp. 

2.  Sultans  of  the  Jilanat,  in  two  branches  : 
a.  Rulers  of  Bayah  Pish,  capital  Lahijan, 
fol.  82  b ;  Kar  Kiya  Mirza  'All,  who  resigns 
the  throne,  A.H.  910,  to  his  brother  Kiir 
Kiva  Sultan  Hasan.  The  latter  is  murdered 
A.H.  911.    Kar  Kiya  Sultan  Ahmad,  his  son, 


who  dies  A.H.  940.  The  latter's  son,  Sultan 
Sayyid  Kiya  'All.  Kar  Kiya  Sultan  Hasan, 
who  puts  to  death  the  preceding,  his  elder 
brother,  and  dies  A.H.  944.  His  son  Khan 
Ahmad,  who  was  reigning  when  the  work 
was  written.  —  b.  Rulers  of  Bayah  Pas, 
capital  Rasht,  fol.  86  b.  Amirah  Husiim  ud- 
Din,  who  submits  to  Shah  Isma'il  in  A.H. 
911.  His  son  Muzafiar  Sultan,  whose  land  is 
conquered  by  the  rulers  of  Lahijan  in  A.H. 
943,  and  who  dies  in  exile. 

3.  Rulers  of  Mazandaran,  fol.  87  b.  Aka 
Rustam  Riiz-afzun,  who  dies  A.H.  916.  Mir 
'Abd  ul-Karim  B.  Amir  'Abd  Ullah,  who 
dies  A.H.  932.  Amir  Shahi,  his  son,  who 
dies  A.H.  939.  Aka  Muhammad  Ruz-afzun, 
who  submits  to  Tahmasp,  A.H.  952,  and 
reigns  thirty-six  years.  Amir  'Abd  Ullah 
B.  Amir  Mahmiid  B.  'Abd  ul-Karim,  who 
reigns  twelve  years.  Amir  Sultan  Miirad 
B.  Amir  Shahi,  the  reigning  Amir. 

4.  Rulers  of  Rustamdar,  fol.  96  a.  Malik 
Ka'us  in  Kujii  ^^  and  Malik  Bahman  in 
Nur,  who  both  voluntarily  submit  to  Shah 
Ismail,  but  subsequently  repel  the  army 
sent  against  them  by  Tahmasp,  under  com- 
mand of  Ilkas  Mirza.  Their  sons  Jahangir 
and  Kayumar§,  the  reigning  Maliks. 

5.  Sayyids  of  Hazarjarib,  fol.  96  b.  They 
descend  from  Sayyid  'Imad,  who  received 
that  district  in  fief  from  Timiir,  and  are 
divided  into  two  branches,  called  Razi  ud- 
Dini  and  Jabra'ili.  Mir  Husain,  the  head  of 
the  first,  submitted  to  Shah  Isma'il  at  the 
hands  of  'Durmish  Khan,  but  subsequently 
rebelled  and  was  put  to  death  in  A.H.  929. 
The  second  branchy  is  represented  by  two 
chiefs,  Mir  Hariin  and  Mir  Riih  Ullah.  The 
first  died  A.H.  916,  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  Mir  Mu'in  ud-Din,  and  tlie  latter's 
sons  Sultan  Hashim  and  Sultan  Hasan.  The 
second  submitted  to  Shah  Isma'il,  A.H.  916, 
and  died  A.H.  927.  His  son  Amir  'Abd 
Ullah  plundered  the  Persian  army,  beaten 
by  'Ubaid  Khan  Uzbak  in  A.H.   933,   and 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Ill 


■was  put  to  death  in  the  following  year  hy 
Shiih  Tahmasp. 

Guftar  5.  Sultans  of  Turkey,  from  their 
origin  to  the  surrender  of  Sultan  Bayazld 
by  Tahmasp,  A.H.  969,  fol.  99  h. 

Makalah  VII.  Muslim  dynasties  of  India. 
It  is  stated  in  the  heading  to  comprise  six 
Guftars,  but  this  copy  contains  only  the  five 
following : — 1.  Sultans  of  Dehli,  from  Kutb 
ud-Din  Aibak  to  the  overthrow  of  'Ala  ud-Din 
B.  Muhammad  Shah  B.  Farid  Shah  by  Sultan 
Bahlul  Afghan,  in  A.H.  855,  fol.  103  h.  2. 
Afghans  of  Dehli,  from  Bahlul  Lodi  to  the 
defeat  of  Iskandar  by  Humayun  in  A.H. 
962.  Sultan  Husain  Sharki  in  Jaunpur,  fol. 
109  a.  3.  Khiljis  of  Bengal,  from  Muhammad 
Bakhtiyar  to  the  defeat  of  Mahmud  B.  Firuz 
Shah  by  Shir  Khan,  A.H.  945,  fol.  110  5. 
Khiljis  of  Mandu,  down  to  Ghiya§  ud-Din  B. 
Sultan  Mahmud,  who  was  dethroned  by 
Sultan  Bahadur  of  Gujarat,  fol.  112  a.  4. 
Kings  of  Gujarat,  from  Muzaffar  Shah,  A.H. 
793,  to  Mahmud  B.  Latif  Shah,  murdered  in 
A.H.  961.  5.  Bahmanis  of  Deccan,  from 
'Alii  ud-Din  Hasan,  A.H.  748,  to  the  death 
of  Mahmud  Shah  (A.H.  928)  and  the  dis- 
memberment of  the  realm. 

The  author  mentions,  in  conclusion,  the 
five  Amirs  who  then  assumed  independent 
power,  viz.  Nizam  ul-Mulk,  'Adil  Khan, 
Kutb  ul-Mulk,  'Imad  ul-Mulk,  and  Kasim 
Barid.  He  adds  that  a  record  of  the  dy- 
nasties founded  by  them  will  form  the  subject 
of  a  separate  work,  sj.****'  ^^S^ 

At  the  end  of  the  account  of  the  Safavis  is 
found  a  list  of  the  later  Shahs,  written  in 
the  margin  by  Maulavi  Muhammad  Husain 
Shirazi,  A.H.  1216.  It  concludes  with 
Sultan  Muhammad  Mirzii  B.  Sultan  Sulai- 
man  II.,  who  was  proclaimed  in  A.H.  1200 
by  Muhammad  Khan  Kajar,  and  soon  after 
repaired  to  India. 

A  note  on  the  first  page  states  that  this 
second  volume  of  the  Tarikh  of  the  Elchi  i 
Nizam  Shah  was  added  to  the  library  of  the 


long ; 


prince  just  mentioned,  the  last  of  the  Safavis, 
in  A.H.  1201. 

The  contents  of  this  MS.  have  been  in- 
corporated into  the  Fava'id  i  Safaviyyah, 
Or.  139. 

Or.  141. 

Foil.  237;  9^  in.  by  6^;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  972. 

Author:  Ahmad  B.  Muhammad  ul-Kazi, 

called  al-Ghaffari,  ^yJx^\  ^^\  o^  ^^,  j-»».\ 

The  author  is  the  same  who  wrote  the 
Nigaristan  (see  above,  p.  106).  The  contents 
of  the  Nusakh  i  Jahan  ara,  or,  as  it  is  com- 
monly called,  Jahan-ara,  have  been  noticed 
by  Hammer,  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  69,  Anz.  Blatt, 
pp.  35 — 37.  A  short  section  has  been 
edited  by  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley,  Epitome  of  the 
ancient  history  of  Persia,  where  a  brief 
account  of  the  work  will  be  found,  p.  xxxv. 
Compare  also  Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol. 
iv.  pp.  298 — 300 ;  Hammer,  Geschichte  der 
goldenen  Horde,  p.  xxiv.,  and  Schone  Re- 
dekiinste  Persiens,  p.  350,  and  Flvigel,  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  72. 

The  author  says  in  his  preface  that,  having 
spent  a  lifetime  in  the  pursuit  of  history, 
he  wished  to  collect  in  a  single  volume  the 
records  of  kings  ancient  and  modern,  gathered 
both  from  standard  works  and  from  special 
treatises,  concluding  with  the  history  of  the 
Safavi  dynasty.  He  then  launches  into  a 
pompous  panegyric  on  the  reigning  monarch 
Abid-Muzaffar  Shah  Tahmasp  Bahadur  Khan, 
and  ends  by  remarking  that,  as  the  work 
consisted  of  three  parts  called  Nuskhah,  it 


112 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


was  fitly  called  "  Nusakh  i  JaLan  Ara,"  a 
title  expressing  the  date  of  composition, 
namely  A.H.  971. 

It  must  be  observed,  however,  that  in  the 
body  of  the  work,  fol,  71  6,  A.H.  972  is  ex- 
pressly called  the  current  year,  and  that  in 
several  places,  as  foil.  75  a,  151 «,  237  h, 
events  of  that  year  are  recorded.  It  is 
therefore  probable  that  in  the  above  chrono- 
gram the  first  Alif  of  \J^  must  count  for  two, 
which  would  give  972. 

This  work  is  remarkable,  both  for  the  con- 
siderable number  of  local  and  otherwise 
little  known  dynasties,  which  it  comprises  in 
a  condensed  summary,  and  for  its  peculiar 
and  instructive  arrangement,  according  to  the 
filiation  or  natural  connection  of  dynasties. 

It  is  divided  into  three  books  (Nuskhah) 
of  very  unequal  length,  and  minutely  subdi- 
vided into  sections  and  subsections,  bearing 
the  fanciful  names  of  "  leaves,"  "  pages," 
"lines,"  "sentences,"  "words,"  and  "let- 
ters," all  of  which  are  fully  stated  in  the  pre- 
face, foil.  5  h—1  h. 

Contents :  'Unvan,  or  Introduction,  in  two 
sections    (Harf) :     1.    Age    of    the    world. 

2.  Meaning  of  the  word  "  Prophet,"  fol.  7  h. 
Nuskhah    I.,    containing    two    "verses," 

(Ayah) :  1.  Prophets,  fol.  8  a.  2.,  in  two 
"Texts"  (Nass):   a.  Muhammad,  fol.  16  h. 

b.  The  twelve  Imams,  fol.  19  b. 
Nuskhah  II.,  containing  two  Sahifahs,  as 

follows  :  Sahlfah  I.,  in  two  Safhahs  : 

Saf  hah  1,  containing  four  Satars  :  1.  Plsh- 
dadis,   fol.   26   a.     2.   Kayanis,   fol.    27   a. 

3.  MuMk  ut-tava'if,  in  two  Harfs :  a.  Ashka- 
nis,  fol.  27  b.  b.  tJshkanis,  or  descendants 
of  Fariburz,  fol.  28  a.  4.  Sasanis,  fol.  28  b. 
Saf  hah  2,  in  six  Satars :  1.  Kings  of  Baby- 
lon, or  Kaldanis  (Chaldees),  fol.  30  b.  2.  Sur- 
yanis  or  Nabatis,  fol.  31  a.  3.  Kings  of 
Yiinan,  or  Ptolemies,  fol.  31  b.  4.  Kings  of 
Yaman,  in  three  Harfs  :  a.  The  Tubba's,  fol. 
32  a.    b.  The  Habash  (Abyssinians),  fol.  32  b. 

c.  The  A'ajim  (Persians),  fol.  33  a.     5.  The 


Bani  Ghassan  or  Al  i  Jafnah,  fol.  33  b. 
6.  The  Khakans  of  the  Turks,  from  their 
origin  to  YasQka  Bahadur,  the  father  of 
Chingiz  Khan,  who  died  A.H.  562,  fol.  33  b. 

Sahlfah  II.,  treating  of  Islamitic  kings, 
contains  the  following  twenty  Safhahs  : 

Safhah  1.  Bani  'Abd  ush-Shams  or  Umay- 
yades  in  two  Harfs :  a.  The  wicked  race 
which  unjustly  ruled  over  the  Muslim  lands, 
fol.  36  b.  b.  The  Umayyades  of  Spain  and 
Maghrib,  fol.  38  b. 

Safhah  2.  Al  i  'Abbas,  in  two  Satars: 
1.  The  great  Abbasides,  from  their  rise  to 
their  overthrow,  A.H.  656,  fol.  40  a.  2.  The 
Abbasides  of  Egypt,  fol.  44  b.  Offshoots  or 
vassals  (furu')  of  the  Abbasides,  in  five  Harfs  : 
a.  Tahiris,  fol.  45  a.  b.  Bani  Aghlab  in 
Ifrikiyyah,  fol.  45  b.  c.  Tulunis,  fol.  46  b. 
d.  Ikhshldis,  fol.  47  a.  e.  Al  i  Hamdan, 
fol.  47  b. 

Safhah  3.  The  Sayyids  who  became  rulers 
of  countries,  in  six  Satars  :  1.  The  Sultans  of 
Spain,  from  Idris  B.  Abdullah  (A.H.  169)  to 
the  death  of  Muhammad  B.  Idris,  surnamed 
Mahdi  (A.H.  445),  fol.  49  b.  2.  The  Sultans 
of  Yaman,  from  Yahya  B.  Husain,  called 
Hadi  (A.H.  280),  to  Abu  Muhammad  'Abdul- 
lah B.  Muhammad  B.  Kasim,  fol.  51  a. 
3.  The  Sharifs  of  Makkah,  from  Ja'far  B. 
Hasan  (A.H.  360)  to  Rumaithah  B.  Muham- 
mad B.  'Ajlan,  fol.  51  b.  4.  The  Isma'ilis  of 
Maghrib,  fol.  54  a.  Their  offshoots,  in  two 
Harfs :  a.  The  Sanhiijis,  from  Amir  Yiisuf 
(A.H.  361)  to  the  fall  of  Hasan  B.  'Ali 
(A.H.  554),  fol.  56  a—b.  The  Himyaris  or 
Alamutis,  from  A.H.  483  to  654,  fol.  56  b. 
5.  Sultans  of  Gilan  -and  Mazandaran,  in  two 
Fikrahs:  a.  The  early  kings,  from  Hasan 
B.  Zaid  (A.H.  250)  to  Ismail  B.  Abu  '1-kasim 
Ja'far,  in  the  4th  century,  fol.  57  b.  Their 
offshoots,  in  three  Harfs:  1.  Ali  Ziyar,  from 
their  rise  to  the  death  of  Gilan  Shah  (A.H. 
470),  fol.  59  b.  2.  Al  i  Buvaih,  from  their 
rise  to  the  faU  of  Khusrau  Piriiz  (A.H.  447), 
fol.  61  b.     3.  The  Kakuyah,  from  Abu  Ja'far 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


113 


Kakuyah  (A.H.  398)  to  the  death  of  'Alfi  ud- 
Daulah  Faramurz  (A.H.  536),  fol.  66  *. 
Offshoot  of  the  Kakuyah :  Atabak  Sam  and 
his  successors  in  Yazd,  from  Atabak  Sam, 
who  died  A.H.  690,  to  Atabak  Yusuf,  who 
succeeded  liis  brother,  'Ala  ud-Daulah,  A.H. 
673,  fol.  67  a.  b.  The  later  kings,  in  two 
P^alimahs  :  1.  the  Kar-KivfTs  of  GUan,  from 
Sayyid  'AH  Kiya  (A.H.  763)  to  Kar  Kiya 
Khan  Ahmad,  who  was  reigninginA.il.  972, 
fol.  68  a.  2.  The  Kivamis,  or  Marashi  Say- 
yids,  from  Mir  Kivam  ud-Dln  (A.H.  760)  to 
Mu-  'Abd  ul-Karim  who  died  A.H.  972,  fol. 
71  h.  Offshoot  (Far") :  The  Ruz-Afzilnis,  *.  e. 
Aka  Eustam  (A.H.  916)  and  his  son  Aka  Mu- 
hammad, who  died  A.H.  964,  fol.  75  a.  6.  The 
Musha'sha'  Sayyids  of  Khuzistan,from  Sayyid 
Muhammad  B.  Falah  to  Maula  Sajjad  B. 
Badran,  who  was  still  ahve,  fol.  75  b.  Off- 
shoot :  The  Ea'nashis  in  Dizful,  from  Shaikh 
Muhammad  B.  Kivam  ud-Din  to  'Ala  ud- 
Haulah,  who  fled  to  Baghdad,  A.H.  949, 
fol.  76  b* 
.    Safhah  4.  Ban!  Lais  or  Saffaris,  fol.  77  a. 

Safhah  5.  Al  i  Saman,  fol.  80  a.  Their 
offshoots,  in  four  Satars  :  1.  Alptiginis, 
fol.  82  a.  2.  Subuktiginis,  fol.  82  b.  3.  Al  i 
Farighun  or  Khwiirazmshahs,  from  Mamun 
Ahmad  B.  Muhammad  Khwarazmshah,  who 
died  A.H.  387,  to  Amir  Abu'l- Abbas  Mamun 
(A.H.  407),  fol.  86  a.  4.  Bani  Ilyas  in 
Bukhara  and  Kirman,  from  Amir  Abu  'All 
Muhammad  B.  Ilyas  (A.H.  327)  to  Sulaiman 
B.  Abu  'All  (A.H.  359),  fol.  86  b. 

Safhah  6.  Al  i  Saljuk,  in  four  Satars: 
1.  Saljuks  of  Iran,  fol.  87  b.  2.  Saljuks  of 
RQm,  fol.  92  a.  3.  Saljuks  of  Syria,  from  Tiij 
ud-Daulah  Tanish  B.  Arsalan,  A.H.  470,  to 
Ibrahim  B.Rizvan,who  died  A.H.552,fol.  95  b. 
4.  Saljuks  of  Kirm/in,  from  Kiivard  B.  Ja'far 
Beg,   A.H.   467,  to   Muhammad    Shah    B. 


•  A  great  part  of  Safhalis  3  and  14  is  found  inserted 
in  a  copy  of  the  Tarikh  i  Elchi  i  Nijamshah  ;  see  above, 
p.  109  b. 


Bahram  Shah,  A.H.  668,  fol.  96  b.  Appendix. 
Some  isolated  rulers  of  Kirmfin. 
Offshoots  of  the  Saljuks,  in  two  Harfs: 

1.  Freedmen  (Mavilli)  of  the  Saljuks,  in 
seven  Kalimahs :  1.  Khwarazmshilhis,  fol.  98  b. 
Their  offshoot,  the  Karakhitais  of  Kirman, 
fol.  100  b.  2.  The  Tughtiglnis  in  Syria, 
from  Tughtigin  to  Mujir  ud-Din  Abak,  A.H. 
549,  fol.  102  a.  3.  The  Atabaks  of  Azar- 
baijan,  fol.  103  a.  4.  The  Atabaks  of  Filrs, 
or  Salghuris,  fol.  103  b,  and  of  Shabangarah, 
from  Fazl  B. .  Hasan,  called  Fazlawaih,  to 
Malik  Ardashir,  A.H.  664,  fol.  105  a.  5.  The 
Atabaks  of  Syria,  fol.  107  a.  6.  The  Atabaks 
of  Mausil,  fol.  107  b.  Offshoot :  Badr  ud- 
Din  Lulu  and  Malik  Sahh,  fol.  108  a.  7.  The 
Muayyidis,  from  Muayyid  ud-Din  Ainah, 
who  died  A.H.  567,  to  Sanjar  Shiih  B. 
Tughan  Shah,  A.H,  595,  fol.  108  b. 

11.  Amirs  of  the  Saljuks,  who  founded 
dynasties,  in  four  Kalimahs :  1.  Danish- 
mandis,  from  Amir  Danishmand  to  Ibrahim 
B.  Muhammad,  who  died  A.H.  560,  fol.  109  b. 

2.  Urtukis,  from  Urtuk  to  Nasir  ud-Din 
Mahmud,  who   died  A.H.   619,  fol.  110  a. 

3.  The  Sallkis,  from  Amir  Sallk,  A.H.  556, 
to  Malik  Shah  B.  Muhammad,  A.H.  597, 
fol.  110  b.  4.  Mangujakis,  from  Mangujak  to 
Malik  Da'ud  B.  Bahram  Shah,  fol.  Ill  a. 

Safhah  7.   The  Ayyubis,  in  two   Satars : 

1.  Ayyubis  of  Egypt  and  Syria,  fol.  Ill  a. 

2.  Ayyubis  of  Yaman,  fol.  113  «.  Offshoot : 
Mamluk  Kings  of  Egypt  down  to  its  con- 
quest by  Sultan  Salim,  fol.  113  b. 

Safhah  8.  Ghuris,  in  two  Satars :  1.  Kings 
of  Ghur  and  Ghaznin,  fol.  116  b.  2.  Kings 
of  Bamiyan,  fol.  118  a.  Offshoots  in  two 
Harfs  :  1.  The  slaves  of  Sultan  Shihab  ud- 
Din,  who  became  kings,  from  Taj  ud-Din 
Ilduz  to  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Kaikubad,  fol.  118  b. 
2.  The  Amirs  of  the  Ghuris,  in  two  Kali- 
mahs :  a.  The  Khiljis,  from  Muhammad 
Bakhtiyar  to  Sultan  Mahmud,  defeated  by 
Timur,  A.H.  801,  "fol.  120  b.  b.  The  Kurts, 
from  Malik  Shams   ud-Din   to   Ghiyag  ud- 

Q 


lU 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


Din  Pir  'All,  conquered  by  Timur,  A.H.  783, 
fol.  122  a. 

Safhah  9.  Sultans  of  Maghrib,  in  four 
Satars :  1.  Bani  Lakhm,  fol.  123  b.  2.  Mu- 
lassamin,  fol.  124  a.  3.  Muvahhidin,  fol.  124  a. 
4.  Bani  Marin,  fol.  125  b. 

Safhah  10.  Arab  Amirs,  in  three  Satars : 

1.  Bani  Kilab,  or  Al  i   Mirdas,  fol.  126  a. 

2.  Bani  'TJkail,  fol.  126  b.  3.  Bani  Asad,  or 
Mazyadis,  fol.  128  a. 

Safhah  11.  Greek  Emperors,  from  Heraclius 
to  John  (Comnene),  fol.  129  a. 

Safhah  12.  Eulers  of  Turkistan  and  Ma- 
vara  an-nahr,  in  two  Satars  :  1.  Khakans  of 
the  Turks,  of  the  race  of  Afrasiyab,  from 
Bukra  Khan,  A.H.  380,  to  Sultan  'U§man  B. 
*Ali,  who  died  A.H.  609,  fol.  132  a.  2.  The 
Karakhitrds,  also  called  Gurkhans,  in  Ma- 
varil  an-nahr,  from  Giirkhan,  A.H.  522,  to 
Gurkhan  II.,  captured  A.H.  610,  fol.  134  b. 

Safhah  13.  Eulers  of  the  Kurds  and  Liirs, 
in  two  Satars  :  1.  The  Kurds,  in  two  Harfs  : 

a.  Rulers  of  Diyar  Bakr,  from  Ahmad  B. 
Marvan  in  the  time  of  the  Khalif  Kadir 
to  Mansur  B.  Basr,  who  died  A.H.  489, 
fol.  135  a.  b.  Eulers  of  Dinavar  and  Shah- 
razur,  from  Hasan vaih  B.  Husain,  A.H.  359, 
to  Abu  Mansur  B.  Badr,  A.H.  500,  fol.  135  b. 
2.  The  Lurs,  in  two  Harfs  :  a.  Lur  Buzurg, 
from  Fath  ud-Din  Eazlavaih  to  Shah  Husain 
B.  Abu  Sa'id,  who  died  A.H.  827,  fol.  137  a. 

b.  Lur  Kiichak,  from  Shuja'  ud-Din  Khur- 
shid,  A.H.  580,  to  Shah  Rustam,  who  suc- 
ceeded his  father  Jahangir  Sultan  in  A.H. 
949,  fol.  138  b. 

Safhah  14.  Kings  of  Tabaristan  and  Rus- 
tamdar,  in  two  Satars  :  1.  The  Bavandis  of 
Mazandaran,  in  three  Eirkahs  :  a.  Eourteen 
kings,  from  Kabus  B.  Kubad,  brother  of 
Aniishirvan,  to  Rustam  B.  Shahriyar,  who 
died  A.H.  419,  fol.  141  a.  b.  Eight  kings, 
from  Husam  ud-Daulah  Shahriyar  B.  Karan, 
A.H.  486,  to  Shams  ul-Muluk  B.  Shah 
Ardashir,  who  died  A.H.  606,  fol.  141  b. 
0.   Seven    kings,    from    Husam    ud-Daulah 


Ardashir,  A.H.  635,  to  Fakhr  ud-Daulah 
Hasan,  who  died  A.H.  750,  fol.  143  a.  Off- 
shoot :  The  Chalavis,  from  Afrasiyab,  A.H. 
750,  to  Mir  Husain  Kiya,  who  died  A.H. 
909,  fol.  144  a.  2.  Kings  of  Rustamdar 
or  Gaoparah,  from  Jamasp  B.  Eiriiz,  uncle 
of  Aniishirvan,  in  two  Harfs :  a.  Dabiiyah 
and  his  descendants,  from  A.H.  40  to  141, 
fol.  144  b.  b.  Badiisaban  and  his  successors, 
from  A.H.  40  to  the  author's  time,  and  the 
kings  of  Kujur,  fol.  145  b. 

Safhah  15.  Kings  of  the  borders  (atraf), 
in  four  Satars :  1.  Sultans  of  Lar,  from 
Kutb  uddin  Muayyad,  called  Pakui,  A.H. 
594,  to  Ibrahim  Khan  B.  Muhammad  Beg, 
who  succeeded  A.H.  948,  fol.  149  b.  2.  Rulers 
of  Hurmiiz,  from  Mal^mud  Kalhati,  A.H, 
671,  to  Muhammad  B.  Eiruzshah,  who  died 
A.H.  972,  fol.  150  a.  3.  Sultans  of  Shirvan, 
from  Ka'us  B.  Kaikubad,  A.H.  774,  to  Shah- 
rukh  B.  Sultan  Farrukh,  deposed  A.H.  946, 
fol.  151  a.  4.  Rulers  of  Karaman,  from 
Karaman,  A.H.  654,  to  Kasim  Beg  B.  Ibra- 
him, who  died  A.H.  887,  fol.  151  b.  In  this 
section  the  rubrics  are  wanting. 

Safhah  16.  Moghul  Sultans.  Chingiz  Khan 
and  his  successors,  down  to  the  death  of 
Mangii  Ka'an,  A.H.  655,  fol.  152  b.  Sepa- 
rate branches,  in  four  Satars  :  1.  Descendants 
of  tJkta'i,  down  to  Sultan  Mahmud  B.  Si- 
yiirghatmish,  A.H.  805,  fol.  153  b. 

2.  Chaghatai  and  his  descendants  to  Sufi 
Sultan,  who  succeeded  his  father  Rashid 
Khan,  A.H.  971,  fol.  154  a. 

3.  Descendants  of  Juji,  down  to  Barakah 
Khan,  who  died  A.H.  664,  fol.  156  b,  and 
further  on,  in  two.  distinct  branches  (Harfs) : 

a.  Sultans  of  Guk  Ordah,  from  Tukta  Khan, 
A.H.  702,  to  Birdi  Beg,  who  succeeded  his 
father   Jani    Beg,  A.H.    758,    fol.    157    a. 

b.  Khakans  of  Ak  Ordah,  from  Tudamanga 
B.  Nukai  to  Hak  Nazar  Khan  B.  Kasim 
Khan,  who  succeeded  in  A.H.  930,  fol.  167  b. 
Descendants  of  Shaiban  B.  JujI,  in  two 
Harfs  :  a.  Sultans  of  Mawara  an-nahr,  from 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


116 


Abu'l-Khair  Khan  B.  Daulat  Shaikh  Oghlan, 
A,H.  839,  to  Iskandar  Khan  B.  Jani  Beg, 
who  reigned  in  the  author's  time,  fol.  158  b. 
b.  Sultans  of  Khwarazm,  from  Ilpars  Khan, 
who  died  A.H.  923,  to  Jajim  Khan,  who  suc- 
ceeded in  A.n.  964,  fol.  159  b. 

4.  Descendants  of  Tull,  in  two  Harfs  : 
a.  The  Ka'ans  from  Kubila  Ka'an,  A.H. 
658,  to  Tankfir  Khan,  who  died  A.H.  831, 
fol.  160  b.  b.  The  Ilkhanis  of  Iran,  from 
Hulagii  Khan  to  Arpa  Khan,  who  died  A.H. 
736,  fol.  161  a.  Muluk  ut-tava'if,  or  local 
dynasties  of  the  Chinglz-khanis,  in  six 
Harfs  :  1.  Ilkanis,  from  Amir  Shaikh  Hasan 
B.  Amir  Husain,  who  died  A.H.  757,  to 
Sultan  Husain,  who  was  put  to  death  A.H. 
836,  fol.  163  b.  2.  Chupanis,  from  Amir 
Timurtash  B.  Amir  ChQpan,  A.H.  722,  to 
Malik  Ashraf,  his  son,  put  to  death  A.H. 
758,  fol.  164  b.  3.  TughatimQris,  from 
Tughatimur  Khan,  A.H.  737,  to  Sultan  Ali 
B.  Pirak  Padishah,  who  died  A.H.  812, 
fol.  165  a.  4.  The  Sarbadars,  from  Amir 
Abd  ur-Eazzak  B.  Pazl  UUah,  A.H.  717,  to 
Khwajah  Ali  Muayyad,  who  died  A.H.  788, 
fol.  165  b.  5.  The  Injii  kings,  from  Amir 
Shams  ud-Din  Mahmud  Shah,  who  died  A.H. 
736,  to  Amir  Shaikh  Abu  Ishak  B.  Mahmiid 
Shah,  who  fell  A.H.  758,  fol.  167  a.  6.  Al  i 
Muzaffar,  from  Amir  Muzaffar,  who  died 
A.H.  713,  to  Sultan  Mu'tasim  B.  Zain  ul- 

abidin,  who  fell  A.H.  812,  fol.  167  6. 

Safhah  17.  The  Gurkauis.      Ancestors  of 
Tirnur,  fol.  169  b,  and  his  history,  fol.  170  b. 

Descendants  of  his  four  sons,  in  four  Satars : 

1.  Descendants  of  Mirza  Jahangir,  down  to 
Mirza  Kaidii  B.  Pir  Muhammad,  who  was 
imprisoned  by  Baisunkur,  A.H.  821,  fol.  174  a. 

2.  Mirza  Shahrukh  and  his  descendants, 
down  to  Mirza  Yadgar  Muhammad,  who  fell 
A.H.  875,  fol.  174  b.  3.  Descendants  of 
'Umar  Shaikh,  down  to  Muhammad  Zaman 
Mirza  B.  Badi'  uz-zaman,  who  died  A.H.  923, 
fol.  177  a.  4.  Mirza  Miranshah  and  his 
descendants,  down  to  Akbar,  in  India,  and 


to  Sulaiman  Shah  Mirza  B.  Yadgar  Nasir, 
ruler  of  Badakhshan,  both  alive  at  the  time 
of  composition,  fol.  179  a. 

§afliah  18.  The  race  of  TJgman,  from  its 
rise  to  the  reigning  Sultan,  Sulaiman  B. 
Sallm,  fol.  183  b. 

Safhah  19.  The  Kara  Kiiyunlus,  from 
Kara  Yusuf  to  Hasan  'Ali  B.  Jahanshah,  who 
died  A.H.  873,  fol.  187  b. 

Safhah  20.  The  Ak  Kiiyunlus,  from  Abu- 
n-Nasr  Hasan  Beg  to  Sultan  Mur5d  B. 
Ya'kub  Beg,  who  fell  A.H.  920,  fol.  190  b. 

Nuskhah  III.   The   Safavi  Dynasty  from 

its    origin    to    the    time    of    composition, 

,fol.  196  a.    The  events  are  recorded  year 

by  year  from  A.H.  906   to   972.     A   few 

lines  are  wanting  at  the  end. 

The  original  MS.  breaks  off  in  the  account 
of  the  last-mentioned  year,  after  the  first 
ten  lines.  That  portion  is  repeated  and 
continued  by  a  later  hand  on  foil.  236  and 
237  ;  but  this  continuation  also  comes  to  an 
abrupt  close  with  an  unfinished  entry  re- 
lating to  the  12th  of  Sha'ban. 

This  copy  contains  some  marginal  addi- 
tions, especially  from  fol.  161  to  fol.  215 ; 
they  are  taken  from  Tarikh  i  Guzidah  and 
other  works. 

On  the  first  page  of  the  MS.  are  some 
entries  relating  to  births  in  the  owner's 
family,  written,  as  it  appears,  in  India, 
with  dates  ranging  from  A.H.  1130  to 
1133. 

Another  copy  of  the  Nusakh  i  Jahan  Ara, 
Add.  7649,  will  be  described  under  the 
class  of  Miscellaneous  MSS. 


Add.  7650. 

Poll.  247 ;  11|  in.  by  8 ;  27  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century.  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

Q  2 


116 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  the  reign  of  Sultan  Sulaiman  B.  Salim. 

Author :  Muhammad,  called  Muslih  ud- 
Din-ul-Larl  ul-AnsarT,  j^.jJI  Jux^  ^  j-J\  j..^ 

Beg.  \tjj^  <^JJuw\i  ^jSj.lJu«j  iSjjj^  U  c_>>L«. 

The  author  was  born  in  Lar,  or  Laristan, 
a  district  situated  to  the  south  of  Shiraz,  on 
the  northern  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Persia. 
He  studied  under  Mir  Ghiya§  B.  Sadr  ud- 
Dln,  of  Shiraz,  (who  died  A.H.  949:  see 
Haji  Khal.  vol.  ii.  p.  365),  and  Mir  Kamal 
ud-Din  Husain,  a  disciple  of  Jalal  ud-Dln 
Davani.  He  afterwards  went  to  India,  where 
Humayun  received  him  with  the  greatest 
honour.  But  the  disturbed  state  of  the 
country  soon  drove  him  away.  He  per- 
formed the  pilgrimage,  and  repaired  from 
Mecca  to  Constantinople.  Einding,  however, 
but  scant  favour  with  the  great  Mufti  Abu 
s-Su'ud,  he  betook  himself  to  Amid,  in  Diyar 
Bakr,  where  Iskandar  Pasha  appointed  him 
tutor  to  his  children  and  master  of  the  Ma- 
drasah. He  died  there  A.H.  979,  upwards 
of  sixty  years  old,  leaving,  besides  the  present 
work,  numerous  commentaries  on  the  Tahzib 
ul-Mantik,  on  astronomical  tracts,  on  the 
Hidayat  ul-Hikmah,  and  other  treatises  of 
divinity  and  law.  See  Zail  ush-Shaka'ik, 
Add.  18,519,  fol.  68,  and  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  i. 
pp.  241,  257, 478,  etc. 

The  Mir'at  ul-Advar  was  translated  into 
Turkish  with  additions  by  Mufti  Sa'd  ud-Din 
B.  Hasan,  who  expanded  the  tenth  chapter, 
treating  of  the  Osmanli  dynasty,  into  a 
separate  work  entitled  Taj  ut-Tavarikh  ;  see 
Haj.  Khal.  vol.  v.  p.  479;  Hammer,  Schone 
Redekiinste,  p.  350,  and  Eliigel,  Vienna 
Catal.  vol.  ii.  p.  80.  The  contents  of  the 
Turkish  version  have  been  noticed  by 
Hammer  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  70,  Anz.  Blatt, 
pp.  63—72.  A  Persian  MS.,  entitled  j^t,:^ 
^^  i?  j\j ,  beginning  with  the  same  words  as 


the  present  copy,  is  described  in  the  Vienna 
Catal.  vol.  ii.  p.  74,  where  it  is  attributed, 
by  a  curious  confusion,  to  a  supposed  abbre- 
viator,  Muhammad  as-Sa'di  al-'Ubadi,  called 
MusKh  ad-Din,  who  is  no  other  than  the 
author  himself;  see  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  i.  p. 
241.  Copies  of  the  Mirat  ul-Advar  exist  in 
the  Imperial  Library  and  the  Asiatic  Mu- 
seum of  S.  Petersburg ;  see  Melanges  Asia- 
tiques,  vol.  iii.  p.  728  ;  vol.  iv.  p.  498. 

In  the  preface  the  author  says  that  he  was 
indebted  for  the  leisure  which  enabled  him, 
after  long  delays,  to  write  the  present  work, 
to  the  favour  of  the  illustrious  prince  to  whom 
he  dedicates  it  in  token  of  gratitude  and  devo- 
tion, and  that  it  was  completed  at  the  time  of 
the  prince's  elevation  to  the  throne,  the  date 
of  that  event  being  expressed  by  the  words 
J]j>  j««  =  A.H.  974.  (The  prince  here  meant 
is  Salim  B.  Sulaiman,  who  reigned  from  A.H. 
974  to  982.)  He  then  proceeds  to  enumerate 
fifty  Arabic  and  Persian  works  which  he  had 
used  for  this  compilation,  adding  that  he 
had  also  consulted  several  Turkish  works 
in  prose  and  verse.  That  list  of  sovirces  has 
been  printed  from  the  present  copy,  but 
rather  incorrectly,  in  the  "Mines  de  I'Orient," 
vol.  iii.  p.  330,  where  the  last  two  works,  the 
Tarikh  i  Hafiz  Abru  and  the  Rauzat  us-safa, 
have  been  omitted. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  short  Introduc- 
tion (Mukaddimah)  on  the  creation  of  the 
world,  fol.  4  J,  and  the  following  ten  books 
(bab)  : 

I.  Prophets,  from  Adam  to  Noah,  fol.  5  h. 

II.  Pishdadis  and  contemporary  prophets, 
fol.  10  a. 

III.  Kayanis  and  contemporary  prophets 
and  sages,  fol.  23  a. 

IV.  Sasanis  and  Arab  kings,  fol.  34  h. 

V.  Muhammad,  the  early  Khalifs,  the 
Umayyades  and  the  Abbasides,  fol.  43  h. 

VI.  Dynasties  contemporary  with  the  Ab- 
basides, in  the  following  eight  Ta'ifahs  : 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


117 


1.  Saflfaris,  fol.  109  b.  2.  Samanis,  fol. 
Ilia.  3.  Dayillimah,  fol.  113a.  4.  Ghaz- 
navis,  fol.  117  a ;  Ghuris  and  slave-kings, 
fol.  121a;  Kurts,  fol.  124  a.  5.  Saljukis  of 
Iran,  fol.  125  b,  of  Kirman,  fol.  138  a,  of  Rum, 
fol.  138  b ;  Atabaks  of  Mausil,  fol.  140  b,  of 
Diyar  Bakr,  fol.  142  b,  of  Ears,  fol.  143  a, 
and  of  Luristan,  fol.  145  a.  6.  Khwarazm- 
shahis,  fol.  146  a.  7.  Isma'ilis  of  Maghrib 
and  Ayyubis,  fol.  150  a.  8.  Isma'ilis  of  Iran, 
fol.  157  b. 

VII.  Chingiz  Khan  and  his  successors  in 
China  and  in  Persia,  fol.  158  b ;  Chupanis, 
fol.  181  b ;  Karakhita'is,  fol.  184  a,  and  Al  i 
MuzafFar,  fol.  184  b. 

VIII.  Timiir  and  his  successors  in  Iran, 
fol.  189  a. 

IX.  Hasan  Beg  and  his  successors  (Ak- 
kuyunlus),  fol.  228  b.  The  author  concludes 
this  section  with  a  brief  mention  of  Shah 
Isma'il  and  Shah  Tahmasp,  and  laments  that 
all  scholars  of  eminence,  no  doubt  including 
himself,  had  been  driven  out  of  the  realm  by 
the  blind  Shi'ah  fanaticism  of  the  latter. 

X.  The  Osmanlis,  from  their  origin  to  the 
reign  of  Siilaimiin  B.  SalTm,  fol.  231  b. 

Our  copy  breaks  off  at  the  beginning  of  a 
paragraph  on  the  Hungarian  war,  A.H.  934. 
In  the  latter  part  of  the  work  some  biographi- 
cal notices  of  great  scholars  are  inserted  after 
the  most  important  reigna. 

The  fly-leaf  at  the  end  contains  a  tran- 
script of  a  letter  written  by  the  author, 
Maulana  Muslih  ud-Din  til-Lari,  to  Amir 
Sultan  Husain,  Governor  of  al-'Imadiyyah  in 
Kurdistan,  recommending  to  him  a  Turkish 
personage  of  note,  Maulana  Ahmad.  Hence 
the  curious  statement  in  the  Mines  de  I'Orient, 
vol.  iii.  p.  330,  that  the  Mir'at  ul-Advar  had 
been  written  "in  usum  cujusdam  Principis 
Amadise." 

Add.  16,681. 

Poll.  668;  13|  in.  by  81;  30  lines,  5^  in. 
long,  in  a  page  ;  written  in  a  small  and 


close  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

A  general  chronicle  of  the  East,  from  the 
death  of  Muhammad  to  A.H.  997. 

Beg.   jii     tsit     ^\j     S^    ^^Jy^    f^^jii   I— >^j^^ 

This  vast  compilation  was  commenced  by 
Akbar's  order  in  A.H.  993,  and  received  the 
name  of  Tiirikh  i  Alf  i  from  the  year  thousand 
(Alf)  of  the  Hijrah,  with  which  it  was  to 
close.  Abul-Pazl,  who  wrote  for  it  a  preface, 
not  found  in  our  copies,  gives  a  short  account 
of  it  in  the  A'in  i  Akbari,  Blochmann's 
translation,  vol.  i.  p.  106.  A  more  detailed 
statement  of  its  composition,  by  'Abd  id- 
Kadir  Bada'unl,  is  found  in  the  Muntakhab 
ut-tavarlkh,  part  2,  p.  318 ;  here  we  are  told 
that  the  first  thirty-five  years  were  written 
in  the  course  of  a  week  by  Nakib  Khan  (see 
above,  p.  57  b),  and  some  other  scholars, 
one  of  whom  was  Bada'unl  himself,  and 
that  subsequently  the  work  was  entrusted 
to  MuUa  Ahmad  of  Tattah,  and,  after  his 
death,  to  Ja'far  Beg  Asaf  Khan,  who  brought 
it  down  to  A.H.  997.  MuUa  Ahmad  appears 
to  have  written  again,  in  his  own  fashion,  the 
tirst  thirty-five  years,  or  at  least  a  part  of 
the  same ;  for  a  remark  elicited  from  Akbar, 
by  the  undue  length  of  the  account  of  Os- 
man's  death,  an  event  of  the  year  25  of  the 
Rihlat,  shows  that  that  portion  of  the  work 
was  his  own  composition.  The  first  two 
volumes  were  revised  by  Bada'unl  in  A.H. 
1000,  and  the  third  by  Asaf  Khan  himself. 
See  Sir  H.  M.  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index, 
pp.  143 — 162,  and  History  of  India,  vol.  v. 
pp.  150 — 176.  A  Persian  abridgement  of  the 
work  by  Ahmad  B.  Abul-Eath  is  described 
in  Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  vi.  p.  121. 

The  principal  author,  MuUa  Ahmad  TatavT, 
(^^1  ^J^^ii\  ii^\j^  ^^  »v.»»-^  was  the  son  of  the 
KazI  of  Tattah  and  Ra'is  of  Sind.  The  author 


118 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


of  the  Majalis  ul-Muminm,  Add.  23,541, 
fol.  277,  who  had  heard  from  his  own  lips  the 
account  of  his  early  conversion  to  the  Shf  ah 
faith,  says  that  he  left  his  native  place  at  the 
age  of  twenty- two  to  study  divinity  and  medi- 
cine in  Mashhad,  Yazd  and  Shiraz,  after  which 
he  stayed  some  time  at  Shah  Tahmasp's  court 
in  Kazvin.  He  left  Persia  after  the  latter's 
death,  A.H.  984,  visited  Karbala,  Mecca  and 
Jerusalem,  and  on  his  return  to  India  re- 
sided for  some  years  at  the  court  of  Kutub- 
shah,  in  Golconda.  In  A.H.  989  he  repaired 
to  Akbar's  court,  then  held  in  Fathpur,  where 
he  met  with  a  favourable  reception,  and  was 
soon  afterwards  commissioned  to  write  the 
present  chronicle.  He  proceeded  with  that 
task  tUl  A.H.  996,  when  he  was  treacher- 
ously assailed  and  wounded  to  death  in 
Lahore  by  one  of  the  enemies  whom  his 
Shi'ah  fervour  had  raised  against  him.  See 
Ma'asir  ul-Umara,  Add.  6568,  fol.  453  a, 
and  A'in  i  Akbari,  Blochmann's  translation, 
vol.  i.  p.  206. 

The  continuator,  Asaf  Khan,  was  one  of 
the  most  eminent  generals  of  Akbar,  and  a 
poet  of  no  mean  order.  His  original  name 
was  Mirza  Kivam  ud-Din  Ja'far  Beg,  and  his 
father,  Mirza  Badi'  uz-zaman,  of  Kazvin,  was 
VazTr  of  Kashaninthetime  of  Shah  Tahmasp. 
Ja'far  Beg  came  to  India  as  a  youth,  was 
presented  to  Akbar  by  his  uncle,  Asaf  Khan 
Ghiya§  ud-Din,  in  A.H.  985,  and  received  in 
A.H.  992  the  title  of  Asaf  Khan.  He  died 
under  Jahangir,  after  a  brilliant  career,  in 
A.H.  1021.  See  Ma'asir  ul-Hmara,  Add. 
6567,  fol.  25,  Tazkirat  ul-Umara,  Add.  16,703, 
fol.  7,  and  A'in  i  Akbari,  vol.  i.  p.  411. 

The  arrangement  of  the  work  is  strictly 
chronological,  the  events  being  recorded  year 
by  year,  according  to  an  sera,  which  was 
adopted  for  the  purpose  by  Akbar's  direction, 
that  of  the  Rihlat  or  death  of  Muhammad. 
The  first  year  of  the  Rihlat,  with  which  the 
chronicle  begins,  corresponds  therefore  to 
A.H.  11,  in  which  Muhammad  died,  and 


ten  has  to  be  added  to  each  subsequent  date 
to  reduce  it  to  the  Hijrah  reckoning. 

This  volume  contains  nearly  the  first  half 
of  the  work ;  it  extends  from  the  beginning 
to  the  year  581  of  the  Rihlat  (A.H.  591),  in 
the  course  of  which  it  breaks  ofi".  Three 
extensive  lacunes  of  the  original  MSS.,  viz. 
foil.  329—366,  405—433,  and  558—610, 
have  been  supplied  by  later  hands.  This 
volume  appears  to  have  once  belonged  to 
the  imperial  library  of  Dehli.  It  bears 
several  'Arz-dldahs  and  official  seals  of  the 
reigns  of  Shahjahan  and  'Alamgir,  the  earliest 
of  which  is  dated  A.H.  1037. 

Add.  6550  and  6551. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  524  and  543  ;  16|  in.  by  7^ ; 
30  lines,  5j  in.  long;  written  by  different 
hands  in  Nestalik  and  Shikastah-Amiz,  ap- 
parently in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

[J.  E.  Hull.] 

The  first  portion  of  the  same  work,  ex- 
tending from  the  first  year  of  the  Rihlat  to 
the  year  503  of  the  same  sera  (A.H.  513), 
and  corresponding  to  foil.  1 — 536  b  of  the 
preceding  copy. 

The  text  is  continuous,  the  two  volumes 
being  only  separated  by  the  binding.  It 
breaks  off  in  the  first  line  of  the  account  of 
the  taking  of  Basrah  by  'All  B.  Sukmiin; 
see  Ibn  el  Athiri  Chronicon,  vol.  x.  p.  393. 

Or.  142. 

EoU.  673 ;  14i  in.  by  8f ;  25  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins, apparently  in  India,  in  the  18th  cen- 
tury. [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

Another  portion  of  the  same  work,  begin- 
ning with  the  year  of  the  Rihlat  351,  and 
ending  with  the  year  649  of  the  same  sera 
(A.H.  361—659.) 

At  the  beginning  of  the  year  589  of  the 
Rihlat,  fol.  498  a,  in  which  Chingizkhan 
appears  on  the  scene,  the  author  says  in  a 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


119 


short  preamble  that  he,  Ahmad  B.  Nasr 
TJllah  Tatavi,  having  been  appointed  by  His 
Majesty,  Jalal  ud-Din  Muhammad  Akbar 
Padishah  Ghazi,  to  compose  this  history, 
called  Tarikh  i  Alfi,  had  to  follow  some  in- 
structions given  him,  one  of  which  was  to 
write  it  in  plain  and  easy  language,  and 
another  to  give,  on  introducing  the  founder  of 
an  empire,  an  account  of  his  ancestors,  and 
of  the  manner  in  which  he  rose  to  power. 

There  is  a  considerable  gap  in  the  body  of 
this  volume,  fol.  372  a.  It  extends  from  the 
end  of  the  year  522  to  the  beginning  of  the 
year  645  (A.H.  532 — 555),  corresponding  to 
foU.  563a— 6106  of  the  first  copy,  Add.16,681. 
Errors  have  been  moreover  committed  in 
the  headings  of  the  years,  owing  to  the  be- 
ginnings of  some  having  been  overlooked. 
Thus  the  year  numbered  558,  fol.  411  h,  is 
in  reality  the  year  559 ;  the  year  numbered 
559,  fol.  421 6,  is  561 ;  and  the  year  numbered 
576,  fol  482  6,  is  579.  This  last  error  is 
carried  on  through  the  subsequent  years, 
involving  a  difference  for  each  of  three  units 
in  minus,  down  to  the  year  headed  579, 
fol.  489  a,  which  is  the  year  582. 

On  the  first  page  is  impressed  a  stamp 
bearing  the  name  of  *Aziz  ul-Mulk  I'tizad 
ud-Daulah  Vilayat  Husain  Khan  Ka'im  Jang 
Bahadur. 

Or.  ^Q6. 

Foil.  663  ;  15  in.  by  9  ;  uniform  with  the 
preceding.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

The  continuation  of  the  preceding  volume, 
beginning  with  the  year  650  of  the  Rihlat, 
and  ending  with  the  year  974  of  the  same 
£era  (A.H.  660—984). 

The  portion  of  the  work  written  by  Ahmad 
Tatavi  comes  to  an  abrupt  termination  in 
the  year  684  of  the  Rihlat,  fol.  97  a,  after 
the  record  of  the  accession  of  Ghazan  Khan, 
and  in  the  middle  of  an  account  of  his 
early  life. 


The  continuator,  who  is  called  in  the  fol- 
lowing heading  Nawab  Asaf  Klian,  states  in 
his  preamble,  fol,  97  b,  that  Hakim  Ahmad 
having  been  ordered  to  write  this  history, 
from  the  death  of  Muhammad  to  the  present 
time,  had  brought  it  down,  in  the  course  of 
three  years,  to  the  time  of  Ghazan  Khan; 
when  he  fell,  mortally  wounded,  on  the  16th 
of  Safar  (A.H.  996),  by  the  hand  of  an  Amir- 
ziidah  called  Pulad  Barlas,  who  atoned  for 
his  crime  with  his  life ;  whereupon  he  (Asaf 
Khiin)  received  the  royal  commands  to  com- 
plete the  work. 

The  year  with  which  the  present  volume 
closes  is  not  completed,  for  it  is  confined  to 
'a  record  of  Persian  affairs,  namely,  the  death 
of  Shah  Tahmasp,  the  accession  of  Shah 
Ismii' il,  and  the  slaughter  by  the  latter  of 
his  brothers  and  other  male  relatives. 

This  MS.  has  been  disfigured  by  several 
large  holes ;  but  most  of  them  have  been 
repaired,  and  the  lost  writing  restored  by  a 
later  hand. 

Or.  168. 

Foil.  700  ;  11^  in.  by  8 ;  21  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  NestaUk,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins  ;  dated  Muharram,  A.H.  1046 
(fol.  583  a),  and  Rabi'  I.",  A.H.  1046  (fol. 
14  b)  (A.D.  1635-6).    [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  tunes 
to  A.H.  1014. 

Author :  Tahir  Muhammad  B.  Tmad  ud- 
Din  Hasan  B.  Sultan  'Ali  B.  Haji  Muhammad 
Husain  Sabzavari  (fol.  242  a),  oUfr  (^  j^^U* 

The  author  held  some  office  at  the  court 
of  Akbar  :  he  states  incidentally  that  in 
A.H.  1013  he  was  sent  by  the  emperor 
from  Agrah  to  Burhanpur,  with  a  message 


120 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


to  the  EhankhaMn,  to  inquire  into  the 
death  of  Prince  Daniyal;  that,  passing  on 
his  way  through  the  city  of  Mandu,  he 
visited  the  decaying  cupola  which  covered 
the  tombs  of  the  ancient  kings  of  the  land, 
and  gave  orders  for  its  restoration.  He 
mentions  his  elder  brother,  Khwajagi  Sultan 
Ahmad,  as  one  of  the  poets  of  Akbar's  court. 
An  account  of  the  work  will  be  found  in 
Elliot's  Bibliographical  Index,  pp.  298—304, 
and  History  of  India,  vol.  vi.  pp.  195 — 209. 
See  also  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  6,  and 
Notice  sur  un  MS.  du  Raouzet  et-tahirin. 
Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  v.  p.  119.  There 
is  a  copy  of  this  work  in  the  East  India 
Library,  No.  1147. 

The  preface,  which  is  wanting  in  this 
MS.,  but  is  found  in  another  copy.  Add. 
6641,  begins  'i\^  ^\^  jJlaT*  cj^  '>-t»-jl  ^*j 


i>j>»-»^ .  The  author  says  in  it,  that  he  chose 
the  above  title,  ^^jfcUa5\  sJ>jj,  because  its  first 
word  expressed  the  year  in  which  the  work 
was  completed,  viz.  A.H.  1011.  It  must, 
however,  have  been  subsequently  brought 
down  to  a  later  date,  for  we  find  A.H.  1014 
frequently  mentioned  in  both  copies  as  the 
current  year  (see  foil.  376  6,  396  ^>,  400  6, 
689  b,  Add.  6541,  fol.  145  b) ;  and  the  death 
of  Akbar,  which  took  place  in  that  year,  is 
referred  to  in  the  second  chapter,  fol.  16  b. 

The  work  consists  of  five  parts  (kism), 
subdivided  into  chapters  (bab),  and  again 
into  minor  sections  (fasl). 

A  very  full  table  of  contents,  in  which  not 
only  the  dynasties  but  the  individual  kings 
are  enumerated,  with  the  length  of  their 
reigns,  occupies  about  fifty  pages  in  the 
other  copy,  Add.  6541,  foil.  129  a— 153  b  ; 
but  the  present  MS.  contains  only  its 
latter  portion,  foil.  1  a — 7  a. 

Contents:  Kism  I.,  in  three  Babs— 1. 
Prophets  and  sages,  fol.  7  a.  2.  Early  kings 
of  Persia,  foil.  166.  3.  Arab  kings,  fol 
243  o. 


The  second  of  the  above  Babs,  which  is 
headed  with  a  special  'Unvan,  is  stated  to 
have  been  extracted,  at  the  command  of 
Akbar,  from  Firdausi's  Shahnamah,  by  a 
friend  of  the  author,  Maulana  TakI  ud-Din 
Muhammad  Shushtari.  The  latter,  over- 
whelmed with  grief  at  the  death  of  Akbar, 
having  left  the  work  unfinished,  it  was  com- 
pleted and  condensed  to  its  present  shape  by 
the  author. 

Kism  II.,  containing  four  Babs.  Bab  1,  in 
two  Easls :  1.  The  first  four  Khalifs  (Eashi- 
din),  fol.  247  «.  2.  Hasan  and  the  other 
Imams;  from  Jami's  work,  Shavahid  un- 
nubuvvat,  fol.  249  b. 

Bab  2,  in  two  Pasls :  1.  Bani  Umayyah 
in  the  East,  fol.  269  b.  2.  Umayyades  of 
Spain,  fol.  272  a. 

Bab  3,  in  two  Easls :  1.  The  Abbasides, 
fol.  272  b.  2.  Their  offshoots,  in  fiveEirkahs: 
Tahiris,  BanI  Aghlab,  Tulunis,  Ikhshidis,  and 
IJamdanis,  fol.  277  a. 

Bab  4,  in  thirteen  Easls  :  1.  Saffaris, 
fol.  279  b.  2.  Samanis,  ib.  3.  Ghaznavis, 
fol.  280  b.  4.  Ghuris,  fol.  282  a.  5.  Off- 
shoots of  the  GhQris,  from  Taj  ud-Din  IldQz 
to  'Ala  ud-Din  B.  Khizr  Khan  (from  the 
Tarikh  i  Mubarakshahi),  fol.  283  a.  6.  Kurts, 
fol.  285  a.  7.  Dayalimah,  fol.  286  a.  8.  Saljukis 
of  Iran,  Kirman  and  Eum,  fol.  288  a..  9.  Their 
offshoots :  The  Khwarazmshahis,  fol.  290  b. 

10.  Governors  appointed  by  the  Saljuks,  in 
two  Tabakahs  :  a.  Manguchak  and  his  suc- 
cessors, fol.  292  b.     b.  The    Muayyadis,  ib. 

11.  The  Atabaks  of  Syria,  and  the  Ayyubis ; 
the  Atabaks  of  Ears  and  Azarbaijan,  fol.  293  a. 

12.  Karakhitais    of    Kirman,    fol.    296   a. 

13.  Isma'ilis  of  Maghrib  and  Iran,  fol.  297  a. 
Kism  III.,  containing  seven  Babs  :  Bab  1. 

Kings  of  the  Turks  before  Chingiz  Khan, 
(from  the  Rauzat  us-Safa),  fol.  299  b. 
Bab  2.  Kings  of  the  Moghuls  before  Chingiz 
Khan,  fol.  303  a. 

Bab  3,  in  three  Easls:  1.  Chingiz  Khan 
and    his    successors    in    Iran,    fol.   306  a. 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


121 


2.  Descendants  of  ChingTz  Khan,  who  reigned 
out  of  Iran,  in  four  Tabakahs :  a.  Descendants 
of  Uktjli  Ka'an,  fol.  361  b.  b.  Descendants 
of  Chaghatai  Khan,  fol.  362  a.  c.  Descendants 
of  JujI  Khan,  fol.  363  a.  d.  Descendants 
of  Shaiban  in  Mavara  annahr,  down  to  'Abd 
ul-Mumin,  A.H.  1006,  fol.  364  b,  and  .in 
Khwarazm,  from  Iliyas  Khan  to  Jiljim  B. 
Daulat  Khan,  fol.  366  b ;  the  descendants 
of  Tail,  fol.  367  a.  4.  Offshoots  of  the 
Chingizkhanis,  in  four  Tabakahs:    1.  Chu- 


2.    Ilkanis,  fol.  368  a. 
368   b.      4.    Sarbadars, 


panis,  fol.   367  b. 
3.    Muzaffaris,   fol 
;  fol.  369  a. 

Bab  4.  Account  of  the  embassy  sent  by 
Shahrukh  to  China,  from  the  Nigaristan  of 
Ahmad  Ghaffari,  fol.  370  a. 

Bab  5.  The  Sultans  of  the  race  of  'Ugman, 
from  their  origin  to  A.H.  1014,  fol.  374  b. 

Bab  6,  in  three  Easls  :  1.  Timur  and  his 
successors,  fol.  377  b.  2.  Descendants  of 
'Umar  Shaikh,  down  to  the  death  of  Akbar, 
fol.  396  a.  3.  The  Kara  Kuyunlus  and  Ak 
Kiiyunlus,  fol.  397  b. 

Bab  7.  The  Safavis,  from  their  origin  to 
the  time  of  composition,  fol.  400  b. 

Kism  IV.  Hindu  traditions,  from  the  Ma- 
habharat,  as  translated  into  Persian  by  order 
of  Akbar,  fol.  426  a,  in  two  Babs:  1.  Account 
of  Vishnu's  Avatars.  2.  Abstract  of  the 
Mahabharat,  concluding  with  Harivansa, 
fol.  467  a.  Our  copy  breaks  off,  fol.  523  b, 
before  the  end  of  the  above  chapter,  namely, 
in  the  midst  of  the  narrative  relating  to  the 
daughters  of  King  Vajranab,  and  their  secret 
union  with  Kamdev  and  his  brothers.  Six 
blank  leaves  have  been  inserted  there. 

Kism  v.,  in  four  Babs,  avowedly  abridged 
from  Tfirikh  i  Nizami.  Bab  1.  Kings  of 
Dehli,  from  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Muhammad  Sam 
Ghuri  to  Sultan  Muhammad  'Adil,  called 
'Adll,  foil.  584  a— 632  a.  (This  first  section 
is  wrongly  placed  in  the  present  copy  after 
the  third.)  Bab  2.  History  of  Akbar,  from 
his    accession    to   his    death,    fol.    524   b. 


Bab  3.  Select  verses  of  Amirs  and  poets  of 
the  court  of  Akbar,  fol.  565  a;  notices  on 
some  'Ulama  of  the  same  court,  fol.  579  h. 
Bab  4,  in  nine  Fasls:  1.  Kings  of  Sind, 
fol.  633  a.  2.  Kings  of  Multan,  fol.  637  a. 
3.  Kings  of  Kashmir,  fol.  640  a.  4.  Kings 
of  Gujarat,  fol.  652  a.  5.  Kings  of  Malvah 
and  Mandu,  fol.  679  b.  6.  Kings  of  the 
Deccan,  viz. :  The  Bahmanis,  fol.  683  b. 
The  Nizam  ul-Mulkis,  fol.  685  a.  The  'AdU- 
khanis,  fol.  687  b.  The  Kutb-ul-mulkis, 
fol.  689  a.  7.  The  Sharki  kings  of  Jaunpur, 
fol.  689  b.  8.  Kings  of  Bengal,  fol.  691  b. 
9.  The  wonders  and  curiosities  of  the  islands 
qnd  harbours  in  the  parts  of  Bengal,  fol. 
698  a. 

This  last  section,  which  treats  of  a  number 
of  islands  and  some  distant  countries  acces- 
sible from  Bengal  by  sea,  is  divided,  accord- 
ing to  the  table  of  contents,  fol.  6  b,  into 
fourteen  chapters  (Dafahs),  the  last  of 
which  treats  of  Portugal.  But  in  the  text 
itself  that  division  is  not  observed,  and  the 
MS.  comes  abruptly  to  an  end  after  five 
pages  treating  of  Ceylon,  Pegu,  and  Achin. 

Or.  138. 

Foil.  501;  11  in.  by  6|;  25  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 


,_^ 


,U^\ 


An  abridgement  of  general  history,  from 
the  earliest  times  to  the  accession  of  Shah- 
jahan,  A.H.  1037. 

Author:  Muhammad  Bakir  [B.]  'Inayat 
Ullah  [B.]  Sadr  ud-Din  Muhammad  Tabrizi, 
called  Afsah,  j^.j31  jC^   »U^  tlo.Uc.  j\>   o-^ 

^.oib  K^^^  '-^Jirf*  '^-♦^ 

Beg.  1^-^  i^>j^  J^\  t^\*  p^  c^  ^^' 


B 


122 


GENEEAL  HISTORY. 


It  appears  from  the  preface  that  the 
author  was  attached  to  the  service  of  Sultan 
Muradbakhsh,  son  of  Shahjahan,  and  that  he 
compiled  the  present  compendium  from  a 
number  of  standard  historical  works,  which 
he  found  in  Ahmadabad  of  Gujarat,  when 
staying  there  in  attendance  on  that  prince. 
His  sources,  and  the  portion  borrowed  from 
each,  are  thus  enumerated : 

The  history  of  the  Ban!  Jiln,  of  the  prophets, 
of  JIuhammad,  the  Khalifs,  the  twelve 
Imams  and  the  early  kings,  from  the  Tarikh 
1  Mir  Haidar  Razi.  The  account  of  Imam 
Husain  and  the  martyrs  of  Karbala,  from 
the  Eauzat  ush-Shuhada.  That  of  the  Greek 
philosophers  and  the  Saljiik  dynasties,  from 
the  Zubdat  ul-Akhbar  of  Mir  Ghiyas  ud- 
Din  'All.  The  history  of  Chingiz  Khan  and 
his  successors,  from  the  Eauzat  us-Safa.  The 
history  of  Timur  and  his  successors  in  Iran 
and  Turan,  from  the  Zafar  Namah  of  Sharaf 
ud-Din  Yazdi.  The  account  of  Mahmiid 
Ghaznavi  and  his  successors  in  India,  of 
Mu'izz  ud-Din  Sam  and  the  slave-kings  of 
Dehli,  the  Khiljis  and  Afghans,  the  kings  of 
Mrdvah,  Gujarat,  Deccan,  Jaunpur,  Bengal, 
and  Kashmir,  from  the  Tfirikh  of  Nizam  ud- 
Din  Ahmad.  The  reigns  of  Babar,  Humayun 
and  Akbar,  from  the  Akbar  Namah  of  Abu- 
1-Fazl.  The  reign  of  Jahangir,  from  the 
Ikbal-Namah  of  Muhammad  Sharif  Mu'tamad 
Khan.  The  history  of  the  Safavis,  from  the 
'Alam  arai  of  Iskandar  Beg  Munshi. 

The  work  is  divided  into  seven  sections 
(Bfib),  some  of  which  are  subdivided  into 
chapters  (Fasl),  of  which  there  are  altogether 
thirty ;  the  contents  are  fully  stated  in  the 
preface,  foil.  3 — 7.  Bab  V.  treating  of  Mah- 
mud  Ghaznavi,  the  kings  of  Dehli,  and  the 
local  dynasties  of  India,  and  Bab  VI.,  com- 
prising the  reigns  of  Babar,  Humayun,  Ak- 
bar, Jahangir  and  Shirshah,  are  wanting  in  the 
present  copy,  and  the  seventh  section,  which 
treats  of  the  Safavis,  immediately  follows  the 
fourth. 


The  title  jUi-^^  ^\  appears  on  the  first 
page  of  the  MS.  In  the  preface  only  the 
first  word  of  the  title  is  legible,  the  second 
having  been  scratched  out.  In  the  subscrip- 
tion it  is  written  jUi-^\  ^\j  Ob\5lU  **U. 

Contents: — Bab  I.  The  genii  (Bani  Jiin), 
fol.  8  a.    Adam  and  the  Prophets,  fol.  9  b. 

Bab  II.  Muhammad,  fol.  30  a.  Early  Kha- 
lifs, fol.  66  a.  Hasan  and  Husain,  fol.  116  a. 
The  other  Imams,  fol.  162  a.  Bani  IJmay- 
yah,  fol.  178  b.  The  'Abbasides,  fol.  195  a. 
Pishdiidis,  fol.  237  a.  Kayanis,  fol.  245  a. 
Muliik  ut-tava'if,  fol.  257  6.  Sasanis,  fol. 
259  a.  Ancient  sages,  fol.  274  6.  Saljiikis 
of  Iran,  fol.  278  b,  of  Kirman,  fol.  288  6,  of 
EQm,  fol.  289  b. 

Biib  III.  Chingiz  Khan  and  his  successors, 
down  to  Abu  Sa'id  Bahadur  Khan,  fol.  290  a. 

Bab  IV.  Timur  and  his  successors  (with 
the  exception  of  Babar  and  the  Indian 
branch),  fol.  336  b. 

Bab  VII.  The  Safavis,  from  their  rise  to 
A.H.  1026,  fol.  401  a. 

Add.  16,695. 

FoU.  269 ;  12|  in.  by  8  ;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Shahja- 
hanabad  (Dehli),  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1139 
(A.D,  1726),  the  9th  year  of  Muhammad 
Shah.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  time 
to  the  accession  of  Shahjahan,  A.H.  1037. 

Author:  Muhammad  Yusuf  B.  Shaikh  Eah- 
mat  XJllah  ul-Ataki  ul-Kanani,  (»i-»^  j^ 

Beg.  {^\fi  AsxA  j\  ftj    ui>^.^  J  li-cW*  «iv»- 
The  compiler,  who  derives  the  first  of  his 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


123 


two  Nisbahs  from  Atak,  Panjab,  where  he 
dwelt,  and  the  second  from  Kan'fin  (?),  as 
the  place  of  his  birth,  dedicates  this  work  to 
Shahjahan,  from  whose  bounty  he  hoped  for 
a  reward,  that  would  enable  him  to  spend 
the  rest  of  his  days  in  devotion  and  prayer. 
He  lays  no  claim  to  authorship;  his  only 
boast  is  to  have  faithfully  transcribed  the 
various  works  which  he  has  laid  under  con- 
tribution, and  which  he  enumerates  in  the 
preface,  as  follows:  The  translation  of  Ta- 
bari,  Tclrikh  i  Mu'ajjam,  Guzidah,  Majma' 
ul-Ansab,  Tarikh  i  Banakiti,  Eauzat  ul- 
Ahbab,  Mllad  un-Nabi,  Rauzat  us-Safa,  Ha- 
blb  us-Siyar,  Nigaristan  by  Ahmad  Ghaffiiri, 
Tarikh  i  JaLll  ud-Din  Suyuti,  Mir'at  ul-Jinan 
by  Mulla  Muslih  ud-Din  Larl,  Tarikh  i  Hu- 
mayuni,  Tarikh  i  Sind  by  Muhammad  Ma'sum 
Bakarl,  Akbar-Namah,  Tarikh  i  Nizami, 
Tarikh  i  Bait  ul-Ma'bur  by  Ma'mur  Khan, 
Tarikh  i  Hukama,  Tazkirat  ul-Auliya  by 
'Attar,  Nafahat  ul-TJns,  'Aja'ib  ul-Buldan, 
'Ajaib  ud-Dunya  by  Azari. 

He  states,  in  his  conclusion,  that  he  com- 
pleted his  task  on  the  15th  of  Zul-Hijjah, 
A.H.  1056,  and  that  his  friend  Mir  Mu- 
hammad Beg  B.  MirzH  Beg  supplied  him  on 
that  occasion  with  a  new  title,  embodied  in 
a  piece  of  verses,  and  ingeniously  contrived 
so  as  to  convey  the  date  of  completion,  viz., 
Jjj  ^-J  i_>A^**  "  Compendium  without  peer." 
This  implies  that  36,  the  number  expressed 
by  the  last  word,  has  to  be  deducted  from 
1092,  the  total  formed  by  the  first,  which 
indeed  gives  1056. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  introduction 
(Mukaddimah),  five  parts  (Kism),  and  a 
conclusion  (Khatimah),  with  minute  sub- 
divisions. A  very  detailed  statement  of  the 
contents  occupies  no  less  than  fourteen  pages 
in  the  preface,  foil.  5  b — 12  b. 

Mukaddimah.  Utility  of  history ;  creation 
of  the  world;  tribes  of  the  Jinns  ;  constitu- 
tion of  the  human  body,  fol.  12  b. 


Kism  I.  Prophets  and  apostles,  fol.  20  b. 
Ancient  sages  and  philosophers,  fol.  121  a. 

Kism  II.  Early  kings  of  Persia,  fol.  130  b. 
Arab  kings,  fol.  174-6.  Amalikah  or  Pha- 
raohs, fol.  185  a.  Kings  of  the  Kaldanis 
(Chaldeans),  fol.  185  6.  Kings  of  Mavara 
annahr,  of  the  lineage  of  Tur,  fol.  186  b. 
Kings  of  Israel,  fol.  187  a.  Kings  of  Rum 
and  Yunan  (Ptolemies),  fol.  191  b.  Kings  of 
the  Eirang  (Roman  Emperors  and  Popes), 
fol.  192  b.  Prophets  and  Rajas  of  the  Hindus, 
fol.  203  a.  Kings  of  Khitrd  (China),  to  the 
Moghul  conquest,  fol.  206  b. 

Kism  III.  Muhammad  and  the  Khalifs. 

Kism  IV.  Dynasties  posterior  to  Muham- 
mad, in  twenty -five  Tabakahs,  beginningwith 
the  Tahiris  and  ending  with  the  descendants 
of  Timur  in  India. 

Kism  V.  Notices  of  Imams,  Shaikhs,  TJla- 
ma  and  poets.  The  above  three  sections  are 
wanting  in  this  copy. 

Khatimah,  in  three  Babs :  1.  On  various 
seras  and  the  seven  climates,  fol.  212  6. 
2.  Cities,  countries,  mountains,  deserts,  seas, 
lakes,  rivers,  springs,  wells,  and  islands  of 
the  seven  climates,  in  ten  Fasls,  fol.  217  b. 
Wonders  and  curiosities  of  nature,  in  nine- 
teen Fasls,  fol.  235  a. 

Transcriber  (fol.  130  b) :  J^  J5  ^> 

Some  notes,  written  in  a  fine  Ta'lik  hand 
on  the  first  page,  fol.  4  a,  by  Muhammad 
Ahsan  Ullah  Khan,  show  that  this  volume 
came  into  his  possession  in  the  19th  year  of 
Muhammad  Shah,  A.H.  1149.  He  there 
congratulates  himself  on  the  acquisition  of  a 
work,  often  quoted  by  Eirishtah  (an  evident 
mistake,  for  Eirishtah  is  older),  and  which 
he  had  long  sought  in  vain.  He  further  re- 
cords several  successive  perusals  of  the  book, 
from  A.H.  1160  to  1191. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  the  contents  of  the 
present  volume,  in  a  later  hand,  foU.  1 — 3. 

A  miscellaneous  volume,  Add.  17,967, 
contains  an  abstract  of  the  contents  of  the 

E  2 


124 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


first  volume  of  the  Muntakhab  ut-Tavarikh, 
foil.  11—21.  It  extends  to  the  end  of  Kism 
III.,  and  was  written  A.H.  1222,  by  Gbulam 
Muhammad. 

Add.  25,186*. 

Foil.  597 ;  13  in.  by  8^ ;  25  lines,  6  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  rude  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  namely 
Kisms  IV.  and  V.,  and  the  Khatimah.  The 
author's  name  occurs  at  the  end  of  Kism  IV., 
fol.  247  «.  The  date  of  composition,  A.H. 
1056,  is  mentioned  in  several  places,  foil. 
53  b,  56  a,  58  6,  93  a,  etc.  But  the  substance 
and  arrangement  of  Kisms  IV.  and  V.  diifer 
in  several  important  points  from  the  state- 
ment of  the  contents  in  the  preface  of  the 
preceding  copy,  so  that  the  work  must  have 
undergone  some  recasting  since  that  preface 
was  written. 

Contents: — Kism  IV.,  divided  into  two 
Babs. 

Bab  I.,  containing  four  Easls : — 1.  Kings 
of  Ma  vara  annahr  and  Khurasan,  in  five 
Ta'ifahs :  Tilhiris,  SafEiris,  Samanis,  Ghaz- 
navis,  and  Ghuris,  fol.  1  b.  2.  Kings  of  Iran, 
'Irak  and  Eiirs,  in  two  Ta'ifahs:  Dailamis, 
and  Saljukis,  fol.  10  b.  3.  Slaves  of  the 
Saljukis,  in  two  Ta'ifahs:  Khwarazmshahis 
and  Atabaks,  fol.  20  a.  4.  Isma'ilis  of  Magh- 
rib and  Iran,  fol.  24  a. 

Bab  II.,  containing  six  Easls: — 1.  Turks, 
Moghuls  and  Tatars  :  Chingiz  Khan  and  his 
successors,  down  to  Abu  Sa'id,  fol.  27  b.  2. 
Kings  of  Iran,  in  five  Ta'ifahs :  Al  i  Muzaffar, 
Ilkhanis,  Karakuyunlus,  Ak-kuyunlus,  Sa- 
favis,  down  to  Shah  Abbas  II.,  fol.  34  b.  3. 
Kings  of  Rum,  in  two  Ta'ifahs :  Saljukis 
and  Al  i  'Ugman,  down  to  Sultan  Ibrahim 
fol.  53  b.  4.  Kings  of  Sind,  in  five  Ta'ifahs: 
Rajahs,  from  about  the  time  of  Muhammad 


to  the  conquest.  Governors  of  Sind  under 
theUmayyadesand  the  Abbasides :  Sumarahs, 
from  A.H.  445  to  680,  Samanahs  or  Jams, 
from  A.H.  680  to  916,  Arghunis  and  Tar- 
khanis,  fol.  59  a.  5.  Kings  of  Hindustan,  in 
five  Ta'ifahs:  Slaves  of  the  Ghuris,  Khiljis, 
Tughlakis,  Sayyids,  and  Afghans  or  Lodis, 
fol.  83  a.  6.  Timur,  fol.  93  a;  Shahrukh 
and  his  successors,  fol.  147  a  ;  'Umar  Shaikh 
and  his  successors,  fol.  150  a;  Miranshah 
and  his  successors,  down  to  the  accession  of 
Shahjahan,  fol.  150  b. 

In  the  conclusion  of  the  last  chapter  the 
author  observes  that  the  task  of  fitly  record- 
ing the  reign  of  Shahjahan  having  been 
committed  to  the  court  historians,  he  now 
refrains  from  entering  upon  that  lofty  theme, 
hoping,  if  life  be  vouchsafed  to  him,  to  add 
some  day  to  the  present  work  an  abstract  of 
their  annals. 

Kism  v.,  the  biographical  portion  of  the 
work,  also  divided  iuto  two  Babs. 

Bab  I.,  in  five  Easls  :  1.  The  four  Imams 
of  the  Sunnis  and  their  principal  Mujtahids, 
fol.  248  b.  2.  Ashab  i  Kiraat,  the  authors 
of  the  different  recensions  of  the  Goran,  fol. 
258  a.  3.  The  compilers  of  the  Canons  of 
Traditions,  fol.  258  b.  4.  'Ulama,  in  alpha- 
betical order,  fol.  260  5.  5.  Persian  poets, 
in  alphabetical  order,  fol.  264  a. 

Bab  II.,  in  two  Easls  :  1.  Religious  teachers 
and  saints,  in  chronological  order,  from  the 
early  ages  of  Islamism  to  the  close  of  the 
10th  century  of  the  Hijrah,  fol.  267  b.  2.  Ee- 
male  devotees,  fol.  515  b. 

The  following  works  are  mentioned  as  the 
principal  sources  of  the  lives  of  the  saints  : 
Tazkirat  ul-Auliya  by  Shaikh  'Attar,  Tarikh 
Guzldah,  Nafahat  ul-Uns,  and  Hadikat  ul- 
Auliya  by  Sayyid  'Abd  ul-Kadir  B.  Hashim 
ul-Husaini. 

Khatimah,  as  in  the  preceding  copy,  fol. 
523  b.  Prefixed,  foil.  522  a,  is  a  map  of  the 
world,  as  known  to  the  Orientals. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


125 


Or.  209. 

Eoll.  587  ;  9^  in.  by  6^;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  work  on  general  history,  from  the 
earliest  times  to  A.H.  1076. 

la  the  preface,  the  first  page  of  which 
is  lost,  the  author  says  that  he  wrote 
this  work  in  A.H.  1076,  at  Muradabad, 
province  of  Delili,  for  the  Amir  Asiilat 
Khan,  governor  of  that  place. 

Mirza  Muhammad  B.  Mirza  Badi'  Mash- 
hadi,  who  entered  the  service  of  Shahjahiln 
in  the  19th  year  of  the  reign,  received  the 
title  of  Asalat  Khan  from  Aurangzib  at  the 
time  of  his  accession,  and  in  the  third  year 
of  that  reign  was  appointed  Eaujdiir  of  Mu- 
radabad. He  died  A.H.  1076;  see  Ma'asir 
ul-Umara,  Add.  6567,  fol.  55  b,  and  Tazkirat 
ul-UmarS,  Add.  16,703,  fol.  14  a. 

The  present  MS.  contains  only  the  first 
volume  of  the  work.  The  concluding  lines 
show  that  the  next  began  with  the  history  of 
the  invasion  of  Chingiz  Khan.  The  entire 
work  is  stated  to  consist  of  four  Kisms,  the 
first  of  which  treats  of  the  prophets,  from 
Adam  to  Noah ;  the  headings  of  the  others 
do  not  appear  in  this  copy,  and  most  of  the 
rubrics  have  been  omitted. 

Contents:  Prophets,  from  Adam  to  Luk- 
man,  fol.  2  a.  Ancient  sages,  from  Sab  (or 
Harmes)  to  Buzurjmihr,  fol.  114  a.  Pish- 
dadis,  fol.  119  6.  Kayanis,  fol.  128  b.  Kings 
of  Rum  and  Syria  (Ptolemies,  etc.),  fol.  141  a. 
Muluk  Tava'if,  Ashkanis  and  Sasfmis,  fol. 
143  b.  Kings  of  the  Arabs,  fol.  164  a. 
Muhammad,  fol.  175  b.  Abu  Bakr,  fol.  237  6. 
•Umar,  fol.  240  a.  'Usman^  fol.  248  b.  'Ali, 
fol.  258  a.  The  rest  of  the  twelve  Imams, 
fol.  279  a.  Kings  of  the  race  of  Umayyah, 
fol.  320  a.     Abbaside  Khalifs,  fol.  362  b. 


Dynasties  contemporary  with  the  Abba- 
sides  :  Tahiris,  fol.  444  a.  Saffaris,  fol.  445  b. 
Samanis,  fol.  449  a.  Al  i  Subuktigln,  fol.  467  b. 
Kings  of  Tabaristan,  fol.  471  a.  Kings  of 
Jibal,  fol.  478  a.  Al  i  Buvaih,  fol.  482  *. 
Isma'ilis  of  Maghrib  and  of  Iran,  fol.  498  a. 
Saljukis,  fol.  509  b.  Banl  Mazyad,  fol.  540  a. 
Bani  Hamdan,  fol.  541  a.  Atabaks,  fol.  543  b. 
Umayyades  and  later  dynasties  in  Spain, 
fol.  552  b.  Ayyubis,  fol.  559  b.  Sharifs 
of  Mecca,  fol.  565  a.  GhQris  and  slave 
kings  of  Dehli,  fol.  565  b.  Khwiirazm- 
shahis,  fol.  578  b. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  when  speaking  of 
the  future  advent  of  the  Mahdi,  fol.  320  a, 
the  author  refers  for  further  details  to  an- 
other work  of  his,  entitled  Gvdshan  i  Iman. 

Add.  7657. 

EoU.  497 ;  10|  in.  by  7 ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik  and  Shikastah- 
Amiz,  with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
about  the  close  of  the  17th  century. 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 


(JU)i 


;y 


A  general  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  1078. 

Author :  Muhammad  Bakhtiivar  Khan 
(fol.  474  a)  ^\i,  jjlU<t.  j^ 

Beg.  tlAS-UaJj^ii^j^yj^-lj  ai'  ijji'^  ^..}ji 

The  author,  who  passed  for  a  perfect 
master  of  historical  lore,  was  a  eunuch  in 
the  service  of  Aurangzib,  who  on  his  ac- 
cession conferred  upon  him  the  title  of 
Khan,  and  in  the  13th  year  of  his  reign  the 
office  of  Daroghah  i  Khavasan.  He  died  in 
the  28th  year  of  the  reign.  See  Tazkirat 
ul-Umara,  Add.  16,713,  fol.  22.  A  notice  of 
the  work  has  been  given  by  Morley,  Descrip- 
tive Catalogue,  pp.  52 — 56 ;  see  also  N.  Lees, 
Journal  of  the  Roy.  Asiat.  Soc,  New  Series, 
vol.   iii.,   p.  465.    Erom  the    account  the 


126 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


author  gives  of  himself  towards  the  end  of 
the  Mirat  ul-'Alam,  we  learn  that  he  had 
written  several  other  works,  the  dates  of 
which  range  from  A.H.  1078  to  1090,  namely, 
an  account  of  the  four  battles  by  which 
Aurangzib  won  the  throne,  entitled  Chahar 
a'inah ;  abridgements  of  the  Hadikah  of  Sa- 
na!, the  poems  of  'Attar,  the  Masnavi  of 
Maulana  Eumi,  of  the  Rauzat  ul-Ahbab,  and 
of  the  Tririkh  i  Alf  i,  a  large  anthology  called 
Savadi  A'zam,  and  a  biography  of  saints, 
entitled  Riyaz  ul-Auliya.  A  circumstantial 
account  of  his  death,  found  at  the  end  of  the 
present  copy,  was  written  by  his  adopted 
son  and  favoured  pupil  (probably  Muham- 
mad Saki,  afterwards  Musta'idd  Khan),  who 
says  that  he  had  assisted  his  master  in  the 
composition  of  this  work,  and  had  after  his 
death  obtained  from  Aurangzib  the  permission 
to  publish  it.  It  is  here  stated  that  Bakh- 
tavar  Khan  died  after  a  short  illness  in 
Ahmadnagar,  on  the  loth  of  Rabi'  I.,  A.H. 
1096;  that  Aurangzib  mourned  for  him  more 
than  he  had  ever  done  for  any  of  his  servants, 
and  ofl&ciated  as  Imam  at  his  funeral.  He 
was  buried  in  a  tomb  that  he  had  erected 
for  himself  in  Baklitavar-purah,  Dehli. 

Bakhtavar  Khan  says  in  his  preface  that 
he  had  been  from  his  youth  a  passionate 
student  of  history,  and  that,  prevented  by 
frequent  travelling  from  having  many  books 
at  hand,  he  had  often  wished  to  provide 
himself  with  a  substitute  in  the  shape  of  a 
complete  historical  vade-mecum.  It  was 
not,  however,  until  after  the  accession  of 
his  royal  master  that  he  found  himself  in  a 
position  that  enabled  him  to  carry  out  his 
plan.  The  result  was  the  present  work, 
which  was  completed  in  the  year  expressed 
by  the  words  c^  ««ajT,  i.  e.  A.H.  1078. 

But  although  that  year  is  mentioned  more 
than  once  in  the  body  of  the  work  as  the 
time  of  composition  (see  foil.  174  b,  446  a), 
some  of  the  historical  accounts  and  bio- 
graphical notices  are  brought  down  to  later 


dates,  as  A.H.  1088,  fol.  455  b,  10S9,  fol. 
456  a,  1092,  fol.  455  b,  1094,  fol.  456  b. 

The  Mirat  ul-'Alam  is  an  extremely  useful 
and  trustworthy  compendium  of  eastern 
history  and  biography.  The  contemporary 
record  of  the  first  ten  years  of  Aurangzib's 
reign  is  of  special  interest ;  the  author  re- 
marks in  its  conclusion  that  his  position 
near  the  person  of  the  sovereign  had  enabled 
him  to  make  important  additions  to  the 
'Alamglr-Namah,  on  which  his  account  was 
based.  It  is  mentioned  among  the  sources 
of  the  Maagir  ul-Umara,  Add.  6567,  fol.  2. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  Introduction 
(Mukaddimah),  seven  books,  called  Arayish, 
subdivided  into  sections  termed  Numayish 
and  Numud,  an  Appendix  (Afzayish),  and  a 
Conclusion  (Khatimah). 

Contents  :  Mukaddimah,  creation,  fol.  5  b. 

Arayish  I.,  in  four  Numayish — 1.  Pro- 
phets, fol.  7  a.  2.  Philosophers,  fol.  34  a. 
3.  Early  kings  of  Persia,  fol.  36  b.  4.  The 
Tubba's  of  Yaman,  fol.  50  a. 

Arayish  II.,  in  twelve  Numayish — 1.  Life 
of  Muhammad,  fol.  51  b.  2.  His  features 
and  his  miracles,  fol.  71  b.  3.  His  wives  and 
children,  fol.  72  «.  4.  The  Rashidin  Khalifs, 
fol.  74  a.  5.  The  Imams,  fol.  85  b.  6.  The 
Mubashsharin,  fol.  88  a.  7.  The  principal 
Companions,  in  alphabetical  order,  fol.  88  b. 
8.  The  Tabi'in,  in  chronological  order,  fol. 
98  a.  9.  The  four  Mujtahids,  fol.  101  a. 
10.  The  seven  readers  of  the  Goran,  fol. 
102  a.  11.  The  traditionists,  in  chronologi- 
cal order,  ib.  12.  The  Shaikhs  and  Sufis, 
similarly  arranged,  fol.  104  a.  Saints  of 
India,  fol.  Ill  b.  Muslim  philosophers  and 
'Ulama,  in  the  same  order,  fol.  117  a. 

Arayish  III.,  in  eight  Numayish — 1.  Umay- 
yades,  fol.  121  a.  2.  Abbasides,  fol.  126  b. 
3.  Dynasties  contemporary  with  the  Abba- 
sides,  in  eleven  Numuds — Tahiris,  fol.  134  b. 
Safiaris,  fol.  135  a.  Samanis,  fol.  135  b. 
Ghaznavis,  fol.  136  b.  Ghuris,  fol.  138  b. 
Al  i  Buvaih,  fol.  139  b.     Saljukis,  fol.  141  a. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


127 


Khwiirazmshilhis,  fol.  144  a.  Atabaks  of 
Fiirs,  Syria,  and  Irak,  fol,  146  a.  Ismailis 
of  Maghrib  and  Iran,  fol.  148  a.  Karakhi- 
tais  of  Kir  man,  fol.  150  a.  4.  Kings  of 
Rum,  in  eight  Numuds — CjEsars,  fol.  150  b. 
Saljukis,  fol.  153  b.  Danishmandis,  Salikis, 
Manguchakis,  Karaman,  Zulkadr,  fol.  154  b. 
Osmanlis,  fol.  156  a.  5.  Sharlfs  of  Mecca 
and  Medina,  fol.  158  a.  6.  The  Khans  of 
the  Turks,  viz.  Turk,  Tatar,  Moghul,  Bix- 
zanjar  Ka'an,  and  their  descendants,  fol. 
159  a.  7.  Chingiz  Khan  and  his  descendants, 
in  seven  Numuds — Timuchin  (Chingiz),  fol. 
161  a.  Ukdai  Ka'an  and  his  successors  in 
Ulugh  Yurt,  fol.  162  b.  Jfiji  Khan  and  his 
successors  in  Klpchak,  fol.  163  b.  Hulagu 
Khftn  and  his  successors  in  Iran,  fol.  164  a. 
Chaghatai  Khan  and  his  successors  in  Turan, 
fol.  167  a.  Shaibanis  in  Turan,  from  Shalu 
Beg  Khan  to  the  accession  of  *Abd  ul-'Aziz 
Khan,  A.H.  1055  (with  a  marginal  addition 
recording  the  latter's  expulsion  by  Subhan 
Kuli  Khan,  A.H.  1092,  and  his  death  in 
Mokha,  A.H.  1094).  Khans  of  Kashghar, 
from  Tughluktimur  Khan,  A.H.  761,  to 
Yulpars  Khiin,  who  was  reigning  in  A.H. 
1078.  8.  Muluk  ut-Tava'if,  or  local  dynasties 
that  rose  at  the  decline  of  the  Moghul  empire, 
in  five  Numiids — Chupanis,  Ilkanis,  Shaikh 
Abu  Ishak  and  MuzafFaris,  Kurts,  and  Sar- 
badars,  fol.  175  o. 

Arayish  IV.,  in  five  Numayish — 1.  Timur 
and  his  successors,  down  to  Sultan  Abu  Sa'id, 
fol.  179  a.  2.  Abul-Ghazi  Sultan  Husain 
and  his  children,  fol.  188  a.  3.  Karaku- 
yunlus,  fol.  189  b.  ^.  Ak  Kuyunlus,  fol. 
190  a.  5.  Safavis,  down  to  the  accession  of 
Shah  Sulaiman,  A.H.  1077,  fol.  190  b. 

Arayish  V.,  containing  an  Introduction, 
called  Naksh,  on  the  creed  of  the  Hindus, 
their  Rajahs,  and  the  Muslim  conquest,  fol. 
196  b;  and  the  following  nine  Numayish — 
1.  Sultans  of  Dehli,  from  Shihab  ud-Din 
Ghuri  to  Ibrahim  LodT,  fol.  202  a.  2.  Sultans 
of  Deccan,  in  six  Numuds — Bahmanis,  fol. 


218  a.  Baridis,  fol.  230  b.  'Imad-Shahis, 
fol.  231  a.  Nizam  ul-Mulkis,  lb.  'Adil- 
khanis  (with  a  marginal  addition,  recording 
the  accession  of  Iskandar  'Adil  Khan,  A.H. 
1084),  fol.  232  b.  Kutb  ul-Mulkis,  fol.  233  b. 
3,  Kings  of  Gujarat,  fol.  234  a.  4.  Rulers 
of  Sind,  in  two  Numuds — Tatah,  fol.  237  a. 
Multan,  fol.  239  a.  5.  Bengal,  fol.  240  b. 
6.  Mrdvah,  fol.  242  a.  7.  Khandes,  fol.  244  a. 
8.  Jaunpur,  fol.  245  a.   9.  Kashmir,  fol.  246  a. 

Arayish  VI.,  in  five  Numayish — I.  Babar, 
fol.  249  a.  2.  Humayun,  fol.  254  b.  3.  Ak- 
bar,  fol.  271  b.  4.  JahangTr,  fol.  296  a 
5.  Shahjahan,  fol.  312  a. 
.  Arayish  VII.,  in  three  Pairayish — 1.  His- 
tory of  'Alamgir,  from  his  birth  to  the  end 
of  the  tenth  year  of  his  reign,  fol.  348  b 
(it  closes  with  the  21st  of  Shavval,  A.H. 
1078).  2.  His  eminent  qualities,  fol.  442  a; 
his  children,  ib.;  extent  and  divisions  of 
his  empire,  fol.  445  a ;  contemporary  sove- 
reigns, fol.  446  a.  3.  Shaikhs  of  the  time  of 
'Alamglr,  fol.  447  a.  'Ulama,  from  the  time 
of  Akbar  to  the  reign  of  'Alamgir,  fol,  450  a. 

Afzayish:  Celebrated  calligraphers,  from 
Ibn  Muklah  to  the  author's  time,  fol.  457  a. 
Some  strange  facts  and  curious  anecdotes, 
from  the  author's  own  recollection  or  the 
report  of  trustworthy  informants,  fol.  463  b. 
Account  of  the  author's  works  and  of  the 
buildings  erected  by  him,  fol,  471  b. 

Khatimah,  Notices  of  Persian  poets,  in 
alphabetical  order,  fol,  474  a. 

Add.  23,530. 

Foil,  626;  10|  in.  by  5^;  20  lines,  4  in, 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
the  18th  century,  [Rob,  Taylob.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  25,784. 

Foil.  390;  12  in.  by  7^;  25  lines,  4|  in. 


128 


,  GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins ;  about  the  beginning  of  the 
18th  century.  [Wm.  Cueeton.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  24,027. 

Foil.  602;  12  in.  by  8;  15  lines,  5  in. 
long;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  ruled  margins,  apparently  in  India,  in 
the  18th  century.  [H.  H.  Wilson.] 

j\cj\  Jib  lJjS-  ^j>U»  iX.^  ^Jo 

Tarlkh  i  Muhammadshahi,  commonly 
called  Nadir  uz-zamani,  a  work  on  general 
history,  written  with  special  reference  to 
India,  and  concluding  with  a  record  of  the 
reign  of  Muhammad  Shah  (A.H.  1131— 1161). 

Author :  Khwushhal  Chand  B.  Jivanram 
B.   Anandram   Kayath   (foil.  67  a,   190  a), 

The  author  was  Munshl  in  the  Divani 
ofiice  of  Dehli ;  see  Elliot's  History  of  India, 
vol.  vii.,  No.  xcii.  He  conveys  the  date  of 
composition,  A.H.  1154,  in  the  following 
verse  at  the  end  of  the  first  book,  fol.  189  a. 

Erom  a  summary  of  the  contents  of  the 
whole  work,  given  at  the  beginning  of  the 
second  book,  fol.  190,  we  learn  that  it  is 
divided  into  two  books  (Makalah).  Maka- 
lah  I.,  caUed^Ui-'ill  «^,  comprises  two  sections 
termed  Kaifiyyat,  subdivided  into  Haka'ik 
and  Daka'ik.  The  first  treats  of  the  prophets, 
from  Adam  to  Muhammad,  the  kings  of  Iran, 
Turan,  Eum  and  Syria,  ancient  sages  and  the 
descendants  of  Japhet  (the  Turks  and  Mo- 
ghuls),  down  to  the  grandson  of  Timur,  'Umar 
Shaikh.  It  contains  digressions  on  poetry, 
prosody  and  various  alphabets  and  characters. 

The  second  Kaifiyyat  treats  of  the  Hindu 
Rajahs,  from  Judhishtir  to  Rae  Pithaura, 
with  an   incidental   account    of  Ram    and 


Lachman,  and  of  the  Muslim  kings  of  India, 
from  Subuktigin  to  Ibrahim  Lodi.  It  com- 
prises also  dissertations  on  the  interpreta- 
tion of  dreams,  astrology,  music,  Hindu 
philosophy,  and  an  account  of  the  Muslim 
saints  of  India,  the  filiation  of  religious 
orders,  and  of  celebrated  Hindu  devotees,  as 
Ramanand,  Kabir,  Raidas,  Surdas,  &c. 

Makalah  II.,  called  jLi-^1  iijjj,  is  divided 
into  two  sections  (Matla') :  1.  History  of  the 
Timurides  of  India,  from  Babar  to  Rafi'  ud- 
Daulah.     2.  History  of  Muhammad  Shah. 

The  present  volume  contains  the  latter 
part  of  the  second  Kaifiyyat  of  Makrdah  I., 
and  the  greatest  portion  of  the  first  Matla'  of 
Makalah  II.,  as  follows :  Account  of  religious 
orders  and  of  the  Muslim  saints  of  India,  fol. 
2  a.  This  account,  which  is  slightly  imperfect 
at  the  beginning,  is  a  digression  introduced 
into  the  history  of  Ghiya§  ud-Din  Balban. 

End  of  the  reign  of  Ghiya§  ud-Din  Balban, 
and  history  of  his  successors  on  the  throne 
of  Dehli,  down  to  Ibrahim  Lodi,  fol.  22  b. 
Local  dynasties  of  India,  abridged  from 
Eirishtah's  history,  viz.  Deccan,  fol.  42  a  ; 
Gujarat,  Sind,  Bengal,  Malvah,  Khandes, 
Jaunpiir  and  Kashmir,  fol.  55  a.  Notices  of 
numerous  Hindu  devotees,  a  favourite  theme 
with  the  author,  illustrated  by  copious  anec- 
dotes, sayings,  and  verses,  fol.  66  b. 

Preface  of  Makrdah  II.,  beginning,  fol.  189  a: 

Genealogy  of  Muhammad  Shah,  fol.  193  b. 
History  of  Babar,  fol.  195  b.  Description  of 
the  one-and- twenty  Subahs  of  the  empire, 
fol.  207  a.  Reigns  of  Humayiin,  fol.  241  a, 
Akbar,  fol.  280  a,  Jahangir,  fol.  361  b,  Shah- 
jahan,  fol.  418  a,  and  'Alamgir,  fol.  473  a>. 

The  record  of  the  last  reign  is  brought 
down  to  the  49th  year  ;  the  last  event  men- 
mentioned  is  the  death  of  Jahanzib  Banu, 
daughter  of  Dara  Shikuh,  intelligence  of 
which  reached  the  court  from  Ahmadabad 
on  the  28th  of  Zul-Ka'dah,  A.H.  lil6. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


129 


The  first  page  of  this  MS.  imparts  to  it  a 
deceptive  appearance  of  antiquity ;  for  it  is 
covered  with  seals  and  'arz-didahs,  several  of 
which  are  of  the  reign  of  Shahjahan.  But  it 
is  found  on  nearer  inspection  to  have  origin- 
ally belonged  to  a  copy  of  Jami's  Yusuf  and 
Zalikha,  and  to  have  been  cunningly  pasted 
on  the  first  leaf  of  the  present  volume.  The 
verso  of  that  leaf  contains  a  rich  'Unvan  and 
a  few  lines  of  a  spurious  preface,  designed  to 
disguise  the  defective  state  of  the  MS. 

Add.  6539  and  6540. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  244  and  121  ;  11|  in.  by  8^ ; 
20  lines,  4|  in.  long;  written  in  cursive 
Nestalik;  dated  Haidarabad,  Muharram,  A.H. 
1197  (A.D.  1783).  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

An  abridgment  of  general  history,  from 
the  earliest  times  to  A.H.  1179. 

Author :  (Mir)  Muhammad  'AH  B.  Mu- 
hammad Sadik,  of  tlie  Kamun  family,  ul- 
Husaini  ul-Burhanpuri,  (fol.  7  a),  ij>  ^Js-  j^ 

Beg.  p^^J  ftj/j!s)U  *1J15  «/;yif**  ^^ji^ 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that  after 
years  of  unremitted  labour  he  had  completed 
an  historical  compendium  written  with 
special  attention  to  dates,  and  had  dedicated 
it,  in  A.H.  1153,  to  the  late  Navriib,  Nizam 
ud-Daulah  Mir  Ahmad  Khan  Bahadur  Nasir 
Jang  (the  son  and  successor  of  Nizam  ul- 
Mulk  Asafjah,  murdered  by  his  officers  in 
A.H.  1164).  Not  being  rewarded  with  the 
slightest  token  of  favour,  he  had  taken  the 
work  in  hand  again,  and  added  to  it  a 
second  volume  and  another  preface,  inclu- 
ding a  dedication  to  a  new  patron,  Samsam 
ud-Daulah   Shahnavaz   Khan  Bahadur  (the 


minister  of  Nasir  Jang  and  AsaQiih,  and 
author  of  the  Ma'asir  ul-Umara).  This 
improved  edition  was  not  completed  till  A.H. 
1179,  for  the  history  is  brought  down  to 
the  beginning  of  that  year,  and  the  same 
date  is  frequently  mentioned  in  various  parts 
of  the  work  as  the  time  of  composition  :  see 
foil.  9  b,  10  b,  115  b,  171  b,  172  a,  etc.  But 
the  preface  must  have  been  written  several 
years  earlier,  for  Shahnavaz  Khan,  to  whom 
the  dedication  is  addressed,  M'as  put  to  death 
in  the  month  of  Ramazan,  A.H.  1171.  The 
plot  to  which  he  fell  a  victim,  and  with 
which  M.  Bussy  is  explicitly  charged  by 
the  author,  is  fully  told  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  present  work,  Add.  6540,  foil.  103,  104. 
The  same  event  is  recorded  in  the  preface 
of  the  Maiisir  ul-Umara  :  see  also  Morley's 
Catalogue,  p.  102. 

The  Mirat  us-Safa  is  mentioned  as  one  of 
the  sources  of  the  Maagir  ul-Umara:  see  Add. 
6565,  fol.  8. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  the  author,  in 
his  chapter  on  poets,  and  under  the  head- 
ing Burhanpur,  fol.  232  a,  makes  mention 
of  his  son  Mir  Muhammad  Yusuf,  who  had 
written  at  the  age  of  eighteen  a  Mukhtar- 
Namah,  consisting  of  eleven  thousand  lines, 
in  the  measure  of  the  Shahnamah. 

The  work  is  divided  into  two  books  (Ma- 
kalah)  the  first  of  which,  contained  in  Add. 
6539,  is  again  subdivided  into  an  introductory 
chapter  (Mukaddimah),  treating  of  history 
and  different  seras,  fol.  9  a,  and  seventeen 
chapters  (Bab),  as  follows  : 

I.,  in  four  sections  (Fasl)  :  Creation, 
prophets,  philosophers,  early  kings  of  Persia, 
fol.  10  b. 

II.,  in  five  Fasls  :  Muhammad,  the  first 
four  Khalifs,  the  twelve  Imams,  the  rela- 
tives of  Muhammad  and  his  Companions, 
fol.  50  b. 

III.,  in  three  Fasls:  Umayyades,  Abba- 
sides  and  Isma'ili  Khalifs,  fol.  85  b. 

IV.   Shi'ah  leaders,   who  did   not  attain 

s 


130 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


sovereign  power,  and  Idrisi  Sayyids  of  Magh- 
rib, fol.  93  a. 

V.  Kings  of  Iran,  in  nineteen  Fasls: 
1.  Tahiris,  fol.  94  a.  2.  Saffilris,  ib.  3.  Sa- 
manis,  fol.  94  b.     4.  Subuktiginis,  fol.  96  a. 

5.  Dailamis,  fol.  98  «.  6.  Saljukis,  fol.  100  i. 
7.  Khwarazmshilhis,  fol.  105  a.  8.  Malahi- 
dahs,  or  Isma  ilis  of  Iran,  fol.  106  b.  9 — 12. 
Atabaks  of  Mausil,  Azarbaijiln,  Pars,  and 
Luristan,  fol.  108  a.  13.  Ghuris,  fol.  109  b. 
14.  Kurts,  ib.  15.  Kings  of  Mazandaran, 
down  to  A.n.  1157,  fol.  110  a.  16.  Kings  of 
Rustamdar,  fol.  113  b.  17.  Kings  of  Sistan, 
fol.  114  b.  18.  Kings  of  Lar,  down  to  the 
time  of  'Abbas  I.,  fol.  116  a.  19.  Kings  of 
Shirvan,  to  the  time  of  Tahmasp,  fol.  116  b. 

VI.  Kings  of  Arab  countries,  in  six  Fasls : 
1.  Musha'sha's  of  Huwaizah  and  Khuzistan, 
fol.  117  b.  2.  Kings  of  Taman,  from  the 
earliest  times  to  A.H.  1042,  fol.  118  a. 
3.  Kings  of  Egypt  and  Syria,  to  the  Turkish 
conquest,  fol.  120  b.  4i.  Al  i  Hamdan, 
fol.    122   b.       5.    Bani    'Ukail,    fol.  123  a. 

6.  BanI  Asad,  fol.  123  b. 

VII.  Kings  of  Moghul  origin,  in  eight 
Fasls:  1.  Chinglzkhan  and  his  successors  in 
Iran,  fol.  125  a.  2.  Ilkanis,  fol.  136  a. 
3.  Chupanis,  fol.  137  «.  4.  Karilkhitais, 
fol.  137  b.  5.  Al  i  Muzaflfar,  fol.  138  b. 
6.  Sarbadars,  fol.  141  a.  7.  Karakuyunlus, 
fol.  141  b.     8.  Akkuyunlus,  fol.  142  b. 

VIII.  Safavis  and  their  successors,  down 
to  Karim  Khan  Zand,  fol.  143  b. 

IX.  Osmanlis,  fol.  172  a. 

X.  Abul-Khair  Khan  and  his  successors  in 
Turkistan,  down  to  the  submission  of  Abul- 
Faiz  Khan  to  Nadir  Shah,  fol.  181  b. 

XI.  Kings  of  India,  in  sixteen  Pasls  : 
1.  Kings  of  Dehli,  from  the  Ghuris  to  the 
Timurides,  fol.  184  a.  2.  Bahmanis,  fol.  187  a. 
3.  Nizamshahis,  fol.  189  a.  4.  'Adilshahis, 
fol.  190  b.  5.  Kutubshahis,  fol.  191  b. 
6.  'Imadshahis,  fol.  193  b.  7.  Baridis, 
fol.  194  a.    8.  Kings  of  Gujarat,  fol.  194  b. 


9.  Malvah,  fol.  195  b.  10.  Khandes,  fol. 
196  b.  11.  Bengal,  fol.  198  a.  12.  Jaunpur, 
fol.  199  b.  13.  Sind,  fol.  200  a.  14.  Multan, 
fol.  200  b.  15.  Kashmir,  fol.  201  b.  16.  Little 
Tibet,  from  A.H.  731  to  Murtaza  Khan,  in 
the  reign  of  Aurangzib,  fol.  203  b. 

XII.  'XJlama;  short  biographical  notices 
of  men  of  learning,  from  the  first  century  of 
the  Hijrah  to  the  author's  time,  fol.  204  a. 

XIII.  Holy  men  and  Sufis,  arranged  under 
their  native  places,  fol.  212  b. 

XIV.  Arab  and  Persian  poets,  the  latter 
in  the  same  order,  fol.  219  a. 

XV.  Dates  of  some  curious  and  remarkable 
events,  from  the  Hijrah  to  the  author's  time, 
fol.  232  a. 

XVI.  Arab  and  Turcoman  tribes,  fol.  234  a. 

XVII.  Chronological  tables  of  dynasties, 
fol.  241  a. 

Scribe :    iytsU'  j^  ij>   i_^i— *  ^-f^^  J>J*  '>•:—» 

The  second  volume.  Add.  6540,  contains 
the  following  two  sections  (Bab) :  I.  Timu- 
rides of  Iran  and  Turan,  from  their  rise  to 
Muhammad  Zaman,  fol.  6  a.  II.  Timurides 
of  India,  from  their  origin  to  the  time  of 
composition,  A.H.  1179,  fol.  17  a. 

In  the  latter  portion  of  Bab  II.  the  narra- 
tive becomes  very  full,  especially  during 
the  reigns  of  Muhammad  Shah,  fol.  40  d, 
Ahmad  Shah,  fol.  77  a,  'Alamgir  II.,  fol.  95  i, 
and  Vala-Guhar  (Shah  'Alam),  fol.  113  a,  in 
which  the  affairs  of  Nizam  ul-Mulk  and  his 
successors  in  the  Deccan  much  engross  the 
author's  attention. 

A  tabulated  index  of  contents  is  prefixed 
to  each  volume.  On  the  first  page  of  each 
is  a  note,  stating  that  the  original  of  this 
MS.  had  been  transcribed  in  the  library  of 
Navvab  Samsam  ul-Mulk  Shahnavaz  Khan 
Bahadur,  Haidarabad,  A.H.  1196. 

Both  volumes  bear  the  official  Persian 
stamp  of  Mr.  James  Grant. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


131 


Add.  6942. 

Foil.  773 ;  11|  in.  by  7^;  about  20  lines, 
3  in.  long ;  written  by  the  Rev.  John 
Haddon  Ilindley,  early  in  the  19th  century. 

A  compendium  of  general  Mohammedan 
and  Indian  history,  from  the  earliest  times 
to  A.H.  1184. 

Author:  Muhammad  Aslam  B.  Muham- 
mad Hafiz  ul-Ansarl  ul-Kadiri,  ^^  1m\  ^^ 

Beg.  ^^W)^  s^^j    J>^^  ^i  V.  0^^  ^ 

It  appears  from  the  preface,  in  which 
Shah  'Alam  is  designated  as  the  reigning 
sovereign,  that  the  author,  who  had  long 
been  engaged  in  historical  studies  in  his 
native  city,  Lucknow,  was  encouraged  by 
some  Amir  not  named,  whom  he  met  at 
Faiziibad  in  A.H.  1182,  to  compile  the 
present  work,  which  he  dedicated  in  A.H. 
1184  to  the  reigning  Nawab,  Shuja'  ud- 
Daulah. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  introduction 
(Mukaddimah),  three  books  (Makiilah),  and 
an  Appendix  (Zhatimah),  as  follows : — 

Mukaddimah.  Creation,  genii,  etc.,  fol.  29. 

MakrJah  I.  Prophets,  Muhammad,  early 
Khalifs,  the  twelve  Imams  and  the  four 
doctors  of  the  Sunnis,  fol.  37. 

Makalah  II.  Rajahs  and  Sultans  of  India, 
from  the  earliest  times  to  Ibrahim  B.  Sikan- 
dar  Lodi,  fol.  268. 

Makalah  III.  Timur  and  his  successors  in 
India,  down  to  Shah  'Alam,  fol.  519. 

Khatimah.  Geography  of  India.  Learned 
and  holy  men.  Family  of  the  Vazir  Shuja' 
ud-Daulah. 

The  present  transcript  breaks  off  in  the 
account  of  Aurangzib's  accession.  In  the 
first  part  of  the  volume  the  text  is  accom- 
panied with  an  English  translation. 


A  miscellaneous  volume,  written  by  the 
same  hand,  Add.  6946,  contains  the  head- 
ings of  the  entire  work,  foil.  60 — 68. 

Add.  6943. 

Foil.  336 ;  12|  in.  by  8  ;  about  36  lines, 
7^  in.  long,  in  a  page ;  written  by  the  Rev. 
John  Haddon  Hindley,  on  paper  water- 
marked 1816. 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  with  extracts 
from  the  Ma'asir  i  Rahimi  (a  work  written 
A.H.  1025,  by  'Abd  ul-Biiki  Nahavandi ;  see 
Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  vi.  p.  237),  and 
Jabakat  i  Akbari  (see  further  on,  Add.  6643). 

The  compilation  follows  the  arrangement 
of  the  Farhat  un-Nazirin ;  but  in  the  early 
portion,  namely,  Makalah  I.,  foil.  1 — 39, 
and  the  first  part  of  Makalah  II.,  foil.  40 — 
70,  little  more  than  the  headings  and  some 
short  extracts  are  given. 

The  remaining  portion  of  Makalah  II., 
which  relates  to  Indian  history  from  the 
first  appearance  of  Islamism  to  the  fall  of 
Ibrahim  B.  Sikandar  Lodi,  is  given  in  full, 
foil.  71 — 303,  with  copious  parallel  passages 
from  the  Ma'a§ir  i  Rahimi  and  Tabakat  i 
Akbari,  written  on  the  opposite  pages. 

The  same  mode  of  compilation  is  carried 
on  from  the  beginning  of  Makalah  III.  to 
the  passage  relating  to  the  flight  of  Huma- 
yun  to  Persia,  foU.  304 — 336,  where  this 
copy  breaks  off. 


Add.  16,697. 

Foil.  350;  12|  in.  by  8| ;  17  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  early  in  the 
19th  century.  [Wm.  Yule  | 


An  abridgment  of  general  history,  bio- 
graphy, and   geography,  from  the  earliest 
8  2 


132 


GENERAL  HfSTOEY. 


times  to  the  45th  year  of  the  reign  of  Shah 
'Alam,  A.H.  1217. 

Author :  *Abd  ur-Eahman,  entitled  Shah- 
navaz  Khan,  HashimI  Banbanl  Dihlavi,  jop 

J    ^LJJ     ^_5^U     i^W  J^y^U.    u-^"j^    (J-*^J^ 

Beg.      1&U)\  J:iU_*  ^^  es^^y-   «^  J'-S* 

The  author,  who  held  an  office  at  the 
Dehli  Court  under  Shah  'Alam,  states  in 
the  preface  that  he  gave  the  title  of  Mir'at 
i  Afitabnuma  to  the  present  compilation  for 
two  reasons,  first  as  including  Afitab,  the 
Takhallus  of  His  Majesty,  secondly  as  ex- 
pressing the  date  of  composition,  A.H.  1218. 
The  same  date  is  conveyed,  in  a  versified 
chronogram  at  the  end,  by  the  words    Up 

This  work,  which  has  been  described  by 
Morley  in  his  Catalogue,  pp.  56,  57,  is  di- 
vided into  an  Introduction  (Mukaddimah), 
two  books  (Jalvah),  and  an  Appendix  (Kha- 
timah),  as  follows: 

Mukaddimah,     Value  of  history,  fol.  3  a. 

Jalvah  I.,  subdivided  into  the  following 
six  sections  (Tajalli) :  1.  Creation  of  the 
world;  heavenly  bodies  and  divisions  of 
time  ;  minerals,  plants,  and  animals,  in  alpha- 
betical order;  constitution  of  the  human  body; 
ethics,  fol.  3  6.  2.  Prophets.  3.  Muhammad, 
the  early  Khalifs  and  Imams.  4.  Sufis,  in 
chronological  order,  fol.  94  b.  Indian  Saints, 
fol.  102  b.  Ealse  Sufis,  fol.  118  a.  Hindu 
devotees,  fol.  119  b.  'Ulama,  fol.  124  a.  Phi- 
losophers, fol.  129  a.  Persian  Poets,  in  alpha- 
betical order,  fol.  134  a.  Calligraphers,  fol. 
1 57  b.  5.  Early  kings  of  Persia,  etc.,  fol.  160  b. 
Umayyades  and  Abbasides,  fol.  167  a.  Dy- 
nasties contemporary  with  the  Abbasides, 
fol.  172  a.  Moghuls,  fol.  178  b.  Kings  of 
Deccan  and  Gujarat,  fol.  180  b.  Safavis, 
fol.  182  b.  Lodis,  fol.  183  a.  Rajahs  of 
India,  fol.   186  a.     6.  Timur  and  the  Ti- 


murides  of  India,  from  Babar  to  Shah  'Alam, 
fol.  188  a. 

In  the  last  reign,  foil.  226—253,  the 
events  are  recorded  year  by  year,  from  Shah 
'Alam's  accession  to  the  30th  year  of  his 
reign.  In  the  concluding  lines  the  author 
says  that  after  that  period  rebellion  and 
anarchy  prevailed,  but  that  order  had  been 
since  re-established,  and  that  Shah  'Alam 
was  now,  in  the  45th  year  of  his  reign,  in 
undisturbed  possession  of  the  throne.  Cele- 
brated Amirs  of  Timuride  Dynasty,  in  alpha- 
betical order,  fol.  253  a.  Various  inventions, 
fol.  264  b.  Hindi!  music  and  singers,  fol. 
266  6. 

Jalvah  II.  is  geographical;  it  comprises 
eight  Tajallis,  the  first  seven  of  which,  fol, 
281  a,  treat  of  the  seven  climates,  and  the 
eighth,  fol.  350  a,  of  the  seas.  The  third 
Tajalli  includes  detailed  descriptions  of  Dehli 
and  Agra,  foil,  305 — 318,  the  seventh  an 
account  of  Europe  and  America,  from  in- 
formation received  from  Jonathan  Scott, 
foil.  342—350. 

Khatimah.  Curious  facts  and  anecdotes, 
fol.  351  b. 

The  Haft  Gulshan  i  Muhammad  Shahi 
(Elliot,  Bibl.  Index,  no,  xxxix.)  is  occa- 
sionally quoted ;  see  foil.  183  a,  186  a. 

This  volume  bears  the  Persian  seal  of 
Col,  David  Ochterlony,  with  the  date  A,H. 
1219.     It  reads  as  follows  :  j*«  *)jjJ\  jx^ 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  the  following  note,  in 
the  handwriting  qf  Major  Wm.  Yule :  "  Pre- 
sented by  the  author,  Shah  Nawauz  Khan, 
to  Col.  D.  Ochterlony,  and  by  him  to  me 
on  taking  leave  of  him  at  Dehli,  Sept.  10th, 
1805." 

Or.  143. 

Poll.  439 ;  12^  in.  by  8^ ;  15  lines,  5  in. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


133 


long;  written  in  large  Nestalik  with  TJn- 
van  and  ruled  margins ;  dated  September, 
1832,  Rabi'  IT.,  A.H.  1248. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  contents,  occupying 
six  pages. 

Add.  26,249. 

Poll.  243 ;  9f  in.  by  5 ;  13  lines,  3i  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  early  in  the  19th 
century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

Three  extracts  from  the  preceding  work, 
relating  to  the  history  and  geography  of 
India,  viz. — 

I.,  foil.  2—174.  Account  of  the  Lodi  Dy- 
nasty, the  Hindu  Eajahs,  and  the  Timurides 
(Add.  16,697.  foil.  183—253). 

II.,  foil.  175—243.  Description  of  the 
Indian  portions  of  the  second  and  third 
climates  (Add.  16,697,  foil.  286—292,  302— 
323). 

Add.  16,698. 

Poll.  156 ;  9  in.  by  6  ;  13  lines,  3|  in.  long  ; 
written  in  Nestalik,  in  the  early  part  of 
the  19th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

A  general  history  of  the  East,  and  espe- 
cially Persia,  in  modern  times,  brought 
down  to  A.H.  1211. 

Author :  Abul- Hasan  B.  Ibrahim  Kaz- 
vini,  J^.yj3  ^\j\  ^Ji  i^r-^  ^\ 

Beg.  cLjm]/  ^J^'ii'  \*U.i>b  ^J^ 

The  author  says  in  his  preface  that  it  had 
occurred  to  him  to  write  a  compendious 
history  of  the  Safavi  Dynasty  and  the  local 
rulers  Ud\^\  ci)^  of  Iran  to  the  present 
time,  a  subject  not  attempted  hitherto  by 
any  writer,  and  very  little  known  in  India, 
to  embody  in  it  the  results  of  his  own  oh- 
servation  while  he  was  still  living  in  Persia 
(i.  e.  till  A.H.  1205),  and  to  present  it  to 


his  royal  master,  Abul-Fath  Sultan  Muham- 
mad Mlrza  Bahadur  Khan  Safavi.  He  adds 
that  by  a  curious  coincidence  the  word 
Tarikh  exactly  expresses  the  time  of  com- 
position, viz.  A.H.  1211.  The  same  date 
is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  course  of  the 
work,  as  foil.  68  *,  73  a,  and  155  b.  See 
Morley's  Descriptive  Catalogue,  p.  137. 

Sultan  Muhammad  Mirza,  the  last  of  the 
Safavis,  whose  career  is  fully  recorded  in  this 
work,  was  then  in  his  26th  year,  living  in  exile 
at  Lucknow,  a  pensioner  of  the  East  India 
Company.  As  a  youth  he  had  been  pro- 
claimed in  Ispahan  by  Aka  Muhammad  Ka- 
jar,  A.H.  1200,  but,  loth  to  trust  himself  into 
the  hands  of  that  ambitious  chief,  he  had 
kept  at  a  safe  distance,  and  eventually  made 
his  escape  to  Sind,  A.H.  1205  ;  after  some 
years  of  wandering  he  had  finally  settled 
in  Lucknow  in  A.H.  1210.  From  the  minute 
account  the  author  gives  of  all  the  prince's 
doings,  and  of  the  visitors,  especially  English- 
men, who  came  to  pay  their  respects  to  him,  as 
Col.  "Wm.  Palmer,  General  Stuart,  Col.  Scott, 
John  Bailey,  Sir  Gore  Ouseley,  Dr.  Wm. 
Hunter,  Dr.  Wm.  Kennedy,  Major  Wm. 
Yule,  and  others,  it  is  evident  that  he  was 
in  daily  attendance  upon  the  prince's  person. 
It  may  be  noticed  that,  while  expressing  the 
utmost  devotion  for  the  Safavi  family  and 
great  respect  for  both  the  Dehli  court  and 
the  English  rulers  of  India,  the  author  ex- 
hibits on  every  occasion  the  most  marked 
illwill  and  contempt  for  the  Nawabs  of 
Oude,  in  whose  capital  he  was  staying. 

Contents:  1.  History  of  the  Safavis,  di- 
vided into  the  following  reigns :  Shah  Isma  il, 
fol.  2  b.  Shrih  Tahmasp,  fol.  12  a.  Shah 
Isma'il  II. ,  fol.  21  a.  Sultan  Muhammad 
Shah,  fol.  22  a.  Shah  'Abbas,  fol.  24  b. 
Shah  Safi,  fol.  29  b.  Shah  'Abbas  IL,  fol. 
37  6.  Shah  Sulaiman,  fol.  46  b.  Sultan 
Husain,  fol.  48  b.  Tahmasp  II.,  proclaimed 
in  Kazvln  A.H.  1035,  fol.  51  c.  'Abbas  III., 
his  infant  son,  proclaimed  by  Nadir,  fol.  54  b. 


134 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


Sultan  Husain  II.  B.  Tahmasp  II.,  proclaimed 
by  'All  Mardiin,  fol.  56  a.  The  latter's  son, 
Sultan  Muhammad  Mirza,  fol.  586.  This 
last  section,  which  has  rather  the  character 
of  private  memoirs  than  of  history,  is  brought 
down  to  A.H.  1211,  the  reader  being  re- 
ferred for  more  particulars  to  the  autobio- 
graphy, t::j\«jlj,  written  with  rare  elegance 
by  the  prince.  It  is  followed,  fol.  73  a,  by 
a  continuation  marked  by  a  new  heading, 
and  in  wliich  further  occurrences  are  re- 
corded, from  A.H.  1212  to  1216. 

2.  Account  of  the  rulers  who  rose  in  rebel- 
lion, as  the  author  terms  it,  against  the  Safaris, 
in  the  following  six  sections :  1.  The  Afghans, 
viz.  Mir  Vais  Ghilzai,  and  his  son  Mahmud, 
fol.  91  a.  2.  The  Kachalatis,  fol.  93  a.  This 
name  is  stated  here  to  designate  the  mongrel 
race  which  sprang  up  from  Hindu  captives 
carried  to  Afghanistan.  It  is  applied  by  the 
author  to  Muhammad  Beg  Khan  Hamadam,to 
Burhan  ul-Mulk,  and  his  successors  in  Oude, 
all  of  whom  are  spoken  of  in  terms  of  unmiti- 
gated contempt.  3.  The  Afshars,  viz.  Nadir, 
his  nephews,  and  his  grandson  Shiihrukh,  fol. 
104  a.  4.  The  Abdalis  or  Duranis,  namely, 
Ahmad  Sultan,  who  died  A.H.  1183,  Timur 
Sultan,  who  died  A.H.  1207,  and  Zaman 
Sultan,  who  was  reigning  in  A.H.  1211,  fol. 
110  a.  A  subsequent  addition,  fol.  121  a, 
records  the  deposition  of  Zaman  and  the 
succession  of  Mahmud  Sultan,  contested  by 
Shuja  ul-Mulk,  A.H.  1216.  5.  The  Zands, 
from  Karim  Khan  to  the  death  of  Lutf  'All 
Khan,  fol.  122  a.  6.  The  Kajars,  from  Fath 
'All  Khan,  the  Atiilik  of  Tahmasp  II.,  to  the 
accession  of  Fath  'All  Shah  in  A.H.  1211, 
foil.  141  6—154  b. 

The  works  chiefly  quoted  by  the  author 
are  the  Khuld  i  Barin,  the  Tazkirat  ul- 
Ahval  of  Hazin,  and  the  histories  of  Mir 
Kasim  Musavi  Sabzavari,  Munshi  of  Tah- 
masp II.,  of  Mirza  Khalil  Ummi  Safavi,  i.  e. 
Safavi  on  the  mother's  side,  and  of  Mirza 
Sadik. 


Or.  139. 

FoU.  65 ;  10^  in.  by  6f  ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  in  the  early 
part  of  the  19th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

A  new  and  enlarged  recension  of  the 
same  work. 

This  copy  wants  the  preface  and  the  first 
part  of  the  history  of  the  Safavis ;  the  con- 
tents are  as  follows : 

1.  The  Safavis,  from  Shah  Isma'il  II.  to 
Sultan  Muhammad  Mirza,  fol.  3  a.  The 
text  agrees  substantially  with  the  corre- 
sponding portion  of  the  preceding  copy. 
Add.  16,698,  foil.  21  a— 73  a  ;  but  the  date 
of  composition  in  this  as  well  as  in  the 
following  sections  is  stated  to  be  A.H.  1215, 
and  consequently  Sultan  Muhammad  is 
here  said  to  have  been  thirty  years  old  in- 
stead of  twenty-six  ;  see  foil.  26  6,  48  a, 
and  55  a. 

2.  The  rulers  of  Tabaristan  and  the  Sul- 
tans of  Turkey,  fol.  27  a.  This  portion  is 
textually  transcribed  from  the  Tarikh  Elchi 
i  Nizamshah,  Makalah  VI.,  Guftars  4  and  5, 
Or.  153,  foil.  79  a— 103  b  (see  above,  p.  110), 
with  an  additional  page,  fol.  48  a.  Here  the 
author  states  that,  in  A.H.  1200,  the  Ottoman 
empire  was  nearly  conquered  by  Russia,  a 
wide-spread  prophecy  assigning  the  year 
1204  for  its  final  subjugation  by  the  Firingis, 
and  adds  that  it  was  ultimately  saved  from 
utter  ruin  by  the  sound  advice  imparted  by 
a  Persian  to  the  Grand  Vazir. 

3.  The  Indian  Dynasties,  fol.  48  J,  from 
the  same  work,  Makalah  VII.,  Guftars  1 — 5, 
Or.  153,  foil.  103  6—122  a.  The  compiler's 
only  contribution  to  this  section  is  a  short 
sketch  of  the  Timurides,  from  Akbar  to  Shah 
'Alam,  inserted  at  the  end  of  Guftar  2,  foil. 
54  a — 55  a. 

This  MS.  bears  the  stamps  of  the  kings  of 
Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah  and  Amjad  'All. 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


185 


Add.  23,514,  23,515  and  23,528. 

Three  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  598,  799,  and  189 ;  13^  in.  by 
7f ;  17  lines,  5  in.  long;  written  in  cursive 
Nestalik,  on  blue-tinted  paper  of  European 
manufacture,  for  Mr.  Wm,  Bruce,  resident 
at  Bushire  (see  Malcolm,  History  of  Persia, 
page  xii.,  and  Ouseley's  Travels,  vol.  i., 
p.  185),  about  A.D.  1810.  The  first  volume 
and  the  third  have  gold-ruled  margins.  The 
last  is  much  water-stained.   [Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  history  of  the  East,  and  especially 
of  Persia,  from  the  earliest  times  to  A.H. 
1226. 

Authors  :  Mirza  Muhammad  Riza  Tabrizi, 

Mustaufi  of  the  Divan,  and  'Abd  ul-Karim  B. 

'AH  Riza  ush-Sharif  ush-Shahavari  (23,528, 

fol.  1876)  Jj^  J  (i)W''  iji*"^  <^j^ji^  ^j  '^^-*^  ]jj^ 

[read  ^jl^!]  c?;jV^^  ^j^^  ^j^  i^  ^J^\ 

Beg.  Ub  dj>\  (>\hjiij  Jjl 

It  is  stated  in  the  preface  that  this  huge 
compilation   was   begun  in  A.H.  1218,  by 
order  of  Path  'AH  Shah,  who  assigned  to  it 
the  above  title.     Prom  the  conclusion  of  the 
work  (Add.    23,528,  fol.   187  i,   and  Add. 
23,527,  fol.  168  6),  we  learn  that  the  first 
of  the  above-mentioned  authors  wrote  the 
history  of  the  Prophets  and  Imams,  and  of 
the  reign  of  Path  'AH  Shah  from  his  acces- 
sion to  the  year  of  the  Hen  (A.D.  1801, 
A.H.  1215—1216)  ;  while  the  history  of  the 
kings,   and  the   continuation  of  the  above 
reign,  comprising  a   further  period  of  five 
years,  was  the  work  of  the  latter,  who  adds 
that  be  completed  his  portion  of  the  task 
in  the  space  of  one  year.     'Abd  ul-Karim 
will  be  noticed  further  on,  as  the  continu- 
ator   of  the    Tarikh    i    GitI   Kushai,    Add. 
23,524. 
The  Zinat  ut-Tavarikh  is  frequently  quoted  ; 


by  Malcolm  in  his  history  of  Persia.  The 
contents  of  the  second  volume  have  been 
described  by  Aumer  in  the  Munich  Cata- 
logue, p.  79. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  Introduction 
(Aghaz)  and  two  books  called  Pairayah, 
and  subdivided  into  Vajhs  and  Gunahs,  as 

follows : 

Aghaz:     Creation    of    the    world.   Add. 
23,514,   fol.   8  a.     Pairayah   I.,   comprising 
two  Vajhs,  namely  Vajh  i.,  divided  into  two 
Gunahs :— 1.  History  of  the  Bani  Jan  and 
the  Prophets  before  Muhammad,  fol.  10  o. 
2.  Notices  on  ancient  philosophers,  mostly 
.Greek,   fol.   182  6.     Vajh    ii,,    also    in   two 
Gunahs  :—Gunah  1.  Muhammad,  fol.  212  b; 
'AH  and  the  other  Imams,  fol.  320  b.    Gunah 
2,  containing  biographical  notices,  is  again 
subdivided  into  the  following  four  Kisms: — 
1.  Relatives  and  Companions  of  Muhammad, 
fol.   489  a.     2.  Lawyers    and    traditionists, 
mostly  Shi'ah,  fol.  526  b.     Philosophers  and 
divines,  fol.   535  b.     Sufis,   fol.   556  a.     3. 
Physicians  and  mathematicians,  fol.  565  b. 
4.  Arab  and  Persian  Poets,  fol.  582  a. 

Pairayah  II.,  also  divided  into  two  Vajhs. 
The  first  treats  of  all  the  kings  anterior  to 
the  Kajar  dynasty,  in  two  Gunahs : — Gunah 
I.,  early  kings  of  Persia,  Add.  23,515, 
fol.  1  b. 

Giinah  2,  kings  posterior  to  Muhammad, 
arranged  under    the    following   dynasties : 
The  first  three  Khalifs,  fol.    76  a.     Umay- 
yades,  fol.  97  a.     Abbasides,  fol.  136  b.     Ta- 
hiris,  fol.  178  a.   Safiaris,  fol.  181  b.    Samanis, 
fol.   189  b.     Kabiis   B.  Vashmagir  and    his 
successors,   fol.   204  a.     Al    i   Buvaih,   fol. 
206  a.    Ghaznavis,  fol.  219  a.    Ghuris,  slave- 
kings  of  Dehli,  Khiljis,  fol.  244  b.     Isma'ili 
Khalifs  of  Maghrib,  fol.  252  b,  and  of  Iran, 
fol.  264  a.    Saljukis  of  Iran,  fol.  278  b,  Irak, 
fol.  307  a,  Kirman,  fol.  316  a,  and  Riim,  fol. 
317  a.     Kings  of  Nimruz,  fol.  318  b.     Kurts, 
fol.    319  b.     Atabaks  of  Mausil,   fol.   327, 


136 


GENERAL  HISTOEY. 


Azarbaijan,  fol.  328  b,  Ears,  fol.  330  a,  and 
Luristtin,  fol.  336  a.  Khwarazmshahis,  fol. 
338  6.  Karakhitais  of  Kirman,  fol.  3616. 
Chinglzkhan,  fol.  363  a.  Oktai  Ka'an  and 
his  successors,  fol.  381  a.  Hulagu  Klian 
and  his  successors,  fol.  392 «.  Chupanis, 
fol.  442  a.  Ilkanis,  fol.  445  a.  Al  i  Mu- 
zaflFar,  fol.  448  a.  Timur,  fol.  469  b.  Shah- 
rukh  and  his  successors,  fol.  525  b.  Kara- 
kuyunlus,  fol.  572  a.  Ak-kuyunlus,  fol. 
577  6.  Safavis,  fol.  586  6,  comprising  the 
following  reigns  :  Shah  Isma  il,  fol.  589  a ; 
Tahmasp,  fol.  605  a  ;  Isma'il  II.,  fol.  627  6 ; 
Sultan  Muhammad,  fol.  633  6 ;  'Abbcls,  fol. 
646  a;  Safi,  fol.  681a;  'Abbas  II.,  fol. 
683  6 ;  Sulaiman,  fol.  687  a ;  Sultan-Husain, 
fol.  690  6;  Tahmasp  II.,  fol.  695  6;  and 
'Abbas  III.,  fol.' 702  6.  Nadir  Shah,  fol.  704  a. 
Karim  Khan  Zand  and  his  successors,  down 
to  the  death  of  Lutf  'Ali  Khan,  fol.  719  a. 
The  Sultans  of  Turkey,  fol.  732  a.  The 
Timurides  of  India,  fol.  763  6.  The  Khans 
of  the  Turks,  from  Turk  son  of  Japhet,  fol. 
776  a ;  the  successors  of  Chaghatai,  fol.  780  6 ; 
the  descendants  of  Juji  and  the  Khans  of 
the  Uzbeks,  down  to  Abul-Eaiz  Khan,  who 
submitted  to  Niidir  Shah,  fol.  783  6. 

Vajh  II.  History  of  the  Kajar  dynasty. 
Add.  23,528,  with  the  following  headings : 
Eath  'All  Khan,  fol.  2  a.  His  son  Mu- 
hammad Hasan  Khan,  fol.  3  6.  Husain  Kuli 
Khan,  fol.  12  a.  His  late  Majesty,  i.  e. 
Aka  Muhammad  Shah,  fol.  15  a.  Begin- 
ning of  Eath  'All  Shah's  reign,  fol.  68  6. 
The  year  of  the  sheep  (A.H.  1213-14), 
fol.  90  6.  The  year  of  the  ape,  fol.  109  a. 
The  year  of  the  hen,  fol.  116  6.  The  year  of 
the  dog,  fol.  139  6.  The  year  of  the  hog, 
148  a.  The  year  of  the  rat,  fol.  151  a.  The 
year  of  the  ox,  fol.  167  a.  The  year  of  the 
tiger  (A.H.  1221),  fol.  184  6. 

The  last  event  recorded  is  the  advance  of 
'All  Pasha  of  Baghdad  to  the  Persian  frontier, 
and  his  subsequent  retreat :  see  Brydge's 
Dynasty  of  the  Kajars,  p.  258. 


This  last  volume  is  endorsed  ^j)^  £jo 

Add.  27,238. 

Eoll.  288;  12  in.  by  8;  25  Hues,  5|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  Nestalik  on  European 
paper ;  dated  Isfahan,  Muharram,  A.H.  1225 
(A.D.  1810).  [Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

The  first  portion  of  Pairayah  II.  of  the 
Zinat  ut-tavarikh,  beginning  with  the  early 
kings  of  Persia  and  ending  with  the  Ak- 
Kuyunlus ;  it  corresponds  to  Add.  23,515, 
foil.  1—586. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
copy  was  written  for  Aka  Abul-Kasim  Kaz- 
vini,  a  native  of  Isfahan,  by  Mirza  Nazir. 

Add.  23,527. 

Eoll.  183 ;  111  in.  by  7| ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik;  dated  Zul- 
Hijjah,  A.H.  1227  (A.D.  1812). 

[EoB.  Taylor.] 

The  following  portions  of  the  same  work : — 
1.  Eoll.  1—170.  The  history  of  the  Kajar 
Dynasty,  as  in  Add.  23,528.  2.  Eoll.  171— 
183.  The  history  of  the  Zand  Dynasty,  cor- 
responding to  Add.  23,515,  foil.  719  a— 
7316. 

It  is  to  be  noticed  that,  in  the  account  of 
the  reign  of  Eath  'Ali  Shah,  the  designations 
of  the  Turkish  years  do  not  agree  with  those 
found  in  Add.  23,528,  the  first  being  called 
here  Jj\  C*i^.  instead  of  Jjo  j^y ,  the  second 
Jj.\  (jy  instead  of.  Jjo  ,_j^  etc. 

This  volume,  like  Add.  23,528,  is  endorsed 

Add.  7,663. 

Eoll.  220 ;  11  in.  by  1\  ;  17  lines,  3f  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  peculiar  crabbed  Shikas- 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


137 


tah,  sparely  supplied  with  diacritical  points, 
about  A.II.  1223  (A.D.  1808).  Some  of  the 
margins  and  headings  are  ornamented  with 
flowery  designs  of  rather  coarse  execution. 

A  compendium  of  general  history,  from  the 
earliest  times  to  A.H.  1223. 

Author:  Muhammad  Husain  B.  Karam 
'All   Isfahuni,  jy^\  j_jl&  */  ^^  ^^JX.^  j^ 

Beg.    Jap   t^\i*   a/  \j^}p.    j^T  o-^  J    '^-^ 

It  appears  from  the  preface  that  this  work 
was  written  in  Mashhad  A.H.  1222,  when 
the  author  was  past  sixty.  It  has  no  special 
title,  and  is  only  designated  in  the  preface 
hy  the  name  oi  j^ij^  "Compendium." 

It  consists  of  a  pretty  literal  transcript  of 
the  Nusakh  i  Jahan-ara  by  Ghafiari  (see 
Or.  141,  p.  Ill),  a  work  not  even  mentioned 
in  the  preface,  briefly  continued  to  the 
author's  own  time. 

In  the  table  of  contents,  which  concludes 
the  preface,  fol.  3  b — 4  b,  the  fanciful  division 
of  Ghaffari's  work  is  closely  followed,  the 
only  difference  being  the  addition  of  the 
following  chapters  at  the  end :  Saf hah  20, 
Safawis.  Safhali  21,  Afghan  kings  of  Iran. 
Saf  hah  22,  the  Afshar  dynasty.  §af]hah  23, 
the  Kajar  dynasty. 

In  the  body  of  the  work,  however,  the 
latter  divisions  are  not  observed.  The  chap- 
ter treating  of  the  Safavis,  fol.  137  a,  is 
headed,  as  in  the  original,  Nuskhah  i  Sali§. 
That  portion  of  Ghallari's  text  is  consider- 
ably abridged,  and  in  the  continuation  there 
is  no  other  division  than  that  of  the  several 
reigns.  The  last  of  these,  that  of  Tath  'All 
Shah,  fol.  169  b,  which  is  dwelt  upon  at 
greater  length,  breaks  off  rather  abruptly, 
fol.  186  a,  with  an  account  of  some  events 
of  A.H.  1221,  the  next  following  eight 
leaves,  apparently  intended  for  a  continua- 
tion, being  left  blank. 
Two  of  the  previous  chapters,  treating  of 


the  Timurides  of  India,  fol.  124  b,  and  of 
the  Osmanlis,  fol.  132  b,  are  brought  down 
to  A.H.  1223. 

The  rest  of  the  volume  is  occupied  by  the 
following  miscellaneous  notices,  partly  drawn 
up  in  tabulated  form:  Greek  philosophers 
and  physicians,  fol.  193  b.  Muslim  philoso- 
phers, fol.  197  b.  Physicians,  fol.  199  h. 
Astronomers,  fol.  201  b.  Description  of  the 
earth  and  the  seven  climates,  fol.  202  b. 
Persian  poets,  fol.  213  b.  Account  of  some 
seras,  fol.  217  b.  List  of  standard  historical 
works,  fol.  218  b.  On  various  alphabets, 
celebrated  penmen,  and  cabbalistic  writing, 
fol.  220  a. 

The  margins  contain  here  and  there  con- 
siderable additions,  mostly  extracts  from 
historical  works. 


Add.  23,886. 

Foil.  77  ;  9|  in.  by  6^  ;  about  20  lines,  4| 
in.  long ;  written  in  Shikastah-Amlz,  ap- 
parently in  the  18th  century. 


^^5^\  ^^3 


Chronological  tables,  translated  from  the 
Turkish  original  of  Mustafa  B.  "Abd  Ullah, 
commonly  called  Haji  Khalifah. 

The  work  was  written,  as  stated  by  the 
author,  in  A.H.  1058.  See  Haj.  Khal.  vol. 
ii.,  p.  395,  Krafft's  Catalogue,  p.  92,  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  97,  Upsala  Catalogue, 
p.  171,  and  Eleischer's  Leipzig  Catalogue, 
p.  618.  The  Turkish  original  has  been  printed 
in  Constantinople,  A.H.  1146. 

The  present  version  is  imperfect  at  the 
beginning,  and  the  translator's  name  does 
not  appear.  The  tables  are  continued  to 
A.H.  1085,  probably  the  time  at  which  the 
work  was  translated.  They  are  followed  by 
a  summary  of  dynasties,  foil.  63 — 69,  corre- 
sponding to  pp.  158 — 170  of  the  printed 
edition.     It  is   arranged   in    six    columns, 

T 


138 


GENERAL  HISTORY. 


"whicli  show  the  name  of  each  dynasty,  the 
numher  of  its  sovereigns,  its  seat,  the  dates 
of  its  rise  and  of  its  extinction,  and  lastly,  its 
duration. 

After  this,  and  hefore  the  author's  Khilti- 
mah,  are  inserted  two  chronological  tahles  of 
the  sovereigns  of  the  Safavi  and  Osmanli 
dynasties.  An  Arabic  elegy  on  the  martyr- 
dom of  Husain  occupies  the  last  three  leaves 
of  the  MS. 

Add.  19,531. 

Foil.  41 ;  12|  in.  by  8  ;  written  in  Nestalik, 
on  English  paper,  with  the  water-mark  1809. 

Genealogical  tables  of  the  Patriarchs  and 
the  principal  dynasties  of  the  East,  with  a 
preface  and  explanatory  notes. 

Beg.    yj^jCiy>-.)\   i—^^j  j<  ii.i*:0    c/USj  J^  ii«a- 

This  is,  as  stated  in  the  preface,  a  faithful 
translation  of  a  Turkish  original,  written  bv 
Yiisuf  B.  'Abd  ul  Latif  for  Sultan  Sulaiman 
B.  Sallm  (A.H.  926— 974),  which  was  brought 
to  Erivan  by  merchants  in  A.H.  1078.  Safi 
KuH,  Governor  of  that  city,  translated  it 
and  dedicated  his  version  to  Shah  Sulaiman 
(A.H.  1077—1105). 

The  tables  are  continued  in  the  present 
copy  to  Aka  Muhammad  Khan  Kajar. 

Or.  144. 

Foil.  80;  10  in.  by  6^;  about  20  lines,  3| 
in.  long;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  Nes- 
talik,  probably  in  the  19th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

Chronological  tables  of  Asiatic   history, 
from  the  rise  of  Islamism  to  A.H.  1126. 
Author  :  Mirza  Muhammad,  j..^  \jj*, 
Beg.  Cj'j.oo'  ijji  J  ^^\  t/US  J  Xts-  j\  jjo  U\ 


The  author  has  here  collected  with  laud- 
able industry  the  names  and  dates  of  almost 
all  dynasties  known  to  the  Eastern  historians. 
The  sources  are,  besides  a  few  standard 
Arabic  works,  the  following  Persian  : — Nizam 
ui-tavarikh,  Matla'  us-sa'dain,  Ttlrikh  i  Herat 
by  Mu'In  Asfizari,  Rauzat  us-safa,  Habib  u's- 
siyar,  Vaki'at  i  Biibari,  Lubb  ut-tavarikh, 
Jahanara  by  Ghaffari,  Tabakat  i  Akbari,  Ta- 
rlkh  i  Alfi,  Tarikh  i  Sind  by  Mir  Ma'sum,  Haft 
Iklim  by  Muhammad  Amin  Tihrani,  Bada'um 
and  Firishtah,  'Alamarae,  Ikbal-namah,  tlie 
Shahjahan-namah  of  Muhammad  Salih  Kanbu, 
Tarikh  i  Karn  Hadi- asliar  by  Sayyid  Muham- 
mad ShillT  (see  Arabic  Catalogue,  p.  431), 
Ttlrikh  i  Sayyid  Mustafa  Rumi  (Haji  Kha- 
lifah). 

A.H.  1126  is  twice  given  as  the  date  of 
composition  ;  see  foil.  63  a,  66  a. 

The  arrangement  of  the  dynasties  follows 
a  general  geographical  order  from  East  to 
West,  combined  with  chronological  sequence 
in  each  country.  The  tables,  many  of  which 
are  preceded  by  explanatory  introductions, 
are  divided  into  six  columns,  which  contain 
the  name  of  each  king,  the  date  of  his  birth, 
that  of  his  accession,  the  length  of  his  reign, 
the  age  which  he  reached,  and  the  date  of 
his  death. 

The  present  copy  ends  with  the  local  dy- 
nasties of  India,  the  last  table  being  that  of 
the  Arghuni  kings  of  Kandahar.  That  of 
the  house  of  Timur,  which  probably  con- 
cluded the  work,  is  wanting. 

The  form  of  the  author's  name,  which 
appears  on  the  fly-leaf,  ^j^^  ii'«s?  \jj^  iy»a-^ , 
is  the  result  of  an  unintelligent  reading  of 
the  following  passage  of  the  preface :   jajj 

8 JJLii    (.jJaJO   'ilLj  jJ  y>T  I— aJJsP   (^Jyiaj  ,  iu  wllicll 

j-»a-\  is  meant  for  the  name  of  the  Prophet, 
while  ^j^y>  "  in  a  manner 


belongs  to  the 


next  following  sentence. 


(    139    ) 


HISTORY    OF   CREEDS   AND    SECTS. 


Add.  23,536. 

Foil.  300;  9  in.  by  6 ;  19  lines,  3f  in. 
loni^;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Zul-Ka'dali, 
A. II.  1023  (A.D.  1614).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 


JL^\  ^y 


An  account  of  religious  and  pliilosophical 
sects,  translated  from  the  Arabic  work  of 
Muhammad  ush-Shahrastani  (who  died  A.H. 
548),  entitled  ^^j  J1J\  ^^'c/  (see  Ai-abic 
Catalogue,  p.  111.) 

Translator :  Mustafa  B.  Shaikh  Khiilikdad 
ul-Hashimi  ul-'Abbasi,  jUiiili-  ^.JJl  ^^  ^ik^oxi 

Beg.  j'iiff^  ^jj.)  .^1  j^j^\  ^Ax-i»l  c^UJ  i^  ^^s^a' 

It  is  stated  in  the  preface,  that  an  earlier 
Persian  translation  of  the  same  work  had 
Ijeen  written  for  Sultan  Shahrukh,  by  Khwu- 
jah  Afzal  ud-Din  B.  Sadr  Tai'ikah  Isfahani. 
But  this   first  translator  had  left  out  the 
doctrines   of  Abu   'AH   Ibn   Sina  on  logic, 
physics,  and  metaphysics,  added  to  the  ori- 
ginal work  refutations  of  sceptical  opinions, 
adopted  an  involved  and  metaphorical  style, 
more   difficult   of   comprehension   than  the 
Arabic  text,  and  lastly  had  frequently  di- 
verged from  the  true  sense  of  the  original, 
of  which  he  possessed  only  one  copy.     These 
defects  did  not  escape  the  sagacity  of  the 
emperor  Jahfingir,  who  therefore  directed  the 
present  translator  to  write  a  more  faithful 
version,  in  plain  and  easy  language.     The 
latter  adds  that  he  was  selected  for  that  task 
on  account  of  some  translations  from  Ilindu 
works  previously  made   by  him  for  Akbar. 
On  receiving  the  royal  commands  he  left  the 
residence,  Agrah,  for  his  native  place,  Lahore, 


and  commenced  the  work  in  the  5th  year  of 
the  reign,  A. II.  1020.  He  finished  it  there, 
as  recorded  in  his  concluding  lines,  in  the 
month  of  Rajab,  A.H.  1021. 

The  first  translator,  whose  conclusion  is 
given  at  the  end,  states  there  that  he  com- 
pleted his  version  in  Ispahan,  A.H.  843. 

The  second  translator  is  not  so  indepen- 
dent of  the  first  as  the  preface  would  lead 
the  reader  to  expect ;  he  reproduces  in  many 
places  the  latter's  additional  remarks  and 
refutations,  and  omits  altogether  to  supply 
the  desideratum  above  pointed  out,  the  full 
exposition  of  the  system  of  Ibn  Sina,  giving 
for  his  excuse  the  defective  state  of  the 
only  copy  of  the  original  which  existed  in 
Lahore. 

The  principal  divisions  of  the  work  are  as 
follows : — A  full  abstract  of  the  contents, 
fol.  5  a.  Four  introductory  chapters  (Mu- 
kaddimah),  fol.  13  b.  The  fifth  is  here  left 
out,  as  in  Haarbriicker's  translation,  and  for 
similar  reasons.  Muslims,  fol.  32  b.  Kharijis, 
fol.  77  b.  Shi'ah,  fol.  93  a.  Ahl  i  furu',  fol. 
127  «.  Jews,  fol.  1326.  Christians,  fol.  139  a. 
Magians,  fol.  145  a.  Sanaviyah,  or  Dualists, 
fol.  154  b.  Sabeans,  fol.  166  a.  Early  phi- 
losophers, fol.  198  a.  Later  philosophers, 
fol.  243  6.  Muslim  philosophers,  fol.  280  a. 
Early  Arabs,  fol.  281  a.     Hindus,  fol.  288  a. 

Copyist :  ^  ^  ^^_  J:--*-'^  ^"^y* 

A  note  on  the  first  page  states  that  the 
MS,  was  bought  at  Burhiinpur,  A.H.  1036, 
by  one  Sultan  Mahmiid. 

A  copy  of  the  Persian  translation  of  Afzal 
ud-Din  is  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  India 
Office,  No.  1323.  An  abstract  of  Shahras- 
tani's  woi'k  is  given  in  the  Dabistan,  English 
version,  vol.  ii.  p.  322. 


140 


HISTOKY  OF  CREEDS  AND  SECTS. 


Add.  7614. 

Poll.  238;  7|  in.  by  3|;  about  18  linos, 
2  in.  long;  written,  partly  diagonally,  in 
fair  Shikastah-Amiz,  apparently  in  the  17th 
century.  [CI.  J.  Eich.] 

An  account  of  various  creeds,  and  especially 
of  the  sects  of  Islamism. 

Author:  Murtazfv,  surnamed  'Alam  ul- 
Huda,   ^^^^\  Juo  i_JilJl  ^-iJ,* 

Beg.  fA^  i^  Ja-j  jfi.  ]j  ^j\^  ^  ^\a-»  j  0.^ 

The  author  is  not  to  be  confounded  with 
the  great  Shiah  divine  generally  known  by 
the  surname  of  'Alam  ul-Huda,  namely  Sharif 
ul-Murtaza  Abul  Kasim  'All  B.  ul-Husain 
ul-Musavi,  who  died  A.H.  436,  and  whose 
numerous  works  are  all  Arabic.  See  Tusy's 
list  of  Shi'ah  books,  p.  218,  and  Majalis  ul- 
Muminin,  Add.  23,541,  fol.  239.  The  present 
writer  belongs  to  a  later  period,  apparently 
the  first  half  of  the  seventh  century  of  the 
Hiji-ah.  He  calls  Fakhr  ud-Din  Razi,  who 
died  A.H.  006,  one  of  the  modern  theolo- 
gians, fol.  151  a.  In  another  passage,  fol. 
158 «,  he  says  that,  while  the  Ismaili  Kha- 
lifs  of  Egypt  are  extinct,  the  successors  of 
Hasan  B.  Sabbah  are  still  in  existence ;  he 
was  therefore  writing  before  the  extermina- 
tion of  the  latter  by  Hulagu,  A.H.  654.  His 
frequent  references  to  Ispahan  make  it  pro- 
bable that  he  lived  in  that  city. 

The  author  of  the  Dabistan  in  his  conclu- 
sion (Bombay,  ed.  p.  327)  mentions  both  of 
the  preceding  works,  Milal  u  Nihal  and 
Tabsirat  ul-Avam,  and  assigns  the  spirit  of 
partisanship,  of  which  neither  was  free,  as 
one  of  the  reasons  which  led  him  to  write 
his  own.  The  above  reproach  applies  in  a 
special  degree  to  the  present  work,  the  author 
of  which  shows  himself  a  bigoted  Shi'ah  of 


the  most  unbending  orthodoxy,  venting  his 
odium  theologicum  in  equal  measure  on 
Sunnis,  Sufis,  and  philosophers. 

A  copy  of  the  Tabsirah  occurs  in  the 
Bibliotheca  Sprengeriana,  No.  585,  where  the 
author,  'Alam  ul-Huda,  is  said,  on  whose 
authority  does  not  appear,  to  have  flourished 
in  A.H.  1070. 

The  work  is  divided  into  twenty-six  chap- 
ters (Bab),  a  table  of  which  is  given  in  the 
preface.     They  are  as  follows  : — 1.  Doctrines 
of  the  philosophers,  fol.  4  a.     2.  Doctrines 
of  the  Magians,  fol.  12  b.     3.  Doctrines   of 
the  Jews,  Christians  (and  Sabeans),  fol.  22  a. 
4.  The  sects  of  Islamism  and  their  tenets, 
fol.  29  a.     5.  The  Khavarij   and  their  doc- 
trines,  fol.   38  a.     6.  The    Mu'tazilah,    fol. 
48  a.     7.  Doctrines  of  Jahm  B.  Safvan,  fol. 
55  b.     8.  Doctrines  of  the  Murjis,  fol.  57  b. 
9.  Doctrines  of  Najjar  and  his  followers,  fol. 
59  b.       10.    Doctrines    of    the    Karriimis, 
fol.  60  a.     11.  Doctrines  of  the  Mushabbihs 
and  Mujassims,  fol.  68  a.     12.  Doctrines  of 
the   believers   in  transmigration,   fol.  78  a. 
13.  Doctrines  of  those  who  call  themselves 
Ahl  i  Sunnat,  fol.  80  b.     14.  Doctrines   of 
their  third  and  fourth  sects,  the  sectaries  of 
Mrdik  and  Shafi'i,  fol.  84  6.     15.  Doctrines 
of  Ibn  Kilub  and  Abul-Hasan  Ash'ari,  fol. 
95  a.     16.  Doctrines  of  the  Sufis,  fol.  106  b. 
17.  Doctrines  set  forth  by  Kushairl  in  his 
Eis£llah,  fol.  117  a.     18.  What  the  Sunnis 
say  touching  the  prophets,  fol.  123  6.     19. 
Doctrines  of  the  second  sect  of  Islamism, 
those  who  call  themselves  Shiah,  and  are 
called  by  their  adversaries  Rafizi,  fol.  144  a. 
20.  How   to    know   truth   from   error,   fol. 
165  a.     21.  The  creed   of  the  Imamis,  fol. 
170  a.     22.  The   story  of  Fadak,  and  how 
Fatimah  was  kept  by  the  two  Shaikhs  (Abu 
Bakr  and  'Umar)  out  of  the  inheritance  of 
the  Prophet  of  God,  fol.  182  a.     23.  Some 
Hadis   with   which   the   Sunnis    taunt    the 
Imiimis,  and  which  the  latter  repudiate,  fol. 
198  a.     24.  Some  of  the  turpitudes  of  the 


HISTORY  OF  CREEDS  AND  SECTS. 


141 


Bani  Umayyah,  and  their  impiety,  fol.  222  6. 
25,  On  some  points  debated  between  the 
advocates  of  justice  and  those  of  predestina- 
tion, fol.  230  a.  26.  On  some  legal  questions 
with  which  the  Imamis  are  taunted,  fol. 
235  b. 

This  copy  wants  two  leaves  after  fol.  3. 

Add.  18,880. 

Foil.  150 ;  10  in.  by  6 ;  17  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  ruled  margins ;  dated  the  42nd  year 
(probably  of  Aurangzib  =  A.II.  1109,  A.D. 

1697-8). 

The  same  work. 

Or.  246. 

Foil.  108 ;  8i  in.  by  6i ;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.  [Geo.  Wm.  Hamilion.J 

The  same  work. 

There  is  a  lacune  of  about  six  leaves  after 
fol.  18,  extending  from  the  beginning  of 
Bab  5  to  the  middle  of  Bab  8  (Add.  7614, 
foil.  39  6 — 58  a).  In  a  Persian  title  written 
on  the  first  page  the  author  is  called  Sayyid 
Murtaza  'Alam  ul-Huda.  The  stamps  of  the 
kings  of  Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah  and  Amjad 
'All,  are  affixed  at  the  beginning  and  end  of 
the  MS. 

Add.  16,670. 

Foil.  408 ;  8^  in.  by  6 ;  11  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Shikastah-amlz, 
and  dated  A.H.  1206  (A.D.  1792). 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

An  account  of  the  religious  creeds  and 
philosophical  systems  of  the  East. 

Beg.    ^j^i-.J'i  J.fti3^jjJi5j-»  y  |»\i  ij^ 

The  Dabistan  has   been  printed  in    Cal- 


cutta, A.H.  1224,  in  Teheran,  A.H.  1260, 
and  in  Bombay  A.H.  1264  and  1277.  An 
English  version  commenced  by  D.  Shea  and 
completed  by  A.  Troyer,  was  printed  for  the 
Oriental  Translation  Fund,  Paris,  1843,  but 
it  cannot  be  depended  on  for  accuracy. 

The  work  does  not  contain  the  author's 
name ;  MuhsinFani,  to  whom  it  has  generally 
been  ascribed,  is  only  named,  in  some  copies, 
as  the  author  of  a  Ruba'i  quoted  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  work  (Translation,  vol.  i.  p.  3). 
Our  knowledge  of  the  author  is  confined  to 
the  facts  gleaned  from  some  passages  in  his 
work,  in  which  he  incidentally  refers  to 
himself.  From  these  he  appears  to  have 
'been  brought  up  in  the  faith  of  the  Sipasis, 
also  called  Abadis,  a  branch  of  the  Parsis ; 
and  indeed  the  design  and  tendency  of  his 
work  will  be  found  to  be  in  perfect  harmony 
with  the  principles  of  enlightened  toleration, 
which,  according  to  his  own  statement, 
vol.  i.  p.  64,  characterized  that  remarkable 
community.  His  glowing  account  of  the 
Sipasis,  to  whom  he  gives  the  first  and 
largest  place,  stands  in  marked  contrast  to 
his  description  of  Islamism,  which  is  that  of 
a  well-informed  outsider,  not  of  a  born  and 
bred  Muslim. 

He  was  born,  shortly  before  A.H.  1028, 
in  Patnah,  the  headquarters  of  the  sect, 
vol.  ii.  p.  137,  and  received  in  his  infancy 
the  blessing  of  the  four  chief  disciples 
of  Azar  Kaivan,  its  great  apostle  (who 
had  died  in  the  same  city  A.H.  1027). 
This  must  have  happened  before  A.H.  1029, 
the  year  in  which  three  of  these  four  dis- 
ciples passed  away,  vol.  i.  pp.  103  — 108. 
The  author  appears  to  have  been  under 
the  special  charge  of  a  fifth  disciple  of 
Azar  Kaivan,  called  Mubad  Hushiyar,  who 
died  in  Akbarabad,  A.H.  1050.  He  must  have 
been  still  a  very  young  child  in  A.H.  1033, 
when  his  relations  brought  him  from  Patnah 
to  the  last-named  place,  and  the  said  Mubad 
carried  him  in  his  arms  to  a  famous  Hindu 


142 


HISTORY  OF  CREEDS  AND  SECTS. 


devotee  for  a  blessing,  vol.  ii.  p.  145,  Bom- 
bay ed.,  p.  127. 

Later  in  life,  fortune,  he  says,  tore  him 
away  from  his  Parsi  surroundings  (not  from 
the  shores  of  Persia,  as  stated  in  the  trans- 
lation, vol.  ii.  p.  2),  to  make  him  the  associate 
of  Hindu  votaries.  He  spent  many  years 
in  Kashmir  and  Lahore,  A.H.  1040 — 1052, 
visited  Mashhad  in  A.H.  1053,  Gujarat,  Surat, 
Haidarubad,  A.H.  1055 — 59,  and  lastly,  Sri- 
kakul,  the  capital  of  Kalingah,  on  the  Coro- 
mandel  Coast,  A.H.  1061—1063.  At  this 
last  date,  the  latest  mentioned  in  the  work, 
he  revised  and  recast,  with  the  assistance  of 
some  Hindu  friends,  the  whole  of  his  account 
of  the  Hindu  system,  vol.  ii.  p.  3. 

The  author  had  been  a  long  time  engaged 
in  this  composition,  for  in  another  passage, 
vol.  ii.  p.  275,  Bombay  edition,  p.  187,  A.H. 
1055  is  mentioned  as  the  current  vear.  The 
work  was  probably  completed  shortly  after 
A.H.  1063,  and  certainly  before  A.H.  1068; 
for  Dara  Shikiih  is  spoken  of  in  the  last 
chapter,  vol.  iii.  p.  285,  as  being  still  at  the 
height  of  his  power. 

Although  the  author  is  nowhere  explicitly 
named,  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  name 
of  Mubad,  which  appears  in  connection  with 
some  verses,  vol.  i.  pp.  112,  124,  vol.  iii. 
p.  298,  was  his  Takhallus  or  poetical  desig- 
nation. Indeed  Mubad  Shah  is  named  as 
the  author  in  one  of  our  copies,  Add.  25,849, 
and  in  a  MS.  mentioned  by  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley, 
Travels,  vol.  iii.  p.  564 ;  the  same  name 
appeared,  as  stated  by  Wm.  Erskine,  in  a 
marginal  note  of  a  copy  belonging  to  Mulla 
Firuz,  of  Bombay.  See  the  Transactions  of 
the  Literary  Society  of  Bombay,  vol.  ii. 
p.  364,  and  Capt.  Vans  Kennedy's  comments 
on  the  work  in  the  same  volume,  p.  242. 

The  first  section  of  the  Dabistan  was  pub- 
lished with  an  English  translation  by  Fr. 
Gladwin,  in  1789,  in  the  New  Asiatic  Mis- 
cellany, pp.  86 — 136,  and  a  German  version 
of  the  same,  by  F.  von  Dalberg,  Avas  printed 


in  Wiirzburg,  1809.  The  account  of  the 
Raushani  sect  was  translated  by  Dr.  Leyden, 
Asiatic  Researches,  vol.  xi.  pp.  406 — 420, 
and  the  original  draught  of  this  version  is 
preserved  in  MS.  Add.  26,572.  Compare  also 
Spiegel,  Eran,  p.  373  ;  S.  Lee,  Controversial 
Tracts,  p.  xxxvii. ;  Mulla  Firuz,  Desatir, 
p.  vii.;  Wilson,  Parsi  Religion,  p.  409;  and 
Blochmann,  Ain  i  Akbari,  vol.  i.  p,  167. 

The  Dabistcln  is  divided  into  twelve  main 
sections,  called  Ta'lim,  as  follows  :  1.  Parsis, 
fol.  3  a.  2.  Hindus,  fol.  139  6.  3.  Karfi- 
Tibatis,  fol.  245  b.  4.  Jews,  fol.  247  b. 
5.  Christians,  fol.  267  a.  6.  Muslims,  fol. 
265  b.  7.  ScTdikis,  fol.  310  a.  8.  Vahidis, 
fol.  314  a.  9.  Raushanis,  fol.  319  a.  10. 
IMiis,  fol.  328  a.  11.  Philosophers,  fol.34U  a. 
12.  Sufis,  fol.  378  b. 

In  the  subscription  of  this  copy  Mullil 
Muhammad  Amin  is  named  as  the  author  : 

Add.  16,671. 

Foil.  243  ;  14^  in.  by  8^;  15  lines,  5f  in. 
long;  written  in  a  lai'ge  Nestalik;  dated 
Safar,  A.H.  1212  (A.D.  1797).  [Ww.  Yule.J 

The  same  work,  with  the  same  name  at 
the  end  as  that  of  the  author. 

Add.  25,849. 

Foil.  159;  12  in.  by  8 ;  21  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Shikastah-Amiz ; 
dated  Surat,  October,  1812,  Shavval,  A.H. 
1227.  [Wm.  CuRETOX.] 

The  same  work. .  This  copy  was  written 
for  Lieut.  Rigby  by  Muushi  Gliulam  Mu- 
hammad of  Tattah.  The  MS.  from  which 
it  was  transcribed  was  dated  Isfandarmuz 
Mah  1163-=Muharram,  A.H.  1209  ;  and  in 
its  subscription,  a  copy  of  Avhich  is  given, 
the  work  was  ascribed  to  Mir  Zul-Fakar 
'All    ul-Husaini,    surnamed    Mubad    Shah, 


HISTORY  OF  THE  PROPHETS. 


148 


The  same  name  appeared,  as  stated  by 
Erskine,  Bombay  Transactions,  vol.  ii.  p.  243, 
in  a  copy  belonging  to  MuUa  Firuz. 

Add.  7613. 

Foil.  241;  8  in.  by  6 ;  16  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  and  dated 
A.H.  1234  (A.D.  1819).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work,  A  full  table  of  contents 
occupies  four  pages  at   the  beginning.     It 


bears  a  title  in  which  the  work  is  ascribed  to 
Shaikh  Muhsin  Fani  Kashmiri. 

Add.  23,537. 

Foil.  112 ;  12  in.  by  8  ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  appa- 
rently in  the  19th  century.     [Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  correspond- 
ing  to  vol.  i.  pp.  4 — 334   of  the 
version. 


English 


HISTORY    OF     THE   PROPHETS,    MUHAMMAD, 
THE    KHALIFS   AND  THE   IMAMS. 


Add.  25,783. 

Fon.  271;  8f  in.  by  5|;  15  lines,  4  in. 

written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 

16th  century.  [Wm.  Cureton.] 


long; 


History  of  the  Prophets,  from  Adam  to 
Muhammad. 

Author :  Ishak  B.  Ibrahim  B.  Mansur  B. 
Khalaf    \m-Jvisaburi,     ^^     ^^ji^     erJ    Jj^*"^ 

Beg.   J\i^  Js-  ^\  J-tfj  ^Ij-J^  joiJi  4ll  jji 


This  history  mostly  consists  of  a  develop- 
ment of  the  narrative  portions  of  the  Goran, 
founded  on  the  traditions  ascribed  to  Ibn 
'Abbas,  and  transmitted  by  Muhammad  B. 
Sa'ib  ul-Kalbi. 

At  the  beginning  is  an  Isnad  or  Catena, 
placing  seven  traditionists  between  the  author 
and  Muhammad  B.  Sa'ib  ul-Kalbi.     As  the 


latter  died  A.H.  146,  the  author  could  not 
have  lived  much  later  than  the  close  of  the 
fifth  century  of  the  Hijrah. 

The  latter  part  of  the  work,  foil.  216  b — 
271,  treats  of  Muhammad  and  the  early 
Khalifs,  down  to  the  death  of  Muaviyah, 
and  concludes  with  a  short  account  of  Hajjaj 
B.  Yusuf. 

See  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  iv.  p.  518,  and  vol. 
vii.  p.  834 ;  Leyden  Catalogue,  vol.  iii. 
p.  16 ;  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  21,  no.  Iv., 
and  Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  vi.  p.  124. 

Add.  18,576. 

Foil.  165 ;  14  in.  by  9^ ;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  an  illu- 
minated page  at  the  beginning,  a  'Unvan, 
fourteen  whole-page  miniatures,  and  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury. Bound  in  stamped  and  gilt  leather 
covers. 


144 


HISTORY  OF  THE  PROPHETS. 


The  same  work. 

The  miniatures,  which  will  be  found  on 
foU.  11  a,  15  5,  19  b,  22  b,  38  b,  U  a,  87  a, 
91  a,  95  a,  118  a,  128  6,  158  a,  164  b,  165  a, 
represent  various  scenes  from  the  history  of 
the  patriarchs,  such  as  the  expulsion  of 
Adam  from  Paradise,  the  slaying  of  Abel, 
Noah's  ark,  etc.  The  last  two  show  the 
author  presenting  his  book  to  a  young  prince, 
and  the  latter  reading  it. 


Add.  9838. 


finished   'Unvan    and    gold-ruled 
apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

[CI.  J 


margins, 


Rich. J 


Poll.  269 :  10^  in.  by  6^  ;  19  lines,  4  in. 
written  in  a  cursive  Nestalik  ;  dated 
Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  870  (A.D.  1465). 


long 


History  of  the  Prophet  Solomon. 
Author  :  Sharaf  ud-Din  Abu  YaHuib  Yu- 
suf  B.  'Umar  B.  'All  ut-TabrizI,   ^^,^\  ^>i> 

The  author  states  in  a  wordy  preface  that, 
having  heard  of  the  great  piety  of  the 
Princess,  the  daughter  of  the  Isfahsalar  'Ala 
ud-Din  Ahmad  B.  Tugha  Mirak  ul-Aghaji, 
he  had  written  the  present  work  for  her 
edification.  It  is  divided  into  thirteen  chap- 
ters (fasl),  comprising  all  the  traditions 
concerning  Solomon  from  his  birth  to  his 
death. 

The  author's  name  occurs  in  the  sub- 
scription, where  he  is  styled  the  great  Imam, 
the  Mufti  of  Iran  and  Azarbaijan. 

Copyist :  j^jJlkLJl  ^  ^yJ  o.^ 


Add.  7634. 

Poll.  393;  13^  in.  by  H  \  23  lines,  6|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fine  Nestalik,  with  a  highly 


A  detailed  history  of  Muhammad  and 
the  first  five  Khalifs,  translated  from  the 
Arabic. 

Translator  :  Husain  B.  ul-Hasan  ul-Khwa- 
razml  ul-KubravT,  ,jij^\  ^j}^  (ir-^  tin*  t:;f>-* 

Beg.  jlyl   Jjjly^    Jjl    ^    »>    y^    ^si- 

Maulana  Kamal  ud-Din  Husain,  a  disciple 
of  the  great  Sufi  and  saint,  Khwajah  Abul- 
Vaf  a,  who  died  in  Khwarazm  A.H.  835  (see 
Nafahiit  ul-Uns),  wrote,  besides  the  present 
translation,  a  commentary  on  the  Magnavl, 
and  another  commentary,  in  the  Turkish 
dialect  of  Khwarazm,  on  the  Burdah.  He 
was  killed  by  the  Uzbaks  at  the  time  of  the 
invasion  of  Husain  Sufi  Uzbak,  in  the  year 
eight  hundred  and  thirty  .  .  .  (the  last  figure 
is  intentionally  left  out)  ;  see  Habib  us- 
Siyar,  Bombay  edition,  vol.  ii.,  Juz  3,  p.  144; 
Latri'if-Namah,  Add.  7669,  fol.  7  a,  and 
Haft  IklTm,  Add.  16,734,  fol.  553  b. 

Haj.  Khal.,  who  only  knew  the  title  of  the 
present  work  from  the  HabIb  us-Siyar,  was 
mistaken  as  to  its  subject ;  see  vol.  vi.  p.  90, 
and  vol.  v.  p.  375.  He  gives  A.H.  845  in 
the  first  place,  and  A.H.  840  in  the  second, 
as  the  date  of  the  author's  death. 

The  translator  states  in  his  preface  that 
the  Arabic  original,  which  he  calls  ,_j«aLJL»* 
^^^  -Ja  jd,  was  the  work  of  the  great  tra- 
ditionist  Abul-Kal-am  'Abd  us-Salam  B. 
Muhammad  B.  ul-Hasan  'All  ul-HijjI  ul- 
PirdausI  id-Andarasf  ani,  ^j^^  ^jOj  ibliii  XJiJ 

iJ\i*«jj3^\  j_^jjijfl)^,  who  had  spent  a  whole 
life  in  collecting  from  the  best  authorities 
all  the  genuine  traditions,  and  had  written 
the  Mustaksa  at  the  request  of  the  prince 


HISTORY  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


145 


of  Coran-readers,  Abul-Kasim  Mahmud  B. 
Ahmad,  ^^  .ij.^  j^\si\  ^\  *^\  J*\  ^/  .^-^ 
jy^l ,  The  Mustaksa  was  principally  based 
upon  the  Sahihs  of  Muslim  and  al-Bukharl 
and  on  the  Muatta,  and  comprised  a  history 
of  the  conquests  made  under  the  first  four 
Khalifs  and  of  the  short  Khilafat  of  Hasan. 
The  Mujtala,  a  previous  work  of  the  same 
author,  contained  nearly  the  same  matter,  in 
a  more  condensed  form.  The  translator  has 
made  some  additions  from  historical  works, 
and  appended  an  account  of  the  Imams  down 
to  'All  B.  Musa  Riza. 

The  translation  is  dedicated  to  a  prince, 
Shahzadah,  whose  name  does  not  appear  in 
the  preface,  but  is  found  in  the  conclusion  of 
the  work,  fol.  388  b.  There  the  author  pays 
a  tribute  of  praise  to  the  memory  of  the  late 
Amir  Ghiyas  ud-Din  Abul-Fath  Shahmalik 
Bahadur,  who,  he  says,  as  a  reward  for  his 
righteous  rule,  lay  buried  in  Mashhad  by  the 
side  of  the  eighth  Imam,  and  over  whose 
grave  a  splendid  dome  had  been  erected  by 
his  son  and  successor  Ibrahim  Sultan.  He 
then  gives  the  rules  of  conduct  left  by 
the  former  for  the  guidance  of  the  prince, 
who  appears  to  have  been  still  a  youth  at 
the  time  of  composition,  and  concludes  with 
two  Kasidahs  written  by  himself  in  praise  of 
the  Imam  of  Mashhad. 

Amir  Shahmalik  had  been  sent  by  Shah- 
rukh  to  subdue  Khwarazm,  in  A.H.  815. 
That  province  was  governed  by  him,  and 
after  his  death  by  his  son  Ibrahim  Sultan 
till  the  end  of  Shahrukh's  reign.  It  was, 
however,  overrun  by  the  Uzbaks  in  A.H.  833. 
See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Bombay  edition,  vol.  iii., 
Juz  3,  p.  110,  and  Price's  Retrospect,  vol.  iii. 
p.  550. 

The  Mustaksa  appears  to  have  been  written, 
like  the  Persian  version,  in  Khwarazm,  but 
about  two  centuries  and  a  half  earUer,  viz. 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  sixth  century  of  the 
Hijrah.     In  the  Isnad  with  which  it  begins, 


fol.  8  a,  the  author's  immediate  predecessor, 
Zain  ul-A'iramah,  is  reported  to  have  re- 
ceived some  tradition  from  Zain  ul-Islam 
Muhammad  B.  Abi  Bakr  ul-Vabari,  called 
j^ ,  in  Jurjaniyyah  of  Khwarazm  (Gurganj, 
the  modern  Urganj),  A.H.  636.  The  author's 
Nisbah  al-HijjI  is,  according  to  Sam'ani,  a 
form  used  in  Khwarazm  as  an  equivalent  to 
the  al-Hajj  of  other  countries. 

The  translation  is  divided,  like  the  origi- 
nal, into  the  following  twenty-five  chapters 
(Bab)  :— 

1.  Birth  and  genealogy  of  Muhammad, 
fol.  8  a.  2.  His  journey  to  Syria  with  Abu 
Talib,  history  of  the  monk  Bahira,  and  the 
battle  of  the  Pujjar,  fol.  23  b.  3.  His  second 
journey  to  Syria  and  his  marriage  with 
Khadijah,  fol.  25  a.  4.  His  mission,  fol.  29  b. 
5.  Emigration  of  the  companions  of  the 
prophet  to  Abyssinia,  fol.  40  a.  6.  The 
ascension  of  the  prophet ;  the  Kuraishites 
demand  signs  of  him;  destruction  of  the 
scoff'ers,  fol.  48  b.  7.  Death  of  Abu  Trdib 
and  of  Khadijah,  fol.  54  b.  8.  The  prophet's 
journey  to  Ta'if  and  his  urging  the  tribes  to 
support  the  Islam,  fol.  57  «.  9.  Conversion 
of  Sa'd  B.  Mu'az,  the  latter  'Akabah,  and  the 
Nakibs,  fol.  60  a.  10.  Flight  of  the  prophet, 
and  his  adventures  until  he  reached  Medi- 
nah,  fol.  64  b.  11.  Events  of  the  first  year 
of  the  Hijrah,  fol.  69  b.  12.  Events  of*  the 
second  year,  fol.  72  a.  13.  Events  of  the 
third  year ;  expeditions  of  Uhud  and  of  Kar- 
karat  ul-Kudr,  fol.  103  a.  14.  Events  of 
the  fourth  year,  fol.  122  a.  15.  Events  of 
the  fifth  year,  fol.  130  b.  16.  Sixth  year, 
fol.  148  a.  17.  Seventh  year,  fol.  166  a. 
18.  Eighth  year,  fol.  173  b.  19.  Ninth  year, 
fol.  195  b.  20.  Tenth  year,  fol.  210  a, 
21.  Eleventh  year;  death  of  the  prophet, 
fol.  219  a.  22.  Khilafat  of  Abu  Bakr,  fol. 
233  b.  23.  Khilafat  of  'Umar,  fol.  253  a. 
24.  Khilafat  of  'Ugman,  fol.  279  b.  25.  Khi- 
lafat of  'All,  fol.  290  a  ;  Khilafat  of  Hasan, 
fol.  362  a. 

V 


14.6 


HISTORY  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


To  the  last  chapter  the  translator  has 
added  six  sections  (Maksad),  containing  no- 
tices of  the  following  Imams  :  Husain,  fol. 
365  h.  'All  Zain  ul-'Abidm,  fol.  368  o.  Mu- 
hammad Bakir,  fol.  370  h.  Ja'far  Sadik, 
fol.  372  h.  Musa  Kazim,  fol.  376  h.  'AH 
Eiza,  fol.  379  a. 

The  Khatimah,  which  begins  on  fol,  387  h, 
has  been  already  mentioned.  The  transla- 
tion is  very  free,  and  copiously  interspersed 
with  verses  of  the  translator's  own  compo- 
sition. 

The  Maksad  ul-Aksa  is  mentioned  in  the 
"  Critical  Essay,"  p.  25,  as  one  of  the  leading 
authorities  for  the  history  of  the  early 
Khalifs. 

On  the  first  page  of  this  MS.  there  are 
some  notes  written  by  former  owners,  the 
earliest  of  which,  dated  Haidarabfid,  A.H. 
999,  states  that  it  was  written  in  the  Shafi  a 
character  by  MuUa  'Abd  ul-Jabbar.  Another 
shows  that  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Mu- 
hammad Yusuf,  Shaikh  ul-Islam,  in  Erivan, 
AH.  1125. 


Add.  25,850. 

FoU.  265  ;  9|  in.  by  5^  ;  19  lines,  3^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Indri  (Sir- 
hind),  Eamazan,  A.H.  1008  (A.D.  1600). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

lyj;^  ^  jjjJb  &^ii:J  ^^^  ^yA 

Evidences  of  the  divine  mission  of  Mu- 
hammad, as  displayed  in  his  life  and  those  of 
his  disciples. 

Author:  Jami,  ^^^  (see  p.  17  «). 

Beg.    ^J>..yi^i  {j>.j^  ^j  J-»j^  t?"^^  *^  •^-*^ 
The  author  refers  in  the  preface  to  a  former 
work  of  his,  Nafahat  ul-Uns.   The  date  of  com- 
position of  the  Shavahid  is  A.H.  885 ;  it  is 


expressed  by  the  word 
chronogram  at  the  end  : 


in  the  following 


lib  d**j*j 


»\^\ 


JU>  ^^J3  ii^  (read  &Jw)  *JUJ'  a^ 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  Introduction, 
seven  Books  (Eukn)  and  a  Conclusion,  as 
follows : 

Mukaddimah,  on  the  meaning  of  Nabi  and 
Easul,  fol.  5  b. 

Eukns  I. — v.,  on  the  evidences  manifested 
in  the  following  periods:  1.  Before  Muham- 
mad's birth,  fol.  8  a.  2.  From  his  birth  to 
his  mission,  fol.  24  a.  3.  From  his  mission 
to  his  flight,  fol.  43  b.  4.  From  his  flight 
to  his  death,  fol.  63  a.  5.  After  his  death, 
fol.  150  a. 

Eukn  VI.,  on  the  evidences  manifested  in 
his  Companions  and  the  Imams,  fol.  163  b. 

Eukn  VII.,  on  the  evidences  manifested 
in  the  successors  (tabi'In)  and  in  their  disci- 
ples (tubba'  tabi'in),  down  to  the  generation 
of  the  Sufis,  fol.  247  a. 

Khatimah,  on  the  punishment  of  the  ad- 
versaries, fol.  261a. 

See  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  iv.  p.  82 ;  Aumer, 
Munich  Catalogue,  p.  101 ;  S.  Petersburg 
Catalogue,  p.  370 ;  Biblioth.  Sprenger.,  No. 
134.  The  work  has  been  translated  into 
Turkish  by  Lami'i ;  see  Vienna  Catalogue, 
vol.  iii.  p.  126. 

Scribe :  joji.\  iWj^b  \j^)^  ^^  ^Jj«!\  S)S- 

On  the  first  page  is  impressed  the  Persian 
seal  of  Archibald  Swinton  with  the  date 
A.H.  1174. 

Add.  23,498. 

Foil.  412  ;  10^  in.  by  6^ ;  27  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  close  Naskhi, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century  ;  partly  dis- 
coloured by  damp  and  slightly  torn. 

[EoB.  Taylor.] 


n 


HISTORY  OF  MUIJAMMAD. 


147 


A  history  of  Muhammad,  his  family,  suc- 
cessors and  disciples. 

Author :  'Atfi  uUah  B.  Fazl  ullah,  called 
Jamal  ul-Husaini,  (__*aU\  »U1  J^  ^^  ii\  ^UaP 


Beg. 


xs 


Amir  Jamfil  ud-Dln  'Ata-ullah  was  the  bro- 
ther's son  of  Amir  Asil  ud-Din  'Abd  ullah  ul- 
Husaini,  a  noble  and  learned  Sayyid  of  Shiraz, 
who  was  called  from  his  native  place  to  Herat 
by  Sultan  Abu  Sa'id,  and  died  there  A.n.  883. 
Khwand  Amir  calls  'Ata-ullah  the  greatest 
divine  of  the  time  of  Sultan  Husain,  and  says 
that  he  had  been  engaged  for  many  years  in 
teaching  in  the  Madrasahi  Sultaniyyah,  and 
preaching  in  the  Masjid  i  Jami'  of  Herat, 
but  was  then  (A.H.  930)  living  in  pious  re- 
tirement. See  Habib  us-Siyar,  vol.  iii. ;  Juz  3, 
pp.  335,  348,  and  Haft  Iklim,  Add.  16,734, 
fol.  100.  The  work  has  been  described  by 
Hammer,  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  71,  Anz.  Blatt, 
pp.  25 — 27,  and  Morley,  Catalogue,  p.  15. 
Compare  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  21 ;  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  3G8 ;  S.  Petersburg 
Catalogue,  p.  298.  A  Turkish  translation 
has  been  published  in  Constantinople,  A.H. 
1268  ;  see  Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  v.  p.  470. 

This  work  is  due,  as  stated  in  the  preface, 
to  the  urgent  and  repeated  solicitations  of 
the  celebrated  Mir  'All  Shir,  whose  exem- 
plary piety  and  charitable  foundations  are 
dwelt  upon  at  some  length.  The  author 
adds  that  he  did  not  enter  upon  that  task, 
without  having  first  obtained  leave  and  ad- 
vice from  his  uncle  and  revered  master,  Asil 
ud-Din  'Abd  ullah,  to  whom  he  was  indebted 
for  all  he  knew. 

The  work  consists  of  the  following  three 
books  (Maksad) : — Maksad  I.,  containing 
three  chapters  (Biib),  as  follows: — 


1.  Muhammad's  genealogy,  including  an 
account  of  the  Patriarchs  and  Prophets,  fol. 
3  b.  2.  The  history  of  his  life,  fol.  32  6. 
3.  Supplementary  notices,  in  eight  sections 
(fasl) :  (1)  Muhammad's  wives,  fol.  25G  a. 
(2)  His  children,  fol.  269  b.  (3)  His  pre-emi- 
nence and  miracles,  fol.  274  a.  (4)  His 
bodily  features  and  moral  qualities,  fol. 
287  b.  (5)  His  pious  observances,  fol.  291  b. 
(6)  His  habits,  fol.  298  a.  (7)  His  prero- 
gatives,  fol.  310  b.  (8)  His  slaves,  freedmen, 
nurses,  governors,  scribes,  messengers,  muaz- 
zins,  poets  and  orators,  fol.  314  a. 

Maksad  II.,  treating  of  the  associates 
of  the  Prophet  (Sahabah),  and  divided  into 
two  chapters,  devoted  respectively  to  men 
and  women,  fol.  321  b. 

Maksad  III.,  divided  into  three  chapters, 
treating  severally — 1.  of  the  Tiibi'in,  or 
immediate   successors  of  the  Companions  ; 

2.  of  the  Tubba'  or  successors  of  the  Tabi'in ; 

3.  of  the  Imams  of  the  subsequent  period. 
The  part  of  Maksad  II.,  which  is  extant 

in  this  copy,  contains  an  introduction  on  the 
Companions  in  general,  fol.  321  b,  and  the 
lives  of  Abu  Bakr,  fol.  327  a,  and  'Umar, 
fol.  347  a,  including  a  full  account  of  con- 
temporary conquests.  It  breaks  off  at  the 
second  page  of  the  life  of  'Ugman,  which 
begins  on  fol.  412  a.   Maksad  III.  is  wanting. 


Or.  146. 

Poll.  408 ;  11|  in.  by  7^ ;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Zul-Ka'dah, 
A.H.  964  (A.D.  1557). 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

Maksad  I.  of  the  same  work. 

The  author  states  at  the  end  that  this 
section  was  completed  on  the  11th  of  Zu'l- 

u2 


148 


HISTORY  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


Hijjali,  A.H.  888,  in  his  dwelling  outside 
Herat. 

A  modern  table  of  contents,  occupying 
four  pages,  is  prefixed. 

This  volume  bears  the  stamps  of  the  kings 
of  Oude. 

Add.  7638. 

Foil.  491 ;  11^  in.  by  7| ;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  neat  Naskhi, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  pro- 
bably in  the  16th  century.         [CI.  J.  EiCH.J 

Maksad  I.  and  part  of  Maksad  II.  of  the 
same  work. 

The  latter  contains  the  Introduction, 
fol.  322  b,  the  lives  of  Abu  Bakr,  fol.  327  b, 
IJmar,  fol.  349  a,  'U§man,  fol.  417  a,  and 
'All,  fol.  457  b. 

The  last  life  is  imperfect;  it  ends  abruptly 
with  the  Khutbah  delivered  by  'Ali  at  Bas- 
rah, on  his  return  from  the  battle  of  the 
Camel  (A.H.  36). 

A  note  on  the  first  page  records  the  pur- 
chase of  the  MS.  by  a  certain  Yunus  B. 
Hakim  Abu  Talib,  in  Surat,  A.H.  1047. 


Egerton  692. 

Foil.  476;  11|  in.  by  7^;  25  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  *Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the 
16th  century. 

jNIaksad  I.  and  the  same  part  of  Maksad  II. 
as  in  the  preceding  copy. 


Add.  6604. 

Foil.  482  ;  9^  in.  by  53 ;  25  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  16th  cen- 
tury. [J.  F.  Hull.] 

Maksad  I.  and  the  same  portion  of  Mak- 
sad II.  as  in  the  preceding  copies. 


The  life  of  'Ali,  foil.  450—482,  is  written 
by  a  later  hand ;  a  brief  sketch  of  the  end 
of  his  career,  from  VakidI,  is  appended. 

Add.  25,782. 

Foil.  451 ;  lOf  in.  by  6  ;  25  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  with  'Unvfin  ; 
dated  Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  1013  (A.D.  1604.) 

[Wm.  Ctireton.] 

Maksad  I.  of  the  same  work,  with  marginal 
notes,  and  the  life  of  'All,  from  Maksad  II., 
ending  as  in  the  preceding  copies. 

Or.  147. 

Foil.  215 ;  10|  in.  by  6^  ;  25  lines,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  Nestalik ;  dated 
Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  1262  (A.D.  1846) 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

A  portion  of  Maksad  II.  of  the  same  work, 
containing : — 

1.  The  Life  of  'All,  fol.  6  a.  The  portion 
of  'All's  life  contained  in  the  previously  de- 
scribed copies  occupies  here  foil.  13  b — 
43  a  ;  it  is  preceded  by  several  sections 
treating  of  his  merits  and  supernatural  gifts, 
his  wives  and  children,  his  sayings  and  bodily 
features,  and  is  followed  by  a  very  full  history 
of  the  close  of  his  career,  concluding  with  a 
section  on  the  traditions  and  Coranic  verses 
which  relate  to  him. 

2.  Lives  of  Hasan,  fol.  QQ  a,  Husain, 
fol.  102  6,  'All  Zain  ul-'Abidin,  fol.  176  b, 
Muhammad  Bakir,  fol.  179  b,  Ja'far  Sadik, 
fol.  180  b,  Musa,  al-Kazim,  fol.  183  J,  'All 
Riza,  fol.  184  b,  Muhammad  Naki,  fol.  188  b, 
'AH  ul-Hadi,  fol.  189  b,  Hasan  ul-'AskarT, 
fol.  191  a,  Muhammad  Mahdl,  fol.  192  a. 

As  the  later  Imams  cannot  be  included 
among  the  Companions,  who  form,  accord- 
ing to  the  preface,  the  exclusive  subject  of 
Maksad  II.,  it  may  reasonably  be  doubted 
that  these  lines  belong  to  the  original  work. 


HISTORY  OF  MUHAMMAD. 


149 


3.  Short  notices  on  eminent  Companions, 
in  alphabetical  order,  beginning  with  Ibn 
'Ahd  ul-Muttalib  al-Hamzah,  and  ending 
with  Yaman  b.  Jabir,  fol.  197  b. 

In  the  subscription  this  volume  is  called 
the  third  Jild  of  Eauzat  ul-Ahbab. 

Copyist :  ^Uj  ^_y^i^  fj's^j  ^JS'  j-^ 

Prefixed  is  a  modern  table  of  contents, 
foil.  1—3. 

Egerton  687. 

Foil.  311;  14  in.  by  8^;  26  lines,  4 J  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik  by  two  different 
hands,  with  three  TJnvans  and  ruled  margins, 
apparently  late  in  the  17th  century. 

[Francis  Gladwin.] 

A  history  of  Muhammad. 
Author :    Mu'in  B.  Hajl  Muhammad  ul- 
Farahi,  ^^J>^^  i^  cr^^  d'-  e;*** 

Beg.    \3yi\  ^J*  li)  Jyfcj  X-^j  dJjjJ  ^^  UjT  Uo, 

The  author  calls  himself  in  the  preface 
^^yM  ^;a51-«  "  the  poor  Mu'in,"  but  in  the 
conclusion  more  fully  j-^  o"^^  d-  t?*** 
^^Ul) ;  in  his  verses  he  uses  the  Takhallus 

Mu'Ini.  His  father,  Sharaf  ud-Din  Haji  Mu- 
hammad was  an  eminent  jurisconsult, a  native 
of  Farah,  and  his  brother,  Nizam  ud-Din  Mu- 
hammad, who  had  held  for  a  long  time  the 
post  of  KazT  of  Herat,  died  in  A.H.  900. 
Mu'in  ud-Din  resigned  the  same  office  after 
a  year's  tenure ;  he  was  a  man  of  rare 
learning  and  piety,  and  became  renowned  for 
the  eloquence  and  boldness  of  his  weekly 
predications  in  the  Masjid  of  Herat;  he  died 
A.H.  907.  See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Bombay 
edition,  vol.  iii.,  Juz  3,  p.  338.  For  the 
present  work,  compare  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  v. 
p.  608 ;  Aumer,  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  100 ; 


Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  22 ;  SirWm.  Ouseley's 
Catalogue,  No.  514 — 516;  Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  133 ;  King's  College,  Cambridge,  No.  109. 
A  Turkish  translation  of  the  same,  entitled 
Dala'il  i  Nubuvvat  i  Muhammad!,  is  de- 
scribed by  Hammer,  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  71, 
Anz.  Blatt,  p.  50,  and  has  been  printed  at 
Constantinople,  A.H.  1257. 

Mu'in  says,  in  the  preface,  that  he  had 
applied  himself  for  thirty  and  some  years 
to  the  study  of  tradition,  besides  giving 
religious  instruction  every  Friday  in  the 
Masjid  of  Herat,  and  had  composed  two 
works  which  were  not  yet  ready  for  publi- 
cation, viz.,  a  commentary  on  the  Coran, 
called  Bahr  ud-Durar,  and  a  collection  of 
forty  traditions  entitled  Rauzat  ul-Va'izin. 
At  the  request  of  some  great  doctor  of  the 
law,  not  named,  he  began  in  Babi'  I.,  A.H. 
891,  to  write  some  detached  discourses 
(Majlis)  on  the  life  of  Muhammad,  and  these 
having  been  favourably  received,  he  was 
encouraged  to  arrange  his  materials  in  a 
more  consecutive  form,  and  couch  them  in 
more  polished  language.  Hence  arose  the 
j)resent  work. 

In  the  conclusion  the  author  says  that  he 
had  intended  to  devote  a  second  volume  to 
the  history  of  the  Rashidin  Khalifs  and  of 
the  Imams,  but  had  been  induced  by  friends 
to  postpone  that  labour  to  the  task  of  draw- 
ing up  his  commentary  Bahr  ud-Durar,  for 
which  he  had  been  collecting  materials 
during  a  period  of  nearly  five  and  thirty 
years. 

The  Ma'arij  un-nubuwat  is  divided  into 
a  Mukaddimah,  four  books  (Rukn),  and  a 
Khatimah.  The  contents  of  the  present 
volume  are  as  follows  : — Mukaddimah,  in 
five  chapters  (fasl) :  1.  Praises  of  God. 
2.  Invocations.  3.  Praises  of  Muhammad  ; 
his  merits  and  qualities.  4.  His  prerogatives 
and  distinctions.  5.  Merit  and  rewards 
attached  to  the  act  of  praising  him  and 
praying  for  him,  fol.  7  h. 


150 


HISTORY  OP  MUHAMMAD. 


E,ukn  I.,  in  eight  chapters  (bab) : — 1.  The 
prophetic  light  which  descended  on  Mu- 
hammad  through   the   prophets,  fol.  99  b. 

2.  Adam,  fol.  108  a.  3.  Shis,  fol.  139  a. 
4.  Idris,  fol.  151  a.  5.  Niih,  fol.  154  a. 
6.  Hud,  fol.  167  *.     7.  Ibrahim,  fol.  172  b. 

8.  'Abd  ul-Muttalib,  fol.  226  6. 

Rukn  II.,  in  seven  Babs : — 1.  Prophecies 
and  forebodings  of  the  advent  of  Muhammad, 
fol.  242  b.  2.  His  names  and  surnames, 
fol.  266  a.  3.  His  birth,  suckling,  weaning, 
and  the  splitting  of  his  breast,  fol.  269  b. 
4.  Events  from  his  6th  to  his  13th  year, 
fol.  289  «.  5.  Events  from  his  13th  to  his 
20th  year,  fol.  294  a.  6.  Events  of  his  25th 
year,  fol.  300  b.  7.  Events  of  his  35th  year, 
fol.  308  a. 

Egerton  688. 

Foil.  427;  14  in.  by  8^;  23  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  by  the  same  hand  as  the  latter 
pai't  of  the  preceding,  with  three  IJnvans 
and  ruled  margins.         [Francis  Gladwin.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work,  con- 
taining : — 

Rukn  III.,  in  five  Babs: — 1.  Descent  of 
the  inspiration,  fol.  1  b.  2.  Events  of  the 
fifth  year  of  the  Mission ;  emigration  of  some 
of  the  Companions  to  Abyssinia,  fol.  24  b. 

3.  Events  from  the  seventh  to  the  tenth  year 
of  tlie  Mission,  fol.  40  b.  4.  The  Mirfij, 
fol.  59  b.  5.  The  second  covenant  of  the 
'Akabah  and  flight  of  some  Companions  to 
Medinah,  fol.  142  a. 

Rukn  IV.,  in  fourteen  Babs :  —  1.  The 
Hijrah,  fol.  146  b.  2.  Events  of  the  first 
year  of  the  Hijrah,  fol.  157  b.  3.  Events  of 
the  second  year,  fol.  166  b.  4.  Expedition 
of  Badr,  fol.  175  a.  5.  Third  year,  fol.  203  a. 
6.  Battle  of  Uhud,  fol.  207  b.  7.  Fourth 
year,  fol.  228  a.     8.  Fifth  year,  fol.  236  b. 

9.  Sixth  year,  fol.  259  a.  10.  Seventh  year, 
fol.  278  b.  11.  Eighth  year,  fol.  292  a. 
12.  Ninth  year,  fol.  323  b.     13.  Tenth  year, 


fol.  341  b.  14.  Eleventh  year,  fol.  350  b. 
There  is  some  confusion  in  the  numbering 
of  the  Babs  of  Rukn  IV.,  both  in  this  and  in 
the  other  copy.  Add.  19,808. 

Khatimah,  fol.  378  b,  treating  of  the 
miracles  of  Muhammad,  in  two  Babs : — 
1.  Spiritual  miracles,  fol.  380  a.  2.  Sensible 
miracles,  fol.  387  a. 

At  the  end  is  a  note  written  by  Shaikh 
Zuhur  Muhammad,  who  states  that  he  pur- 
chased this  MS.  for  150  rupees  in  Siyalkut, 
where  he  had  been  appointed  Amin  i  Fauj- 
dari  by  Sarbuland  Khan,  and  collated  it, 
after  his  return  to  Dehli,  with  three  cor- 
rected copies.  The  collation  was  completed 
in  Safar,  A.H.  1136. 


Add.  16,817. 

Foil.  400  ;  104  in.  by  5^ ;  17  lines,  3J  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  two  'Unvans 
and  ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  18th 
century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

Rukn  I.,  fol.  6  6,  and  Rukn  II.,  fol.  271  b, 
of  the  same  work. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  contents,  foil.  2 — 5. 

On  the  first  page  is  written  :  "  Bought  at 
the  sale  of  Gen.  Claude  Martine's  effects, 
Lucknow,  1802/3.     Wm.  Yule." 


Add.  19,808. 

Foil.  482 ;  7|  in.  by  4^ ;  23  lines,  3|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  small  and  compact  Nes- 
talik, probably  about  the  close  of  the  16th 
century. 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work, 
containing  Rukn  III.,  fol.  8  b ;  Rukn  IV., 
fol.  170  a,  and  the  Khatimah,  fol.  394  b. 
Two  lacunes  in  the  original  MS.  have  been 
supplied  by  a  later  hand,  foil.  8 — 44,  229 — 
248.  A  full  table  of  contents,  by  the  same 
hand,  occupies  foil.  1 — 7. 


HISTORY  OF  THE   KHALIFS. 


151 


Add.  23,495. 

Foil.  428  ;  9^  in.  by  6 ;  17  lines,  ^  in. 
long ;  wi'itten  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  with  "Un- 
van  and  ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 


.Ls>\ 


^^    ^ 


A  history  of  the  early  Khalifs  and  of  the 
conquests  made  by  the  Muslims  in  their 
time,  translated  from  the  Arabic. 

Translator :    Muliammad   B.   Ahmad    ul- 


Mustaufi  ul-Harawi,  (jyL-J\ 


-^ 


Beg.  ^^J\  ^)^\  J6^\  ojiJ\  tiJJuJ\  rfU  jji 

This  work,  which  is  written  in  an  easy 
and  popular  style,  and  may  be  called  the 
romance  of  history,  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  noticed  by  Arabic  historians,  nor  has 
the  Arabic  original  hitherto  been  found. 
But  it  is  well  known  to  Persian  writers,  to 
whom  its  Shi'ah  tendency  was  likely  to 
recommend  it.  It  is  often  quoted  in  the 
Nigaristan  and  the  Rauzat  ul-Alibab,  where 
the  author  is  called  (Abu  Muhammad)  Ah- 
mad B.  A'sam  Kiifi,  as  in  our  copies,  while 
according  to  Mirkhwand,  Bombay  edition, 
p.  7,  and  Haj.  Khal.  vol.  iv.  p.  385,  his  name 
was  Muhammad  B.  'All  B.  A'gam.  The 
Futuh  Ibn  A'§am  is  mentioned  in  Morley's 
Descriptive  Catalogue,  p.  16;  SirWm,  Ouse- 
ley's  Travels,  vol.  ii.  pp.  312,  342  ;  Oriental 
Collections,  vol.  i.  p.  63  ;  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley's 
Catalogue,  No.  348 ;  Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  32  ;  Critical  Essay,  pp.  24  and  55 ;  Cata- 
logue of  the  King's  College,  Cambridge, 
No.  105,  and  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  8.  Ac- 
cording to  Friihn,  Indications  Bibliogra- 
phiques,  p.  16,  Ibn  A'sam  died  about  A.H. 
314. 
The  translator  says  in  his  preface  that,  after 


consuming  his  youth  and  middle  life  in  the 
service  of  the  great,  he  wished  to  spend  his  de- 
clining years  in  pious  seclusion,  but,  having 
amassed  no  wealth,  was  troubled  with  the  cares 
of  livelihood,  until  he  found  a  generous  patron 
in  a  mighty  Vazir,  only  designated  by  hono- 
rific titles,  such  as  Mu'ayyid  ul-Mulk,  Kivam 
ud-Daulah  vad-Din,  the  pride  of  the  grandees 

of  Khwarazm  and  Khurasan,  etc.  ^\^^  Jj^^ 
^^L.y.  J  A}i^  i  to  whose  munificence  he  had 
then  been  some  years  indebted  for  a  position 
of  honour  and  affluence. 

In  A.H.  596  he  was  sent  for  by  this 
patron,  then  staying  at  the  Madrasah  of 
Tabiyad,  ckf-i^  (perhaps  for  Tayabad,  a  town 
of  the  district  of  BQshanj),  where  he  was 
overwhelmed  with  new  favours,  and  enjoyed 
for  some  time  the  conversation  of  the  learned. 
In  one  of  these  meetings,  the  most  eminent 
among  the  latter,  Imam  Kamal  ud-Dln, 
having  read  aloud  a  passage  of  the  Kitab 
ul-Futiih  of  Khwajah  Ahmad  B.  A'sam  ul- 
Kfifi,  the  Vazir  expressed  a  wish  that  so 
useful  a  Avork  might  be  rendered  accessible 
to  the  Persian  readers,  and  designated  for 
the  task  his  devoted  servant  Muhammad 
Mustauf  i,  who,  in  spite  of  his  advanced  age, 
his  cares,  his  exile,  and  the  disturbed  state 
of  the  times,  proceeded  at  once  to  comply 
with  his  protector's  desire. 

The  work  begins,  fol.  4  «,  with  the  election 
of  Abu  Bakr  to  the  Khiliifat,  and  the  expe- 
ditions sent  by  him  against  the  disaffected 
tribes.  It  is  only  divided  by  rare  and  in- 
adequate rubrics.  Its  main  contents  are  as 
follows :  Apostasy  of  the  men  of  Hazraraaut 
and  Kindah,  fol.  22  a.  Expedition  against 
Persia,  fol.  30  h.  Conquests  in  Syria,  fol. 
35  6.  Victory  gained  over  the  army  of 
Persia  and  Irac,  fol.  61  h.  Conquest  of 
Hims  in  Syria,  fol.  77  h.  Rallying  of  the 
Greek  forces  ;  taking  of  Damascus,  fol.  79  h. 
Further  successes  in  Persia,  fol.  95  h.  Con- 
quest of  Jerusalem,  fol.  102  h.    History  of 


152 


HISTOUY  OF  THE  KHALIFS. 


Jabalah  Ghassanl,  fol.  108  h.  Death  of  Abu 
'Ubaidah,  fol.  113  a.  Expedition  of  'lyaz 
against  Jazirah,  fol.  121  a.  Capture  of 
Ascalon,  fol.  133  b.  Conquests  in  Nubia 
and  Maghrib,  fol.  136  a.  AbQ  Musa's  expe- 
dition to  Ahvaz,  Sus  and  Tustar,  fol.  137  b. 
New  gathering  of  Persian  forces;  battle 
of  Nahavand,  fol.  150  a.  Conquest  of  Eai 
and  Rasht,  fol.  157  b.  Invasion  of  Persia 
(Pars)  by  AbQ  Musa,  fol.  172  a.  Khilafat 
of  *U§man,  fol.  184  a.  Embassy  sent  to 
Abyssinia,  fol.  193  b.  Conquest  of  Cyprus 
and  Rhodus  by  Mu'aviyah,  fol.  194  a.  Mu  a- 
viyah's  -nar  with  Constantine,  son  of  Hera- 
clius,  fol.  200  a.  Taking  of  Ifrikiyyah  by 
'Abd  ullah  B.  Sa'd,  fol.  202  h.  Defeat  of 
Mu'aviyah  by  the  Sicilians,  fol.  205  b.  Divers 
opinions  on  the  Khilafat  of  'U§man,  fol.  210  b. 
Accession  of  'All,  fol.  258  a.  Battle  of  the 
camel,  fol.  267  a.  History  of  Uvais  KarnI, 
fol.  327  b.  Battle  fought  on  the  Euphrates 
by  the  armies  of  'Ali  and  Mu'aviyah,  fol. 
344  a.  Account  of  the  Khilafat  of  Hasan, 
fol.  395  b.     Death  of  Husain,  fol.  406  i. 

Or.  148. 

Poll.  300 ;  9  in.  by  6  ;  19  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  with  'TJnvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

After  the  first  page  there  is  a  gap  amount- 
ing to  twelve  pages,  foil.  3 — 8,  of  the  pre- 
ceding copy ;  about  sixteen  pages,  cor- 
responding to  Add.  23,495,  foil.  415  b — 
428  a,  are  wanting  at  the  end. 

This  volume  is  impressed  with  the  stamps 
of  the  kings  of  Oude. 

Or.  454. 

Poll.  274 ;  11  in.  by  7 ;  25  lines,  ^  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  probably 
in  the  17th  century.        [Sir  Wm.  Ouseley.] 


The  same  work,  with  English  notes  in  the 
margins. 

Egerton   689. 

PoU.  265 ;  12i  in.  by  6f  ;  19  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  probably  in 
the  18th  century.  [Adam  Clarke.] 

"The  Garden  of  Martyrs,"  containing 
lives  of  Muhammad,  'All,  Patimah,  Hasan, 
Husain,  and  other  martyrs. 

Author  :  Husain  ul-Kashif I,  ^JlL'^\  ^,---». 

Beg.     Ic  J;i  j_j\jii  y  j,<i  ci^j^  J^ 

The  author  died  A.H.  910  ;  see  p.  9  b. 
The  work  has  been  printed  in  Lahore,  A.H. 
1287.  It  has  been  translated,  with  additions, 
by  the  Turkish  poet  Puziili  ;  see  Haj.  Khal. 
vol.  iii.  p.  500 ;  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  23, 
etc. 

It  appears  from  the  preface  that  the  work 
was  written  by  desire  of  an  illustrious  prince 
and  Sayyid,  Murshid  ud-Daulah  vad-Din 
'Abd  ullah,  called  Sayyid  Mirza.  This  prince 
was,  as  stated  in  the  genealogical  appendix, 
Lahore  edition,  p.  382,  the  son  of  Sayyid 
Salah  ud-Din  Musa  and  of  a  royal  princess, 
whose  father,  Sultan  Biiikara,  was  uterine 
brother  to  the  reigning  sovereign,  Abul- 
Ghazi  Sultan  Husain.  As  the  author,  when 
speaking  of  the  death  of  Husain  (A.H.  61), 
at  the  beginning  of  the  tenth  chapter, 
remarks  that  847  years  had  elapsed  since 
that  event,  it  may  be  inferred  that  he  was 
writing  in  A.H.  908,  or  two  years  before  his 
death. 

The  work  is  divided  into  ten  chapters  (Bab), 
as  follows  :  1.  Trials  of  some  of  the  prophets, 
fol.  6  b.  2.  Persecution  of  Muhammad  by 
the  Kuraishites;  martyrdom  of  Hamzah  and 
Ja'far  B.  Abi  Talib,  fol.  40  b.     3.  Death  of 


HISTOUY  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


153 


Muhammad,  fol.  60  «.  4.  Life  of  Fatimah, 
fol.  75  b.  5.  Life  of  'All,  fol.  94.  a.  6.  Life 
of  Hasan,  fol.  106  h.  7.  Life  of  Husain, 
fol.  124  b.  8.  Martyrdom  of  Muslim  B. 
'Akil  and  the  slaying  of  some  of  his  children, 
fol.  137  b.  9.  Husain's  encounter  with  the 
foes  at  Karhala ;  martyrdom  of  his  children 
and  others,  fol.  159  a.  10.  Fate  of  the 
"  Family  "  after  the  battle,  fol.  233  a ;  punish- 
ment of  the  murderers  of  ^usain,  fol.  260  b. 

The  Khatimah,  which  gives  a  succinct 
genealogical  account  of  the  descendants  of 
Hasan  and  Husain,  with  short  notices  on  the 
Imams,  is  wanting  in  this  copy.  It  is  found 
in  the  Lahore  edition,  pp.  376 — 394,  and  in 
two  of  the  following  copies,  namely,  Add. 
6605,  fol.  485  5,  and  Add.  25,852,  fol.  391  b. 

The  fly-leaf  and  first  page  of  this  MS. 
contain  renderings  in  English  verse  of  the 
initial  lines  of  the  work,  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Dr.  Adam  Clarke. 

Add.  6605. 

Foil.  515  ;  9i  in.  by  6 ;  12  lines,  3|  in. 

long;  written  in  a  cursive  Nestalik,  dated 

Benares,  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1150  (A.D.  1737). 

The  same  work..  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  first  and  last  leaves  bear  the  ofB.cial 

seal  of  Mr.  James  Grant. 

Add.  16,730. 

Foil.  268;  9^  in.  by  6;  19  lines,  ^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  Nesta- 
lik,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work,  wanting  a  portion  of 
Bab  10,  and  the  Khatimah. 

Add.  26,187. 

FoU.  251;  11  in.  by  6|;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  Nestahk, 
apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Eeskine.] 


The  same  work,  wanting  the  latter  part  of 
Bab  10  and  the  Khatimah. 
'  The  last  leaf  of  a  copy  of  vol.  vi.  of  Rau- 
zat  us-Safa  lias  been  added  at  the  end  of 
this  MS.  in  order  to  give  it  an  appearance  of 
completeness. 

Add.  25,851. 

Foil.  314;  10  in.  by  6|;  17  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in 
India,  in  the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Cubeton.] 

The  same  work,  slightly  imperfect ;  the 
genealogical  appendix,  fol.  311  b,  breaks  ofi" 
at  the  sixth  page. 

Add.  25,852. 

Foil.  405 ;  9i  in.  by  5| ;  14  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  at  Bala- 
ganj,  near  Hajipur  in  Behar,  and  dated 
Eajab,  FaslI  1210  (A.D.  1802). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  same  work.  The  fly  leaves  contain 
some  Shi'ah  poems,  viz.,  the  story  of  a  pome- 
granate given  by  'All  to  Fatimah,  ^Ul  »^ , 
in  103  Baits,  an  elegy  (margiyah)  on  the 
death  of  Husain,  foil.  2,  3,  and  a  poem 
(tarji'-band)  in  praise  of  'All,  foU.  404 — 405. 

Copyist :   ,_yi«jl.y  sU.  jJj  ^  C-oU 

Add.  23,308. 

Foil.  34;  8^  in.  by  6;  23  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  apparently 
in  the  I7th  century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

I.  Foil.  3 — 25  a.  Ta'nis  ul-Insan,  an  his- 
torical compendium  in  Arabic;  see  Arabic 
Catalogue,  p.  571  b. 

II.  Foil.  25  a — 34  b.  The  genealogical 
Appendix  of  the  Rauzat  ush-Shuhada,  with- 
out title  or  author's  name.. 


Add.  7088. 

FoU.  423 ;  10^  in.  by  6^ ;  17  lines,  4£  in. 


154 


mSTOKY  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


long;   written  in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.  [J.  H.  Hindley.] 


(Syuajojo  j^ 


A  history  of  Muhammad,  the  early  Khalif  s 
and  the  Imams,  in  mixed  prose  and  verse. 

Author  :  Mir  Muhammad  Salih,  takh. 
Kashfi  (Ai-J^  i^^ai^  Jla  ^.^ jxc 

Beg.  \j  ^\  liy  cio\5  \^j> 

The  author  was  a  descendant  of  the 
famous  Saint,  Ni'mat  UUah  Vali.  His  father 
Mir  'Ahd  Ullah  Tirmizi,  a  celehrated  calli- 
grapher,  and  the  author  of  five  Magnavis 
and  a  Divan,  had  received  from  Akbar  the 
title  of  Mushkin  Kalam  and  the  takhallus 
of  Vasfi ;  he  died  A.H.  1025.  Mir  Salih, 
the  author  of  the  well-known  poem  Manakib 
i  Murtazavi,  after  leading  for  a  long  time  the 
life  of  a  Darvish,  accepted  office  from  Shah- 
jahan,  who  raised  him  to  the  rank  of  an 
Amir,  and  died  A.H.  1061 ;  see  Mir'at  ul- 
'Alam,  Add.  7657,  fol.  461  b,  and  the  Oude 
Catalogue,  p.  456. 

After  writing  his  panegyric  on  *Ali,  en- 
titled Manakib  i  Murtazavi,  he  designed,  we 
are  told,  fol.  112  b,  as  a  counterpart  to  it,  the 
present  work,  devoted  to  the  glorification  of 
the  prophet ;  but  life  was  not  spared  him  to 
carry  out  his  plan.  It  was  taken  up  and 
accomplished  a  century  later  by  a  writer  of 
the  same  family,  Mir  'Abd  TJllah  B.  Mir 
Hashim  Shah-Ni'mat-Ullahi  ul-HusainI,  with 
the  poetical  surname  Vasif  i  (see  fol.  112  b), 
who  states  in  the  closing  lines,  fol.  423  b, 
that  he  spent  a  year  and  a  half  on  the  work 
and  completed  it  in  A.H.  1157.  From  the 
praises  which  he  bestows,  fol.  423  a,  on  a 
chief  not  named,  who  had  restored  peace 
and  prosperity  to  Khorasan,  he  appears  to 
have  then  been  writing  in  that  country. 

The  grandfather  of  Mir  'Abd  Ullah,  Mir 
Mumin,  takh.  'Arshi  (fol.  306  6),  a  poet  and 


calligrapher,  was  a  younger  brother  of  the 
author,  Mir  Salih.  He  had  been  the  instructor 
of  Prince  Sulaiman  Shikuh  in  penmanship, 
and  died  A.H.  1091  at  ninety  years  of  age ; 
see  Mirat  ul-'Alam,  fol.  462  a. 

It  is  not  easy  in  the  present  state  of  the 
work  to  know  what  belongs  to  the  earlier, 
and  what  to  the  later  writer ;  nor  is  it  of 
much  moment,  for  it  is  hardly  of  any  value, 
except  as  an  instance  of  the  luxurious 
growth  of  Shi'ah  legend,  and  of  the  boldness 
with  which  it  deals  with  historical  facts. 

Contents  :  Introduction  by  Mir  'Abd  UUah 
in  verse,  fol.  16.  Creation,  prophets,  and 
Muhammad's  early  life,  in  verse,  fol.  4  b. 
Comments  in  prose  on  the  Sufi  doctrine  of 
Tauhid,  fol.  14  a.  History  of  the  expedi- 
tions of  Muhammad,  from  Badr  (A.H.  2)  to 
Hunain  (A.H.  8),  in  verse,  fol.  31a.  Mi- 
racles, or  manifestations  of  divine  power  in 
Muhammad  and  'Ali,  in  prose,  fol.  112  a. 
Muhammad's  last  pilgrimage  and  death; 
Khilafat  of  Abu  Bakr,  'Umar,  'Ugman  and 
'All,  in  verse,  fol.  201  a.  Muhammad's  fea- 
tures, his  virtues,  elegy  on  his  death,  fol. 
305  b.  Account  of  Fatimah,  fol.  314  b,  'Ali, 
fol.  319  a,  Hasan,  fol.  375  b,  Husain,  fol. 
382  a,  and  the  rest  of  the  twelve  Imams,  in 
prose  and  verse. 

This  volume  bears  the  Persian  seal  of 
Archibald  Swinton. 


Or.  150. 

FoU.  534 ;  11|  in.  by  6 ;  19  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik,  in  the 
18th  century.    *  [Geo.  W.  Haivulton.] 

^>;^\   ^%' 

Lives  of  Muhammad,  Fatimah,  and  the 
twelve  Imams. 

Author:  Muhammad  Bakir  B.  Muhammad 
Taki,  ^_^  ,i^  u^J^  '^^ 


HISTOEY  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


156 


Beg.  ^y.  .jjjljsi.  j\j\y,  j\m\j  Jl.  ^  (JSj.^ 

This  great  Shl'ah  divine,  who  died  A.H. 
1110,  has  been  mentioned  above,  p.  20  a. 
The  present  work,  the  sixth  in  the  list  of 
his  Persian  writings,  Add.  24,052,  fol.  28  b, 
has  been  twice  printed  in  Teheran,  A.H. 
1240  and  1266 ;  see  also  Sir  Wm.  Ouseley's 
Catalogue,  No.  373,  and  Biblioth.  Sprenger., 
No.  164. 

The  Jala  ul-*Uyun  is  divided  into  a  short 
introduction  (Mukaddimah)  and  the  follow- 
ing fourteen  sections  (Bab),  most  of  which 
are  subdivided  into  chapters  (Fasl)  :  1. 
Muhammad,  fol,  10  a.  2.  Patimah,  fol. 
73  a.  3.  'Ali,  fol.  148  a.  4.  Hasan,  fol.  210  b. 
5.  Husain,  fol.  265  b.  6.  'Ali  Zain  ul-'Abi- 
din,  fol.  460  6.  7.  Muhammad  Bakir,  fol. 
467  b.  8.  Ja'far  Sadik,  fol.  475  b.  9.  Musa 
B.  Ja'far,  fol.  484  a.  10.  'Ali  Riza,  fol.  498  b. 
11.  Muhammad  Taki,  fol.  513  a.  12.  'Ali 
Naki,  fol.  519  a.  13.  Hasan  'Askarl,  fol. 
524  a.  14.  Muhammad  Mahdi,  fol.  528  b. 

The  author  refers  in  the  preface  to  two 
works  previously  written  by  him  on  the 
same  subject,  one  in  several  volumes  and 
in  Arabic,  called  Bihar  ul-Anvar,  and 
another  shorter,  entitled  Hayat  ul-Kulub. 
(The  first  has  been  noticed,  p.  21  a ;  the 
second  is  the  fourth  of  Muhammad  Bakir's 
Persian  works ;  it  has  been  translated  into 
English  by  the  Eev.  James  L.  Merrick, 
Boston,  1850.)  At  the  end  the  author  states 
that  the  present  work  was  completed  in 
Muharram,  A.H.  1089. 

The  authorities  most  frequently  quoted 
are  Ibn  Babavaih  and  Shaikh  Mufid.  A 
table  of  contents,  occupying  foil.  2 — 6,  refers 
only  to  the  latter  part  of  the  work,  from 
Bab  5  to  the  end. 

Add.  25,853. 

Foil.  54;  8^  in,  by  5;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Cueeton.] 


"  The  ten  sittings,"  a  legendary  account,  in 
prose  and  verse,  of  the  death  of  Muhammad, 
Fatimah,  'All,  IJasan,  and  the  martyrs  of 
Karbala. 

Beg.   jJIp    Ji-  ji  e^  C^\   (J*jy^  «*  i^}^j^ 


The  ten  sittings  are  severally  devoted  to 
the  following  persons  :  1.  Muhammad,  fol. 
3  b.  2.  Fatimah,  fol.  8  b.  3.  'Ali,  fol.  13  a. 
4.  Hasan,  fol.  18  a.  6.  Muslim  B.  'Akil, 
fol.  23  6.  6.  The  children  of  Muslim,  fol. 
29  a.  7.  Hurr  B.  Yazid,  fol.  34  a.  8.  Kasim 
son  of  Hasan,  fol.  40  a.  9.^  'Abbas  son  of 
'All,  and  'All  Akbar  son  of  Husain,  fol. 
44  b.  10.  'Ali  Asghar  and  Husain,  fol.  49  a. 
Prefixed  is  an  Arabic  prayer,  including  the 
names  of  the  twelve  Imams. 

See  Mines  de  I'Orient,  vol.  II.,  p.  114; 
Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  23  ;  Catalogue  of 
King's  CoUege,  Cambridge,  No.  185  ;  and 
New  Asiatic  Miscellany,  pp.  137 — 148. 

Or.  1293. 

Foil.  256 ;  12  in.  by  8 ;  25  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi  on  European  paper, 
in  the  19th  century. 

"The  gardens  of  Martyrdom,"  a  popular 
history  of  Muhammad  and  the  Imams. 

Author :  Muhammad  Hasan  B.  ul-Haj 
Ma'sum,  |»j-a«*  _W'  ^ji  ^^^^  i^«^ 

Beg.         jaSs-  jisii  ^ji'  ^^fx;»■  ^-^  . . .  «U  .x^' 

It  is  stated  at  the  beginning  that  this 
work  consists  of  two  volumes  (Mujallad), 
divided  respectively  into  fo\ir  and  twenty-six 
sections,  called  Majlis,  or  Sittings.  The 
present  MS.  contains  the  first  eighteen 
MajHs  of  the  second  volume,  relating  to 
Imam  Husain,  as  follows:  1.  History  of 
Husain  from  the  time  of  Mu'aviyah's  death 
X   2 


156 


HISTORY  OF  THE  IMAMS. 


to  his  departure  from  Medina  for  Mecca, 
fol.  2  b.  2.  History  of  IJusain  from  his 
arrival  at  Mecca  to  his  setting  out  for  Irak ; 
martyrdom  of  his  cousin  Muslim  B.  'Akil 
and  others,  fol.  16  a.  3.  Martyrdom  of  the 
children  of  Muslim,  fol.  28  a.  4.  Husain's 
adventures  on  the  journey  to  Karbalii  till 
the  9th  of  Muharram,  fol.  38  a.  5.  Events 
of  the  10th  of  Muharram  and  of  the  eve  of 
the  battle,  fol.  54  a.  6.  Martyrdom  of  Hurr 
B.  Yazid  and  others,  fol.  69  b.  7.  Martyr- 
dom of  Vahb  B. 'Abdullah  Kalbi  and  others, 
fol.  81a.  8.  Martyrdom  of  the  other  com- 
panions of  Husain  and  of  his  cousins,  fol, 
93«.  9.  Martyrdom  of  Kfisim  B.ul-Hasan,fol. 
107  a.  10.  Martyrdom  of  'Abbas  and  other 
brothers  of  Husain,  fol.  120  a.  11.  Martyr- 
dom of  'All*  Akbar,  fol.  132  b.  12.  Fight 
and  martyrdom  of  Husain,  fol.  146  b.  13. 
Additional  circumstances  of  Husain's  death, 
plundering  of  his  camp,  and  capture  of  his 
wives  and  children,  fol.  165  a.  14.  Transfer 
of  the  captives  to  Kufah,  fol.  178  a.  15. 
Their  journey  to  Damascus,  fol.  191  b.  16. 
Their  stay  in  Syria,  fol.  202  «.  17.  Their 
return  through  Karbala  to  Medina,  fol.  214  b. 
18.  The  rising  of  Mukhtar,  and  his  avenging 
the  death  of  Husain,  fol.  231  a. 

The  last  eight  Majlis  treat,  according  to 
the  table  of  contents  at  the  beginning  of 
this  volume,  of  the  merits  and  sufferings  of 
the  later  Imams  from  Zain  ul-'Abidin  to  al- 
Mahdi.  The  present  portion  is  written  in 
an  easy  and  popular  language,  intermixed 
with  verses,  and  is  evidently  intended  for 
recitation  to  the  faithful  on  the  annual  com- 
memoration of  the  martyrs  of  Karbala. 

At  the  end  is  appended,  foU.  249 — 256,  a 
fragment  of  a  work  treating  in  prose  and 
verse  of  the  martyrdom  of  Husain, 

Author :  Ibn  Abul-Hasan  ush-Sharif  un- 
Na'ini  Muhammad  Had!,  Uoj^\  (j^^  ^\  ^ji\ 

Beg.  jj/Jljb  u-o.La<c  J*9.  ^^jjl  dJJ  <yj} 


The  work  is  dedicated  to  Haji  Mir  Mu- 
hammad Husain  Isfahani,  and  divided  into 
a  Mukaddimah,  fol.  252  o,  treating  of  divine 
love,  and  four  Babs.  The  first  of  these,  which 
alone  is  extant,  fol.  253  b,  relates  to  Coranic 
verses  and  traditions  concerning  IJusain. 

Or.  149. 

Foil.  159;  9^  in.  by  6^;  21  lines,  4f  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Naskhi ;  dated  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  927  (A,D,  1521). 

[Geo,  W.  Hamilton.] 


J 


,1::^ 


f&JOJ 


The  history  of  Mukhtar  B.  Abi  'Ubaid 
Sakaf  i,  the  avenger  of  Husain. 

Beg.  J^  J-J  j*j  U  .  .  .  j^Wl  i^j  4ll  c^^ 

The  unknown  author  says  in  a  short 
preamble  that  the  history  of  Mukhtar  is  the 
true  balm  for  the  hearts  of  the  faithful, 
bleeding  for  the  martyrs  of  Karbala. 

The  work  is  divided  into  three-and-twenty 
Majlis,  or  "  Sittings,"  of  equal  length.  The 
authority  quoted  at  the  beginning  of  each  of 
these  is  Abu  Mihnaf  Liit  B.  Yahya  ul-Yazdl, 
who  is  said,  fol.  22  a,  to  have  received  the 
tradition  from  Muhammad  B.  Ishak  (who 
died  A.H.  150).  The  title  written  on  the 
first  page  is  *«U  Jzi^  \^'^ .  A  leaf  is  want- 
ing after  fol.  23. 

A  Mukhtar-Namah  by  MuUa  Muhammad 
Husain  Nri'mi,  has  been  printed  in  Persia, 
A.H,  1281  ;  s,ee  Dorn,  Catalogue  des 
ouvrages  publics  a  Constantinople,  etc, 
No.  106 ;  see  also  Biblioth.  Sprenger,, 
No,  161. 

Egerton  1038*. 

Foil,  11 ;  9  in.  by  5^ ;  written  in  Naskhi, 
apparently  in  the  18th  century. 


r 


HISTORY  OP  THE  GHAZNAVIS. 


157 


Pourteen  genealogical  tables  relating  to 
Muhammad,  Patimah  and  the  twelve  Imams, 
Each  table  occupies  one  page,  and  is  divided 
into  a  number  of  compartments,  indicating 


the  names  and  surnames,  parents,  date 
and  place  of  birth,  legend  of  seal,  wives, 
sons  and  daughters,  date  and  place  of 
death,  etc. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  aHAZNAVIS. 


Add.  24,950. 

Poll.  276 ;  9f  in.  by  7 ;  16  lines,  4^  in. 
long,  A\Titten  in  large  Naskhi,  with  vowel- 
points;  dated  Eajab  A.H.  664  (A.D.  1266). 

A  history  of  Amir  Subuktigin  and  Sultan 
Mahmud  Ghaznavi,  translated  from  the 
Arabic  of  'Utbi. 

Translator :  Abu  sh-Sharaf  Nasih  B.  Zafar 
B.  Sa'd  ul-Munshi  ul-Jarbazakani,  t_J/Jl  y^ 

Beg.  L-Jyii-o  yj^ jj  » J>*ly  y^  w  tJjirr  j^^j1/**» 

The  Arabic  text  has  been  edited  by  Dr. 
Sprenger,  Dehli,  1847.  An  account  of  the 
work,  including  extracts  in  Arabic  and 
German,  has  been  published  by  Dr.  Noldeke 
in  the  Sitzungsberichte  der  Kaiserlichen 
Akademie,  Vienna,  vol.  xxiii.  pp.  15 — 102, 
and  another  with  copious  extracts  in  English, 
by  Sir  H.  Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  14 — 52.  An  account  of  the  Persian 
version  and  a  full  abstract  of  it  by  S.  de  Sacy 
will  be  found  in  Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  325  —  411.  An  English  translation 
founded  upon  the  Persian  version,  but  much 
wanting  in  correctness,  was  published  for 


the  Oriental  Translation  Pund  by  the  Eev. 
James  E,eynolds,  London,  1858.  See  also 
Wiener  Jahrbiicher,  vol.  70,  Anz.  Blatt, 
p.  83,  and  vol.  71,  Anz.  Blatt,  p.  25,  Haj. 
Khal.,  vol.  vi.  p.  514,  Vienna  Catalogue, 
vol.  ii.  p.  170,  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  85, 
and  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society,  1868, 
p.  424. 

The  author,  Abu  Nasr  Muhammad  B. 
'Abd  ul-Jabbar  ul-'Utbl,  was  in  the  employ 
of  Sultan  Mahmud  who,  in  the  early  part  of 
his  reign,  sent  him  to  claim  the  submission 
of  the  Shah  of  Gharjistan ;  see  Rauzat  us- 
Safa,  Bombay  edition,  vol.  iv.  p.  94.  He^ 
states  himself,  in  his  appendix,  that,  when 
writing  the  present  work,  he  held  the 
appointment  of  Siihib  ul-Barid,  or  official 
intelligencer,  in  Ganj  Rustak.  He  wrote 
apparently  some  years  after  Mah  mud's 
Indian  campaign  of  A.H.  409-410,  the  last 
chronicled  in  this  work ;  for  he  describes  as 
completed  the  famous  Masjid  which  Mahmud 
began  to  erect  at  Ghaznah  after  his  return, 
and  the  history  concludes  with  the  record 
of  the  death  of  Amir  Nasr,  the  Sultan's 
brother,  who  was  still  alive  in  A.H.  411 ; 
see  Raverty,  Tabakat  i  Nasirl,  vol.  i.  p.  86. 
On  the  other  hand  a  supposed  reference  to 
an  event  as  late  as  A.H.  420  (Reynold's 
translation,  p.  474)  rests  upon  a  clerical 
error ;  the  true  reading  of  the  date,  both  in 


158 


HISTORY  OF  THE  GHAZNAVIS. 


the  present  version,  fol.  209,  and  in  an  old 
copy  of  the  original,  Add.  7310,  fol.  203,  is 
402. 

The  Persian  version  is  dedicated  to  a  local 
ruler,  here  dignified  with  regal  titles,  Padi- 
shah Ulugh  Barhak  Ayabah  ajoj  tdbjb  iJ^  (see 
foil.  4>  a,  13  b,  227  b).  This  was,  as  we  learn 
from  the  translator's  appendix,  a  slave,  pur- 
chased by  Atabak  Muhammad  B.  Ilduguz, 
who  remained,  after  his  master's  death,  in 
possession  of  the  fortress  of  Parrazin  (near 
Hamadan).  He  narrowly  escaped  being  put 
to  death  by  Sultan  Tughril,  and  afterwards 
succeeded,  in  conjunction  with  another 
Amir,  here  styled  Padishah  Shams  ud-Dau- 
lah  Aitughmish,  who  had  married  one  of 
his  daughters,  to  raise  the  rightful  heir, 
Nusrat  ud-Din  Abu  Bakr,  son  of  the  late 
Muhammad  B.  Ilduguz,  upon  the  vacant 
throne  of  the  Atabaks. 

The  translator  says  in  the  preface,  that  his 
native  place  Jarbazakan  (a  town  situated 
between  Hamadan  and  Isfahan),  was  a 
favourite  resort  of  the  king,  Ulugh  Barbak, 
to  whose  territory  it  belonged,  and  that, 
wishing  to  present  him  on  one  of  his  visits 
with  an  instructive  and  entertaining  com- 
position, he  had  been  advised  by  the  Vazir, 
Muhazzib  ud-Din  Abul-Kasim  'Ali  B.  ul- 
Husain,  his  own  patron  and  benefactor,  to 
select  the  Yamlni  of  'Utbi  for  translation. 
A  panegyric  in  prose  and  verse  on  the  said 
Vazir  brings  the  preface  to  a  close. 

As  the  translator  states,  both  in  the 
preface  and  in  the  appendix,  that  after  a 
period  of  anarchy  of  nearly  twenty  years' 
duration,  which  had  intervened  since  the 
death  of  the  great  Atabak,  the  only  stay  of 
the  Saljuk  empire,  in  A.H.  582,  peace  had 
been  for  some  time  restored,  he  must  have 
written  the  present  work  shortly  after  A.H. 
602,  certainly  within  five  years  from  that  date; 
for  the  then  reigning  Atabak,  Abu  Bakr, 
died  in  A.H.  607,  and  Aitughmish,  whom 
he  had  called  to  his  assistance  in  Tabriz, 


A.H.  602,  was  driven  out  of  Irak  by  Mangali 
in  A.H.  608;  see  Bauzat  us-Safa,  vol.  iv. 
p.  104,  Ibn  al-Athir,  vol.  xii.  pp.  156,  194, 
and  Defremery,  Journal  Asiatique,  1847, 
pp.  157—161. 

In  the  appendix,  foil.  221  i— 233  b,  the 
translator  draws  a  striking  picture  of  the 
disruption  of  the  Atabak  empire  at  the  death 
of  Muhammad  B.  Ilduguz,  and  of  the  utter 
desolation  that  overspread  Irak,  and  es- 
pecially his  native  place  Jarbazakan ;  he 
concludes  with  eulogies  upon  the  prince,  the 
Vazir,  and  the  governor  appointed  by  them 
in  Jarbazakan,  who  had  but  recently  re- 
stored to  it  order  and  prosperity. 

Transcriber :  (_gj.^^  ^^jUlfr  j^  J>.v«-> 
The  first  folio  of  this  MS.  has  been  written 
by  a  somewhat  later  hand ;  it  bears  on  its 
first  page  a  note  by  a  former  owner,  dated 
Isfahan,  A.H.  770.  There  is  after  fol.  208 
a  lacune  of  forty  leaves,  corresponding  to 
pp.  389 — 473  of  the  English  translation. 

This  Persian  version  was  translated  into 
Turkish  for  Sultan  Murad  B.  Salim  by  Dar- 
vish  Hasan ;  the  first  volume  of  this  trans- 
lation, not  known  to  Haj.  Khal.,  is  preserved 
in  Or.  1134. 


Or.  1. 

Poll.  379;  9i  in.  by  5^;  19  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  small  and  fair  NestaUk, 
apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

["Wm.  H.  Morley.] 

A  history  of  the  reign  of  Mas'iid  B. 
Mahmud  B.  Subuktigin,  from  A.H.  421  to 
A.H.  432. 

Author :  Abul-Pazl  Muhammad  B.  ul- 
Husain  ul-Baihakl  (see  fol.  52  a,  Calcutta 

edition,  p.  103),  ,^2^1  u*-^^  u^  '^>^  J-afl51  ^\ 


HISTORY  OF  THE  GHAZNAVIS. 


159 


This  copy  was  collated  by  Morley  with 
two  others  belonging  to  the  libraries  of 
Paris  and  to  the  collection  of  Sir  H.  Elliot, 
and  the  text  thus  prepared  was  printed  after 
his  death  in  the  Bibliotheca  Indica,  Calcutta, 
1862.  An  account  of  the  work,  enlarged  by 
Professor  Dowson  from  the  original  sketch 
of  Sir  H.  Elliot,  and  accompanied  with  copious 
extracts  in  English,  will  be  found  in  the 
History  of  India,  vol.  ii.  pp.  53 — 154. 

This  is  the  only  remaining  portion  of  an 
extensive  work,  which  embraced  the  history 
of  the  Ghaznavi  Dynasty  from  its  beginning 
to  the  author's  time,  and  which  is  stated  by 
Mirkhwand  to  have  consisted  of  no  less  than 
thirty  volumes.  The  work  is  variously  de- 
signated as  Titrikh  i  Abul-Fazl  Baihaki,  Mu- 
jalladat  i  Abul-Fazl  Baihaki,  or  Tarikh  i  Al 
i  Subuktigin.  Its  proper  title  was,  accord- 
ing to  Muslih  ud  Din  Larl,  Add.  7650,  fol. 
B  b,  ^j^JLm  JT  ^Jo  j|cU  ,  and  Haj.  Khal. 
gives  nearly  the  same  in  two  different  forms  : 
^.j'^y^^  j*W-  ^nd  j^jjiiilAA*  ^Jj  ^J3  ^  «*U. ;  see 
vol.  ii.,  pp.  508,  580.  Its  several  parts  bear 
also  special  names  derived  from  the  titles  of 
the  sovereigns  to  whom  they  relate :  thus 
the  history  of  Mahmud  (Yamin  ud-Daulah) 
is  referred  to  by  the  author  under  that  of 
Tarikh  i  Yamini,  Calcutta  edition,  p.  26; 
the  history  of  Subuktigin  (Nasir  ud-Din)  is 
quoted  by  Minhaj  in  his  Tabakat,  English 
translation,  vol.  i.  p.  68,  as  Tarikh  i  Nasiri, 
and  the  present  section  is  called  Tarikh  i 
Masudi ;  see  Dom,  Melanges  Asiatiques, 
vol.  iii.  p.  731,  and  Bulletin,  vol.  i.  p.  60. 

The  extant  portion  comprises  volumes 
7 — 9  of  the  original  work,  with  part  of  vo- 
lumes 6  and  10,  and  contains  an  account  of 
the  contest  of  Sultan  Mas'ud  with  his  brother 
Muhammad  for  the  succession,  A.H.  421,  of 
the  former's  accession,  and  of  the  greater  part 
of  his  reign,  down  to  A.H.  432.  It  is  a  minute 
and  truthful,  if  somewhat  rambling  and  gos- 
siping, record  of  contemporary  transactions 


by  an  intelligent  observer,  who  had  frequent 
access  to  the  person  of  the  sovereign,  and 
enjoyed  his  confidence. 

Abul-Fazl  Baihaki,  so  called  from  Baihak, 
a  district  near  Nishapur,  the  chief  town  of 
which  is  Sabzaviir,  was  Deputy  Secretary  of 
State  cJ^j  j^^y  J  «_>9.U»  (-JU .  His  chief, 
Abu  Nasr  B.  Mushkan,  a  celebrated  secre- 
tary and  one  of  the  most  considerable  men 
in  the  reigns  of  Mahmud  and  Mas  ud  (see 
Ibn  el-Athir,  vol.  ix.,  p.  321,  and  al-Wafi  bil- 
wafayat,  Add.  23,359,  under  Mansur  B. 
Mushkan),  is  constantly  brought  on  the  scene 
in  this  history.  The  author,  when  recording 
his  master's  death  in  A.H.  431,  p.  749,  says 
that  he  had  then  been  working  under  him 
for  nineteen  years,  and  had  always  been 
cherished  by  him  with  more  than  fatherly 
affection.  He  adds  that  there  had  been  a  wish 
after  the  death  of  Abu  Nasr  to  bestow  upon 
himself  the  vacant  post,  but  that  his  youth 
(he  was  then  46)  had  proved  an  objection. 
He  continued  in  the  same  office  under  Abu 
Sahl  Zauzani,  his  master's  successor,  but  lost 
it  after  the  death  of  Mas'ud.  He  must  how- 
ever have  been  re-appointed  imder  Sultan 
Ibrahim,  for  we  find  him  in  A.H.  451,  p.  823, 
complaining  that  he  had  been  again  thrown 
out  of  employ.  He  died,  according  to  the 
Mujmil  of  Fasihl,  A.H.  470 ;  see  Dom,  Asia- 
tisches  Museum,  p.  668. 

The  greatest  part  of  the  extant  volume 
was  written  in  A.H.  450,  when  the  author 
was  65  years  of  age  (see  p.  207),  and  the 
latter  portion  in  A.H.  451.  In  a  passage 
subsequently  inserted,  and  dated  A.H.  455, 
Abul-Fazl  says  that  he  had  commenced  his 
history  seven  years  previous,  i.  e.  A.H.  448  ; 
see  p.  79. 

The  history  of  Mas'ud  is  brought  down  to 
the  month  of  Safar,  A.H.  432,  when  the 
Sultan,  having  returned  to  Ghaznah,  after 
the  terrible  losses  inflicted  upon  him  by  the 
Saljuks,  was  preparing  to  repair  to  India  in 
order  to  collect  fresh  troops.    The  remaining 


160 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


portion,  pp.  837 — 868,  is  taken  up  with  the 
affairs  of  Khwarazm,  which  are  introduced 
by  an  extract  from  Abu  Eihiin  ul-Biruni, 
and  brought  down  to  Sha'ban,  A.H.  432. 

The  present  copy  is  imperfect  at  beginning 
and  end ;  it  begins  with  these  words  :  ^  »5 
jolJLJ  \js  i5ji-  JU ,  Calc.  ed.,  p.  2,  line  3,  and 
ends  with  JiiJi-  «^  jj^  ^yj-i»  j^(>  J6 ,  ib. 
p.  866,  line  10. 

Prefixed  is  an  extract  from  Morley's  manu- 
script catalogue,  in  which  he  says :  "  My 
copy  is  fairly  and  clearly  written,  and  is 
evidently  older  than  the  Paris  MS.  and  that 
of  Sir  H.  Elliot  which  I  have  collated;" 
also  a  letter  from  Prederick  Ricardo  to 
Morley,  dated  Paris,  1849,  describing  the 
Paris  MS.  and  enclosing  a  transcript  of  its 
first  page. 


Or.  4:55  and  456. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  which  originally 
formed  one,  containing  respectively  foil.  216 
and  219 ;  11  in.  by  6 ;  19  lines,  3f  in.  long ; 
written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  gold-ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  16th  century. 

[Sir  Wm.  Ouseley.] 

The  same  work.  The  beginning  and  end 
of  this  copy  coincide  with  those  of  the 
printed  text ;  foil.  199 — 219  at  the  end  have 
been  supplied  by  a  later  hand;  the  last 
few  pages  of  this  modern  transcript  show 
small  gaps,  apparently  due  to  the  mutilated 
state  of  the  original. 

On  the  first  page  is  written  in  Persian, 
"  Tarikh  i  Baihaki,  written  at  Agrah."  On 
the  fly-leaf  are  some  notes  in  the  hand  of 
Sir  Wm.  Ouseley. 


HISTOEY    OF    THE     MOGHULS. 


Or.  155. 

Foil.  275 ;  10  in.  by  7 ;  18  lines,  8f  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Rabi'  II. 
A.H.  1277  (A.D.  1860). 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  the  Moghul  empire,  from  the 
rise  of  Chingizkhan  to  the  expedition  of 
Hulagu  Khan  against  the  Isma'ilis,  A.H.  654. 

Author :  JuvainI,  ^.y>- 

The  author,  who  is  only  designated  by  the 
above  Nisbah,  derived  from  Juvain,  a  dis- 
trict of  the  province  of  Nishapur,  was  Khwa- 
jah  'Ala  ud-Din  'Ata  Malik,  the  son  of  Bahti 
ud-Din  Muhammad  Juvaini,  who  had  been 
appointed  by  the  Moghuls  Sahib  Divan,  or 


civil  governor,  of  Zhorasan  and  Mazandariln. 
He  entered  in  early  life  the  service  of  Amir 
Arghun,  the  Moghul  governor  of  Khorasan, 
and,  as  he  states  in  the  present  work,  foil. 
9  a,  192  a,  followed  him  in  A.H.  649  on  his 
journey  to  Karakorum  to  attend  the  court 
held  by  Mangu  Kaan  after  his  accession. 
He  subsequently  joined  Hulagu  Khan  during 
the  siege  of  Alamut,  A.H.  654,  and  accom- 
panied him  in  his  expedition  against  Bagh- 
dad, A.H.  655.'  In  A.H.  661,  when  his 
brother  was  raised  to  the  post  of  Vazir,  he 
was  appointed  to  the  government  of  Baghdad, 
and  held  that  office,  with  the  exception  of 
a  short  period  of  suspension,  tUl  his  death, 
which  took  place  on  the  4th  of  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  681.  See  Habib  us-Siyar,  Bombay 
edition,  vol.  iii.,  Juz  1,  pp.  59 — 70,  and  a 


HISTOEY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


161 


yery  full  notice  on  his  life  by  Quatreraere, 
Mines  de  I'Orient,  vol.  i.  pp.  220— 234. 

The  Jahankushrd  was  completed,  according 
to  the  subscription  of  the  present  copy,  in 
Rabi*  I.,  A.H.  058.  The  same  date  is  inci- 
dentally mentioned  as  that  of  the  current 
year  in  the  early  part  of  the  work,  fol.  5  a. 

This  copy  is  a  modern  and  rather  incor- 
rect transcript  of  a  MS.  which  appears  to 
have  been  imperfect  at  the  beginning.  It 
begins  abruptly,  fol.  3  a,  with  an  account 
of  the  expedition  sent  by  Chingizkhan 
against  Sighnak  and  Jand,  in  Safar,  A.H. 
616  (see  D'Ohsson,  vol.  i.  p.  221).  The 
contents  of  the  next-following  sections  are — 
Conquest  of  Mavara-annahr,  Bukhara,  Samar- 
kand, fol.  4  b.  Fall  of  Khwarazm,  fol.  18  a. 
Pursuit  of  Sultan  Jaliil  ud-Din,  fol.  23  b. 
Conquest  of  Khorasan  by  Tuli  and  fall  of 
NishapUir,  fol.  29  a.  Accession  of  llktai 
Ka'an,  fol.  41  b.  Conquest  of  China,  fol. 
46  a.  Stations  and  stages  of  the  Kaan, 
fol.  66  a.  The  empress  Turakina,  and  Fati- 
mah  Khatun,  fol.  67  b.  Accession  of  Kuyiik 
Khan,  fol.  71  a.  Ughul  Ghaimish  Khatun 
and  her  children,  fol.  77  a.  Prince  Tiishi, 
accession  of  Batu,  and  subjection  of  the  Bul- 
gars,  Russians,  etc.,  fol.  79  a.  Account  of 
Prince  Chaghatai,  fol.  81  a. 

With  the  last  section  ends  the  first  of 
the  three  volumes  (Mujallad)  into  which 
the  work  is  divided. 

Volume  II.,  which  begins  fol.  83  a,  con- 
tains— 1.  A  detailed  history  of  the  Khwa- 
razmshahs  from  their  origin  in  the  time  of 
the  Saljuks  to  their  final  extinction,  closing 
with  a  full  account  of  the  three  sons  of 
Muhammad  Khwarazmshah,  Sultan  Jabll  ud 
Din  Mangburni,  fol.  139  a,  Sultan  Ghiya§  ud- 
Din,  fol.  170  a,  and  Sultan  Rukn  ud-Din,  fol. 
173  a.  2.  Notices  on  the  following  Moghul 
Amirs :  Jintimiir,  fol.  176  b  ;  Niisiil,  fol. 
179  b;  Kurgiiz,  ib.  Amir  Arghun,  fol. 
188  a  ;  Sharaf  ud-Din  Khwarazmi,  fol.  197  b. 

Volume  III.  Contents—] .  Account  of  the 


accession  of  Mangu  Ka'fin,  and  the  begin- 
ning of  his  reign,  fol.  206  b.  2.  Expedition 
of  Hulagu  to  the  western  countries,  fol.  230  b. 
3.  A  detailed  history  of  the  Isma'ilis  of  the 
west,  and  of  Hasan  Sabbah  and  his  successors, 
down  to  the  taking  of  Alamut  and  the  death 
of  Khwurshah,  A.H.  654,  fol.  244  b. 

The  headings  of  the  first  of  the  above 
three  volumes  have  been  given  by  Hammer, 
Jahrbiicher,  vol.  71,  Anz.  Blatt,  p.  24; 
and  those  of  the  third  by  Kuenen,  Leyden 
Catalogue,  vol.  iii.  p.  7.  See  also  Elliot, 
History  of  India,  vol.  ii.  pp.  384 — 402 ; 
D'Ohsson,  Histoire  des  Mongols,  vol.  i.  p.  17 ; 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  178;  Gotha 
Catalogue,  p.  51 ;  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  658; 
Critical  Essay,  p.  32.  Defr(5mery,  Journal 
Asiatique,  4*  S^rie,  vol.  xx.  pp.  370 — 406. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
transcript  was  made  by  order  of  Lieut.-Col. 
George  William  Hamilton,  Commissioner 
and  Superintendent  of  the  Subah  of  Lahore. 

Copyist :  ^j'<^^  ^J^.  j<i\5  *ib 

Add.  23,517. 

Foil.  537 ;  10  in.  by  6^ ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  with  five 
'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably 
in  the  15th  century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  history  of  the  Moghul  empire  in  Persia, 
and  of  some  contemporary  sovereigns,  from 
A.H.  656  to  712,  with  a  continuation  added 
in  A.H.  728. 

Author:    'Abd    UUah    B.    Fazl    UUah, 

Beg.  j\iT  ^Ji-o^l  jV'  »^  iJ^S*-^  j  "i-^ 

The  author  was  a  native  of  Shiraz  ; 
Khwandamir  calls  him  Maulana  Shihab  ud- 
Din  'Abd  UUah  Shirazi.     His  father,  'Iscz 


162 


HISTOKY  OE  THE  MOGHULS. 


ud-Din  Fazl  XJllah,  fol.  453  a,  whose  death 
in  A.H.  698  is  recorded  on  fol.  294  6,  has 
been  sometimes,  but  wrongly,  identified  with 
Fazl  Ullah  Kazvlni,  who  wrote  the  Tarikh 
i  Mu'ajjam.  'Abd  Ullah  was  employed,  as 
he  states  himself,  foil.  519  6,  534  b,  in  the 
collection  of  revenue  under  the  Moghul 
government,  and  enjoyed  the  patronage  of 
the  great  Vazir  and  historian,  Rashid  ud- 
Dln,  and,  after  him,  that  of  his  son  and 
successor  Ghiya§  ud-Din.  He  gives  a  gra- 
phic account,  fol.  448  a,  of  the  audience  he 
obtained  from  Uljaitu  in  Sultaniyah,  on  the 
24th  of  Muharram,  A.H.  712,  on  which  occa- 
sion his  book  was  presented  for  him  by  the 
Vazir,  and  he  relates  that  one  or  two  passages, 
which  he  was  called  upon  to  read  aloud, 
proved  utterly  unintelligible  to  His  Majesty, 
until  explained  by  Rashid  ud-Din  and  other 
courtiers.  He  was  nevertheless  rewarded 
with  a  robe  of  honour  and  the  title  of  Vassaf 
ul-Hazrat,  "  His  Majesty's  Panegyrist,"  fol. 
488  b,  by  which  he  is  generally  known. 

The  Tarikh  i  Vassaf,  as  the  work  is  occa- 
sionally called  by  the  author,  contains  an 
authentic  contemporary  record  of  an  impor- 
tant period,  but  its  undoubted  value  is  in 
some  degree  diminished  by  the  want  of 
method  in  its  arrangement,  and  still  more 
by  the  highly  artificial  character  and  tedious 
redundance  of  its  style.  It  was  unfortunately 
set  up  as  a  model,  and  has  exercised  a  bane- 
ful influence  on  later  historical  compositions 
in  Persia. 

The  work  is  divided  into  five  volumes 
(Mujallad).  The  first  begins  with  a  preface 
dated  Sha'ban,  A.H.  699,  which  includes 
a  dedication  to  Ghazan,  and  in  which  the 
work  is  described  as  a  continuation  of  the 
Jahankushai  Juvaini.  The  fourth,  which 
completed  the  original  work,  is  brought 
down  in  the  present  copy  to  the  month  of 
Shavval,  A.H.  712.  The  fifth  is  a  much  later 
addition ;  it  does  not  bear  a  precise  date, 
but  some  references  it  contains  to  the  Vazir 


Ghiyiis  ud-Din,  who  was  raised  to  a  Vazirate 
towards  the  end  of  A.H.  727  (see  Tarikh  i 
Guzidah),  show  that  it  cannot  have  been 
wi-itten  before  A.H.  728. 

The  Tarikh  i  Vassaf  has  been  lithographed 
in  Bombay,  A.H.  1269,  and  the  first  volume 
has  been  published  by  Hammer  with  a 
German  translation,  Vienna,  1856.  The 
contents  have  been  noticed  by  the  same 
scholar  in  the  Jahrbucher,  vol.  71,  Anz. 
Blatt,  pp.  27—31.  See  also  Haj.  Khal., 
vol.  ii.  p.  156;  Elliot,  History  of  India, 
vol.  iii.  pp.  24 — 54 ;  Quatrem^re,  Histoire 
des  Mongols,  pp.  13,  68  ;  D'Ohsson,  Histoire 
des  Mongols,  p.  27 ;  Mohl,  Journal  Asiatique, 
5^  Serie,  vol.  ^dii.  p.  54 ;  S.  Petersburg  Cata- 
logue, p.  283 ;  Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii. 
p.  181 ;  Leyden  Catalogue,  vol.  iii.  p.  2. 

Contents  :  Vol.  I.  Preface,  fol.  9  b.  Death 
of  Mangii  Ka'iin,  A.H.  656,  and  reigns  of 
his  successors  Kubila  and  Timur  Ka'aii, 
fol.  15  b.  The  taking  of  Baghdad  and 
further  conquests  of  Hulagu,  fol.  27  b.  Reign 
of  Abaka,  fol.  49  a.  Account  of  the  Sultans 
of  Egypt,  fol.  75  b.  Accession  of  Sultan 
Ahmad  (Takudar)  and  his  contest  with  Ar- 
gluin,  fol.  93  b.  Accession  of  Arghiin,  fol. 
118  6. 

Vol.  II.  History  of  the  Salghuri  Atabaks 
in  Pars,  from  their  origin  to  the  deatli  of 
Abish  Khatun,  A.H.  685,  and  the  Moghul 
occupation,  fol.  124  b.  Eeign  of  Arghiin, 
fol.  191  b.  Account  of  the  Atabaks  of 
Lur,  Yiisufshah  and  his  son  Afrasiyab,  fol. 
207  a. 

Vol.  III.  Reign  of  KaikhatQ,  fol.  212  b. 
Accession  of  Baidu,  fol.  232  a.  Account  of 
the  Sultans  of  Kir  man,  from  *Imad  ud-Din 
Kavard  to  A.H.  694,  fol.  234  a.  Description 
of  India  (see  Elliot,  pp.  28—35),  fol.  246  b. 
Kings  of  Dehli  (Elliot,  pp.  36—42),  fol.  253  h. 
Campaign  of  Ghazan,  fol.  259  b.  Acces- 
sion of  Ghazan  and  history  of  his  reign, 
down  to  the  Syrian  campaign,  A.H.  700,  fol. 
265  b. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  M0GHUL8. 


163 


Vol.  IV,  Continuation  of  Ghazan's  reign 
from  A.H.  701,  fol.  318  ft.     His  death,  fol. 
373  b.      Accession    of  Uljuitu,    fol.    382  b. 
Death  of  Timiir  Ka'an,  and  account  of  his 
successors,  down  to  A.H.   711,   fol.  408  6. 
Reign    of  Uljaitu,  till  A.H.  711,  fol.  415  a. 
Account  of  Sultan  'Ala  ud-Din  of  Dehli,  and 
the  Sultans  of  Egypt,  fol.  432  b.    The  author's 
audience,  fol.   448 «.     Continuation  on  the 
affairs   of  Egypt,   and   Uljaitu's    expedition 
against  Rahbah,  down  to  the  first  of  Shavval, 
A.H.  712,  fol.  455  b.     Appendix,  consisting 
of  an  abstract  of  the  Jahankushai  Juvaini, 
from  the  rise  of  Chingizkhan  to  the  fall  of 
Alamut  and  the   death   of  Khusrau  Shah, 
A.H.  655,  fol.  460  a.     Dissertation  on  rhe- 
torical figures,  and   conclusion,   fol.    488  a. 
This  copy  breaks  off  in  the  last  chapter,  fol. 
489  b  ;  about  four  leavCvS,  corresponding  to 
foil.   391  a — 394  a   of  the    next    copy,   are 
missing. 

Vol.  V.  Introduction,  fol.  491  b,  including 
an  enumeration  of  the  successors  of  Oktai, 
JQji  and  Chaghatai  to  the  author's  time,  fol. 
497  a.  Return  of  Uljaitu  to  Baghdsid  in 
Ramazan,  A.H.  712,  and  the  rest  of  his 
reign,  fol.  500  a.  Accession  and  reign  of 
AbQ  Sa'id,  fol.  506  b.  This  last  section  in- 
cludes a  further  account  of  Sultan  'Ala  ud- 
Din  of  Dehli  and  his  successors  from  A.H. 
715  to  723,  foil.  530— 532  ft,  several  rhe- 
torical digressions,  and  other  extraneous 
matters. 

At  the  end  of  vol.  IV.  is  a  note  stating 
that  the  MS.  had  been  purchased  in  Agrah, 
A.H.  983.  Vol.  V.  is  a  later  addition,  appa- 
rently of  the  18th  century.  A  modern 
table  of  contents,  foil.  2 — 8,  has  been  pre- 
fixed to  the  MS. 

Add.  7625. 

Foil.  426  ;  9|  in.  by  6| ;  25  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  small  Naskhi;  dated,  fol. 
254  a,  A.H.  1090  (A.D.  1679).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 


The  same  work.  The  five  volumes  begin 
respectively  on  foil.  1  b,  83  *,  150  b,  255  b, 
and  394  b. 

Transcriber:  J^jl^I  aUl^l  Jc  V^ju  ^^\ 

A  note  at  the  end  states  that  the  MS. 
was  collated  and  annotated  in  Hamadan  by 
Muhammad  Yfisuf  for  the  owner,  FakhV 
uddin  B.  Muhammad  Sadik  ush-Sharif  ul- 
Isfahcini,  whose  seal  and  signature  are  found 
on  the  first  page. 

Add.  16,722. 

Foil.  194  ;  11|  in.  by  1\  ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Naskhi,  with  IJnvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
16th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  first  volume  of  the  same  work. 

A  note  on  the  first  page,  relating  to  the 
purchase  of  the  MS.,  is  dated  A.H.  1047. 
This  volume  bears  the  stamp  of  General 
Claud  Martin. 

Add.  16,723. 

FoU.  151 ;  10  in.  by  6;  21  and  22  lines,  2^ 
in.  long;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  appa- 
rently in  the  16th  century.        [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  third  volume  of  the  same  work. 

A  note  on  the  first  page  states  that  this 
MS.  was  added  to  the  library  of  His  High- 
ness Abul-Fath  Sultan  Muhammad  Shah 
Safavi  (see  p.  133  6),  A.H.  1217.  Another, 
by  the  side  of  the  first,  records  its  donation 
by  the  prince  to  Captain  William  Yule, 
A.H.  1218. 

Add.  26,190. 

FoU.  182;  9i  in.  by  7\;  17  lines,  Sf  in. 
long  ;  written  in  cursive  Indian  Shikastah- 
Amiz,  on  English  paper,  bearing  in  its  water- 
mark the  date  1806.  [Wm.  Ekskine.] 
T  2 


164 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


CfjA-  «^j^  U^J^^ 


A  history  of  Chingizkhan,  his  ancestors, 
and  his  descendants,  down  to  the  time  of 
Timiir. 

Beg.   j>M  J!^  ^}^  ly  ^j  j;^  *IJ  -^^ 

This  is  the  work  an  abridged  translation 
of  which  has  been  published  by  Col.  Wm. 
Miles,  under  the  title  "  Shajrat  ul  Atrak,  or 
genealogical  tree  of  the  Turks  and  Tartars," 
London,  1838. 

Although  the  same  title  "  Shajrat  ul- 
Atrak "  has  been  written  by  Wm.  Erskine 
on  the  fly-leaf  of  the  present  copy,  it  no- 
where appears  in  the  text.  In  the  follow- 
ing lines,  with  which  the  MS.  concludes,  the 
work  is  called  Ulus  Arba'ah  ChingizT,  and  is 
said  to  be  based  upon  the  similarly  entitled 
history  of  the  late  Sultan  Ulugh  Beg  Mirza, 

j.>LJl  ^jJ*  _y  ^^,   tl*ib  ^j>  ^^  tiJy  Si^\  tiijlo 

iJImmi    aJlwj)    {j^..J^    **     IC^j    cl^'^J^    litt'j*'     l^V* 

The  original  composition  of  Ulugh  Beg, 
««^\  (_,«p\ ,  is  again  referred  to  in  the  body 

of  the  work,  fol.  139  a,  Miles's  translation, 
p.  270,  for  the  meaning  of  the  name  Kai- 
khatu  in  Mongolian.  It  must  also  be  noticed, 
that  the  latest  date  to  which  the  account 
of  the  branches  of  the  Chingiz  line  is 
brought  down  in  the  present  work  is  A.H. 
851,  which  is  precisely  the  period  of  Ulugh 
Beg  ;  see  fol.  129  a,  translation,  p.  240. 

The  text  shows  a  remarkable  agreement 
in  substance,  arrangement,  and  frequently  in 
words,  with  the  account  of  the  Mocrhuls 
found  in  the  ninth  Makrdah  of  the  Khulasat 
ul-Akhbar,  Or.  1292,  foil.  286—316,  whicli  is 


also  stated  at  the  end  to  be  derived  from  the 
Ulus  Arba'ah  of  Ulugh  Beg,  and  it  appears 
to  be  a  more  expanded  recension  of  the  same 
original.  Nearly  the  same  matter  is  found 
again,  but  in  a  still  more  condensed  form,  in 
an  earlier  work,  the  Mukaddimah  of  the 
Zafar-Namah  of  Sharaf  ud-Din  Yazdi,  which 
Ulugh  Beg  seems  to  have  followed,  while 
enlarging  it  and  bringing  it  down  to  a  some- 
what later  period. 

Contents :  Genealogy  of  the  Turks,  traced 
from  Adam,  through  Japhet,  Turk,  Aghuz 
Khan,  etc.,  fol.  2  b.  Ancestors  of  Chingiz- 
khan, fol.  27  a.  Life  of  Chingizkhan, 
fol.  38  b.  Line  of  Oktai,  fol.  110  b.  Line  of 
Jiiji,  fol.  118  b.  Line  of  Hulagu  and  the 
Ilkanis,  fol.  129  a.  Line  of  Chaghatai, 
fol.  164  b. 

Two  copies  of  the  original  work  of  Ulugh 
Beg  are  supposed  to  exist  in  the  libraries  of 
Constantinople ;  see  a  letter  of  M.  Ch.  Schefer, 
Journal  Asiatique,  4^  Serie,  vol.  xviii.  p.  591. 
It  is  frequently  mentioned  under  the  title  of 
iMji  (_,«j3\  in  the  Tarikh  i  Rashldi;  see 
Or.  157,  fol.  104  b,  106  b,  etc. 


Or.  157. 

Foil.  352 ;  11  in.  by  6^ ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  two 
'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 


C^J^j  ^j^ 


A  history  of  the  Khans  of  Jatah  or  Mo- 
ghQlistan,  and  of  the  Amirs  of  Kashghar, 
from  the  time  of  Tughluktimiir  Khan  to 
A.H.  952,  with  the  author's  memoirs. 

Author:  Muhammad  Haidar  B.  Muham- 
mad Husain  Kurgan,  commonly  called  Mirza 
Haidar,  «— jjy*«  y^y   ^itt-*  <^-*^  tj>  j"^  a^ 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


165 


Beg.  ijjjpt  J  Jio  (^Ijjj^j  ujj'^'^\>-  ^fi  ^^^ 
The  author's  eventful  life  belongs  to  his- 
tory ;  it  has  been  fully  recorded  by  himself 
down  to  the  time  of  writing,  in  the  present 
work,  from  which  the  following  salient 
points  are  taken.  He  was  born  in  Tashkand, 
A.H.  905.  His  father,  Muhammad  Husain 
Kurgan,  to  whom  the  government  of  the 
Vilayat  of  Shash,  or  Tushkand,  had  been  en- 
trusted, six  years  before,  by  the  Khan  of 
Kashghar,  Mahmiid  Khan,  was  the  son  of 
Muhammad  Haidar  Kurgan,  late  Amir  of 
Kashghar,  and  the  lineal  descendant  of  Amir 
Bulaji,  of  the  Dughlat  tribe,  the  first  Amir  of 
Kashghar  who  embraced  Islamism.  His 
descent   is    thus   recorded   by  the   author, 

fol.  107  :  ii,'^j^jJ-»-  J^  ^^  u^X  uif^  "^-^ 
fj>  i>b\iii-j-«l  ^J>  4X»»-\j-«l  ^^  ^Js-  ,^XM jxS jijt\  ^^ 

The  author's  mother,  Khub  Nigar  Khanum, 
was  a  daughter  of  Yunus  Khan,  Khan  of  the 
Moghuls,  of  the  line  of  Chaghatai,  and  a 
younger  sister  of  Kutlugh  Nigar  Khanum, 
the  mother  of  Babar. 

His  father  having  been  put  to  death  by 
the  Uzbak  invader,  Shahi  Beg  Khan,  in  A.H. 
914,  the  author  was  sent  for  in  A.H.  915  by 
Babar,  then  staying  at  Kabul,  and,  though 
yet  a  mere  boy,  he  stood  by  the  side  of  his 
cousin  during  his  fierce  and  victorious  en- 
counter with  the  Uzbaks  near  Hisar,  in  A.H. 
917.  He  then  attached  himself  to  the  rising 
fortunes  of  his  cousin  Sultan  Sa'id  Khan,  the 
grandson  of  Yunus  Khan,  who  some  time 
after  established  his  rule  in  Kashghar,  and 
reigned  there  from  A.H.  920  to  his  death, 
A.H.  939. 

Mirza  Haidar  soon  won  the  affection  and 
confidence  of  the  Khan,  who  married  his 
sister,  and  gave  him  his  own  in  marriage; 
he  was  sent  by  him  in  command  of  several 
expeditions,  in  which  he  performed  brilliant 
services.  The  last  was  a  successful  invasion 
of  Kashmir,   A.H.    938-939,    in   which   he 


utterly  routed  the  native  chiefs,  and  im- 
posed upon  them  a  humiliating  treaty.  He 
was  still  engaged  in  military  operations  in 
Tibet,  when  intelligence  reached  him  that 
the  Khan  had  succumbed  to  the  Damgiri,  or 
asphyxia  produced  by  the  rarified  air  of  the 
mountains,  on  the  16th  of  Zulhijjah,  A.H. 

939,  fol.  331  a,  and  that  his  son  'Abd  ur- 
Ilashid  Khan  had  inaugurated  his  reign  by 
putting  to  death, on  the  firstofMuharram,  A.H. 

940,  fol.  96  b,  the  author's  uncle,  Sayyid  Mu- 
hammad Mirza, whom  he  suspected  of  plotting 
in  favour  of  his  brother  Iskandar.  Fearing 
for  his  life,  he  escaped  to  Badakhshan,  and 
from  thence  repaired  to  Lahore;  there  he 
was  joyfully  received  by  Babar's  son,  Kam- 
ran  Mirza,  who  entrusted  to  him  his  own 
government  during  his  absence  on  an  ex- 
pedition against  Kandahar,  A.H.  943.  In 
A.H.  946  he  joined  Humayun  at  Agrah, 
fought  with  him  the  battle  of  Kanauj  against 
Shirshah,  and  accompanied  him  in  his  retreat 
to  Lahore.  From  thence,  at  the  instigation 
of  some  Kashmirian  chiefs,  with  whom  he 
had  established  relations  during  his  former 
invasion,  and,  after  vain  endeavours  to 
induce  Humayiin  to  undertake  the  expe- 
dition, he  set  out  for  Kashmir  A.H.  947, 
with  a  body  of  4000  men,  and  meeting  with 
no  serious  opponent,  soon  made  himself 
master  of  the  country. 

We  learn  from  other  sources  that  he  ruled 
it  for  some  years  in  his  own  name,  afterwards 
in  that  of  Humayun,  added  Tibet  to  his  do- 
minions, and  gave  by  his  firm  and  wise  sway 
a  short  period  of  peace  and  prosperity  to  his 
subjects.  He  was  slain  in  a  night  attack  by 
some  rebel  chiefs  in  A.H.  958. 

The  contents  of  the  first  part  of  the  Tarikh 
i  Eashidi  have  been  admirably  summarized 
by  Wm.  Erskine  in  his  History  of  India 
under  Baber  and  Humdyun,  vol.  i.  pp.  38 — 
192,  and  Appendix  B,  pp.  537—539;  the 
second  part  is  frequently  quoted  in  both 
volumes.     The  work  cannot  be  better  de- 


166 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


scribed  than  in  the  words  of  that  eminent 
scholar,  p.  192  :— "  The  Tan'kh  i  Reshidi  well 
deserves  to  be  published  in  the  original,  or 
translated.  It  is  the  production  of  a  learned 
and  accomplished  man,  and  in  the  two  latter 
parts,  of  a  contemporary  distinctly  acquainted 
with  the  man  and  events  that  he  describes. 
The  minute  details  which  the  author  gives 
of  his  own  sufferings  and  of  the  sufferings 
of  his  nearest  relations  during  the  period 
that  followed  the  ascendancy  of  Shaib^ni 
Khan  in  Mawarannaher  and  Khorasan,  of 
their  escapes,  adventu.res,  successes,  and 
discomfitures,  let  us  more  into  the  condition 
of  the  country  and  feelings  of  the  inhabi- 
tants than  perhaps  any  other  monument 
extant,  .  .  .  and  the  whole  work  is  inter- 
spersed with  geographical  accounts  of  coun- 
tries, especially  to  the  east  of  Mawarannaher, 
little  known  in  Europe.  It  would  form  a 
most  valuable  accompaniment  to  the  Com- 
mentaries of  Baber,  which  it  illustrates  in 
every  page.  The  two  royal  cousins  ai'e 
worthy  of  each  other  and  do  honour  to  their 
age." 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  Mr.  Erskine 
did  not  carry  out  to  the  end  a  task  for  which 
he  was  so  eminently  qualified,  and  which  he 
had  himself  all  but  accomplished,  years  before 
writing  the  above  recommendation.  An 
abridged  translation  of  the  entire  work, 
prepared  by  him  in  the  years  1840  and  1841, 
is  preserved  in  the  original  draft  in  Add. 
26,612,  foil.  55—166,  and  would  require 
only  a  final  revision  to  be  ready  for  publica- 
tion. 

Accounts  of  the  author  and  extracts  from 
his  work  will  be  found  in  Elliot's  History  of 
India,  vol.  v.  pp.  127 — 135,  in  Veljami- 
nov  Zernov's  Researches  on  the  Tzars  of 
Kasimof,  vol.  ii.  pp.  130 — 232, and  in  Bellew's 
Kashmir  and  Kashghar,  passim.  An  abstract 
of  the  history  of  the  Moghul  Khans  from 
Tarikh  i  Rashidi,  with  a  short  notice  on  the 
author,  has  been  inserted  by  Amin  Ra^i  in 


his  Haft  Iklim,  Add.  16,734,  foil.  611—618, 
and  translated  by  Quatremere,  Notices  et 
Extraits,  vol.  xiv.  pp.  474 — 489.  An  English 
version  of  the  same  fragment  is  found  in 
MS.  in  Dr.  Leyden's  papers,  Add.  26,578, 
foil.  58—64. 

Other  notices  of  the  author  will  be  found  in 
Baber's  Commentaries,  Erskine's  translation, 
pp  11 — 13  ;  the  A'in  i  Akbari,  Blochmann's 
translation,  vol.  i.  p.  460  ;  Pirishtah,  Bom- 
bay edition,  vol.  ii.  pp.  476 — 482 ;  Briggs's 
translation,  vol.  iv.  p.  494 — 503 ;  Ma'agir  ul- 
Umara,  under  Kara  Bahadur  Khan,  Add. 
6568,  fol.  409  ;  Tabakat  i  Akbari,  Add.  6543, 
foil.  447—451.  The  Tarikh  i  Rashidi  is 
mentioned  by  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  132,  and 
in  the  Critical  Essay,  pp.  9,  34.  A  Turkish 
translation  by  Muhammad  Sadik  of  Kash- 
ghar is  preserved  in  the  Asiatic  Museum  of 
S.  Petersburg. 

In  a  preface  written  A.H.  951,  the  author 
says  that,  since  the  Moghuls  had  been  driven 
from  cultivated  lands  to  the  deserts,  their 
records  had  been  kept  up  only  by  oral 
tradition,  which  was  fast  becoming  extinct, 
and,  if  not  fixed  by  him  in  writing,  would  be 
utterly  lost  to  memory.  He  prepared  him- 
self for  that  task  by  making  extracts  from  the 
Mukaddimah  of  the  Zafarnamah  of  'All 
Yazdi,  and,  finding  that  it  stopped  short  at 
Tughluktimur,  he  decided  to  make  that  reign 
his  starting  point.  He  gave  his  history 
the  name  of  Tarikh  i  Rashidi,  in  allusion, 
first  to  the  holy  Shaikh  Arshad  ud-Din, 
who  had  brought  over  Tughluktimur  to 
Islamism,  secondly,  to  the  right  path, 
"  Rushd,"  into  which  that  great  Khan  had 
led  his  people,  and  finally  to  the  reigning 
Khan,  Abul-Muzaffar  'Abd  ur-Rashld  Khan 
B.  Abul-Fath  Sultan  Sa'id.  He  adds  that, 
although  now  severed  from  the  Moghuls, 
and  exceedingly  ill-used  by  the  said  Khan, 
he  could  never  forget  the  kindness  of  the 
latter's  father,  Sultim  Sa'id  Khan,  who  had 
received   him  as  an  orphan  at  the  age  of 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MOGHULS. 


167 


thirteen,  cherished  him  like  a  son,  kept  him 
(luring  four-and-twenty  years  in  a  position  of 
honour  and  aiBuence,  and  under  whose  able 
tuition  he  had  become  accomplished  in  pen- 
manship, poetry,  and  prose  composition,  in 
the  arts  of  painting  and  illuminating,  as  wcdl 
as  in  a  variety  of  manual  crafts  and  warlike 
exercises.  He  wished  therefore  to  weigh 
the  good  against  the  evil,  and  to  attach  the 
name  of  his  benefactor's  son  to  the  book 
which  he  had  written  for  him,  whether  it 
proved  acceptable  to  him  or  not. 

The  Tiirlkh  i  Rashldi  is  divided  into  two 
parts  called  Daftar,  the  first  of  which  deals 
with  the  history  of  the  Khiins  of  the  Moglmls 
from  Tughluktimur  to  'Abd  ur-Rashid  Khan, 
and  the  second  contains  memoirs  of  the 
author's  life,  and  of  the  Uzbak,  Chaghatai,  and 
other  princes,  with  whom  he  was  acquainted. 

The  first  Daftar,  or  history  proper,  foil. 
2 — 105,  was  written  in  A.H.  951  and  952.  It 
Avas  completed,  as  the  author  states  at  the  end, 
fol.  105  a,  in  Kashmir,  in  the  month  of  Zul- 
Hijjah,  A.H.  952,  five  years  after  his  instal- 
lation on  the  throne.  It  includes,  however, 
a  later  addition,  fol.  96  b,  in  which  A.H. 
953  is  mentioned  as  the  current  year.  It  is 
based,  for  the  earlier  period,  on  the  oral  tra- 
dition handed  down  to  the  author  chiefly  by 
his  older  relatives,  combined  with  the  state- 
ments of  Sharaf  ud-Din  Yazdi  in  the  Mukad- 
dimah  of  the  Zafar-Namah,  and,  for  the  later 
j)eriod,  on  his  personal  recollections.  It  con- 
tains a  record  of  two  distinct  and  parallel 
dynasties,  that  of  the  Khans  of  Jatah 
&i=-  ,  or  Moghulistan,  beginning  with  Tugh- 
luktimur, son  of  Isan  Bugha  (A.H.  748 — 
7Gi),  and  that  of  their  vassals,  the  Amirs  of 
Krishghar,  the  first  of  whom,  Amir  Bfdaji, 
tlie  author's  ancestor,  had  raised  Tughluk- 
timur to  the  Khanship.  In  the  latter  period 
the  family  of  the  Khans  split  up  into  two 
branches,  one  of  which  continued  to  rule 
over  Moghulistan  proper,  while  the  other 
superseded  the  Amirs  of   Kashghar.    The 


author  concludes  his  account  of  eacli  with 
a  short  sketch  of  their  reigning  representa- 
tives at  the  time  of  writing,  namely  Shah 
Khan,  who  had  succeeded  to  his  father 
Mansur  Khan  in  Moghulistan,  fol.  89  «,  aud 
'Abi  ur-Rashld  Khan,  son  of  Sul^an-Sa'id 
Khiin,  in  Kashghar,  fol.  96  b. 

The  second  Daftar,  wliich  has  more  than 
twice  the  extent  of  the  first,  and  contains 
Mirza  Haidar's  very  minute  record  of  his 
life  and  times,  fol.  106 — 352,  was  the  first  in 
point  of  date.  The  author  wrote  it  in  A.H. 
948  (see  fol.  113  a),  and,  as  he  states  in  the 
introduction,  with  a  view  to  prepare  himself 
for  the  more  arduous  task  of  historical  com- 
position. It  begins  with  the  author's  birth, 
and  concludes  with  an  account  of  his  second 
invasion  of  Kashmir,  and  of  a  battle  fought 
on  the  8th  of  Rabi'  II.,  A.H.  948,  which 
made  him  master  of  the  country  (see  Add. 
24,090,  fol.  340  a). 

This  second  Daftar  includes  some  rules  of 
conduct  for  kings,  foil.  255  b — 260  a,  drawn 
up,  at  the  request  of  the  author,  by  his 
spiritual  guide,  Maulana  Muhammad  Kazi, 
whose  death  in  A.H.  921  is  recorded  in  the 
preceding  passage,  fol.  252  b.  The  begin- 
ning of  this  short  treatise  is  marked  in 
the  present  copy  by  an  illuminated  'Un- 
van,  fol.  255  b,  and  produces  an  apparent 
and  only  external  division  of  Daftar  11. 
into  two  separate  portions.  Another  moral 
treatise,  by  a  holy  Shaikh,  Shihab  ud-Din 
Mahmud,  called  Khwajah  Nura,  is  inserted 
in  full,  foil.  306  a -319  h. 

The  beginning  and  end  of  Daftar  II.,  fol. 
106—153,  and  343—352  have  been  supplied 
by  a  later  hand,  and  the  rubrics  have  been 
omitted  throughout  those  portions,  as  well  as 
in  a  considerable  part  of  the  original  MS. 
About  four  pages,  corresponding  to  foil.  339  b 
— 3416  ofAdd.  24,090,  are  wanting  at  the  end. 

This  MS.  was  in  A.H.  1240  in  the  pos- 
session of  Zoravar  Singh,  whose  seal  is  im- 
pressed on  fol.  255. 


168 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MUZAFFARIS. 


Two  copies  of  the  Tiirikh  i  Rashldi  are 
preserved  in  the  library  of  the  India  Office, 
Nos.  39  and  814. 

Add.  24,090. 

Foil.  341 ;  8  in.  by  5 ;  19  lines,  3  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  apparently 
in  the  17th  century.         [Wm.  H.  Morley.] 


The  same  work. 

On  the  first  page  is  a  seal  dated  A.H. 
1120,  and  a  note  stating  that  this  copy  be- 
came in  A.H.  1140  the  property  of  Mirza 
Muhammad  B.  Mu'tamad  Khan. 

A  short  notice  of  the  work  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Wm.  H.  Morley  is  prefixed, 
fol.  1  b. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MUZAFFARIS. 


Add.  7632. 

Foil.  220  ;  10^  in.  by  6| ;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  15th 
century.  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  history  of  the  Muzaflar  Dynasty  from 
its  origin  to  A.H.  767. 

Author :  Mu'in  ul-Yazdi,  isC)j^\  ^j*m 
Beg.  yU/Uj  CJ3jy>-  i%j\i  J^^r^  j^i/^j  -^-^ 

Maulana  Mu'in  ud-Din,  called  Mu'allim 
YazdT,  was  a  native  of  Yazd,  the  original 
seat  of  the  Muzaffaris.  He  is  mentioned  by 
his  townsman,  Mufid,  in  the  Jami'  i  Mufidi, 
Or.  210,  fol.  252,  as  the  greatest  of  the 
'Ulama  of  his  day.  Students  flocked  in 
crowds  to  his  lectures,  which  were  occa- 
sionally attended  by  Shah  Shuja  himself. 
His  historical  work,  there  designated  as 
Tarikh  i  Mu'ini  Muzaffari,  is  described  as  a 
model  of  elegance.  He  died  in  A.H.  789, 
and  was  buried  in  a  mosque  of  his  own 
erection. 

Mu'in  evidently  wrote,  as  has  been  re- 
marked by  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  114,  vol. 


vi.  p.  242,  like  his  predecessor  Vassaf  with 
a  view  to  rhetorical  display.  His  style  of 
composition  fully  justifies  the  judgment 
passed  upon  it,  as  mentioned  above,  p.  82  a, 
by  a  later  historian  of  the  Muzaffaris,  who 
has  left  a  useful  abstract  of  the  present 
work,  with  a  continuation.  The  Mavahib  i 
Ilahi  is  mentioned  by  Muslih  ud-Din  Larl 
among  his  sources  ;   see  Add.  7650,  fol.  4. 

After  a  long  panegyric  on  Jalal  ud- 
Dln  Shah  Shuja  B.  Sultan  Muburiz  ud-Din 
Muhammad  B.  ul  Muzaffar,  the  author  savs 
that,  having  been,  from  his  youth  upwards, 
the  object  of  that  prince's  favours,  he  had 
long  contemplated  paying  his  debt  of  grati- 
tude by  chronicling  the  glorious  deeds  of 
the  house  of  Muzaffar.  In  A.H.  757,  having 
alighted  before  Isfahan  with  Shah  Shuja'  and 
his  army,  he  was  admitted  to  the  presence 
of  the  prince's  father.  Sultan  Muburiz  ud- 
Dln,  and  found  an  opportunity  for  reading, 
before  father  and  son,  a  chapter  of  the 
projected  history,  which  he  had  written  by 
way  of  trial.  Encouraged  by  the  praise  he 
received  from  both,  and  especially  by  the 
urgency  of  the  former,  he  completed  the 
work  in  the  space  of  one  year.  It  was  how- 
ever subsequently  continued  to  a  later  period, 
for  it  concludes  with  an  account  of  the  great 
and  decisive  battle  fought  by  Shah  Shuja' 


HISTORY  OF  THE  MUZAFFAEIS. 


169 


near  Shiraz,  in  the  month  of  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  767,  with  his  brother  and  competitor, 
Shah  Mahmfid,  who  was  routed  and  compelled 
to  give  up  Sliiraz,  and  fall  back  upon  Isfahan. 
Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  1.  The  ancestors 
of  Sultan  Mubariz  ud-Din,  fol.  10  a.  His 
birth  in  A.H.  700,  fol.  16  a.  His  appoint- 
ment by  Uljaitu  as  his  father's  successor, 
fol.  19  a.  Extermination  of  the  Nikildaris, 
fol.  25  h.  Birth  of  Sharaf  ud-Din  Shah  Mu- 
zaflPar,  in  A.H.  725,  fol.  29  h.  Nuptials  of 
Mubariz  with  the  princess  of  Kirman,  and 
account  of  the  Sultans  of  Kirman,  fol.  30  h. 
History  of  the  princess,  the  mother  of  the 
Sultans,  fol.  34  a.  Birth  of  Shah  Shuja', 
A.H.  733,  fol.  36 «.  Mubariz  proceeds  to 
Urduyah,  the  camp  of  Sultan  Abu  Sa'id, 
fol.  38 «.  Birth  of  Kutb  ud-Din  Shah 
Mahmfid,  A.H.  737,  fol.  39  6.  Death  of 
Sultan  Abu  Sa'id,  and  fate  of  the  empire 
after  him,  fol.  39  h.  Amir  Shaikh  Abu  Ishak 
approaches  Yazd,  fol.  41  a.  First  instruction 
of  Shah  Shuja,  fol.  43  a.  Conversion  and 
repentance  of  Mubariz  ud-Din,  fol.  46  h. 
Amir  Fir  Husain  comes  to  Ears ;  Mubariz 
ud-Din  takes  Shiraz,  fol.  47  h.  Mubariz  ud- 
Din  invades  Kirman,  fol.  52  a.  March  of 
the  Ghiiri  army  to  Kirman,  fol.  52  h.  Taking 
of  the  fortress  of  Bam,  fol.  55  h.  Defeat  of 
the  Arabs,  fol.  60  J.  Birth  of  Nusrat  ud- 
Din  Shah  Yahya,  A.H.  744,  fol.  62  h, 
Khwajah  Burhan  ud-Din  Fath  Ullah  ap- 
pointed Vazir,  fol.  63  a.  Estrangement 
between  Mir  Pir  Husain  and  Mubariz  ud- 
Din,  fol.  65  h.  Amir  Shaikh  Abu  Ishak 
proceeds  to  Kirman,  fol.  73  a.  Conduct  of 
Shaikh  Abu  Ishak  after  putting  to  death 
Maulana  Shams  ud-Din,  fol.  77  a.  History 
of  the  tJghani  and  Jarma'i  Hazarah,  fol. 
85  h.  The  defeat  inflicted  by  them  on  Mu- 
bariz ud-Din,  fol.  83  i.  Amir  Shaikh  breaks 
faith  in  consequence,  fol.  87  a.  Mubariz 
proceeds  to  Garmsir  to  put  down  the  Ughani 
and  Jarma'i  rebels,  fol.  92  a.  Repentance  of 
Mubariz,   fol.   95  6.     Mosque   and  Dar  us- 


Siyiidah  erected  by  him,  fol.  96  h.  Khwajah 
Kivam  ud-Din  Muhammad  Makki  appointed 
Na'ib,  fol.  97  a.  Amir  Shaikh  advances  to 
besiege  Yazd,  fol.  100  a.  Victory  won  over 
Amir  Baigjakiiz,  fol.  102  a.  Conquest  of 
Shiraz,  fol.  107  6.  The  fortress  of  Sirband ; 
submission  of  Majd  ud-Din  Sirbandi,  fol. 
114  a.  Taking  of  Kal'ah  i  Surkh,  fol.  116  h. 
Taking  of  Shiraz  by  Shah  Shuja',  fol.  120  h. 
'Imad  ud-Din  Mahmud  Kirmani  and  the 
Amirs  of  Shaikh  Abu  Ishak  defeated  in 
Darabjird,  fol.  128  a.  Siege  of  Isfahan  ;  Mu- 
bariz acknowledges  the  Abbaside  Khalif,  al- 
Mu'tazid  BiUah,  fol.  133  a.  Conquest  of 
Shabankarah  by  Shah  Mahmud,  fol.  135  a. 
Rebellion  of  the  Shadi  Hazarah,  and  their 
extermination,  fol.  136  h.  Shah  Shuja'  pro- 
ceeds to  Kirman  to  crush  the  rebels,  fol. 
139  h.  Marriage  of  Shah  Shuja,  fol.  1446. 
Mubariz  goes  to  Isfahan,  fol.  154  h.  He 
pursues  Amir  Shaikh  Abu  Ishak.  fol.  156  a. 
Account  of  Atabak  Nusrat  ud-Din  Nuravard, 
fol.  158  a.  Hunt  in  the  plain  of  Rakhsha- 
bad,  fol.  164  a.  Taking  of  Isfahan,  and 
capture  of  Amir  Shaikh,  fol.  166  6.  The 
IJghanis  besieged  and  conquered,  fol.  168  6. 
Accession  of  Shah  Shuja",  and  his  conflict 
with  Shah  MahmQd,  fol.  177  a.  Shah  Sluija' 
marches  towards  the  Garmsir  of  Kirman  ; 
battle  of  Shiraz,  fol.  207  6. 

Mubariz  ud-Din,  who  is  spoken  of  in  the 
preface  as  still  alive  and  reigning,  had  met 
his  fate  before  the  completion  of  the  work  ; 
he  was  seized  and  blinded  by  his  sons  in 
Isfahan,  in  the  month  of  Ramazan,  A.H. 
759,  and  died  a  prisoner  in  the  fortress  of 
Bam,  A.H.  765 ;  see  Add.  22,693,  fol.  197. 

Add.  19,807. 

Foil.  668 ;  8f  in.  by  5^  ;  15  lines,  Z\  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins; dated  Ramazan  A.H.  1042  (A.D.  1633). 

Another  copy  of  the  same  work,  wanting 
the  first  page  and  the  rubrics  throughout. 

z 


(    170    ) 


HISTORY    OF     TIMUR 


•    Add.  23,980. 

Foil.  215;  9f  in.  by  6^;  19  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik ;  dated  Eabi'  II., 
A.H.  838  (A.D.  1434). 


History  of  Timur,  from  the  beginning  of 
his  career  to  the  end  of  A.H.  806. 


Author :   Nizam  Shami,  j_^U»  *Uai 
Beg.   Jo}j  ^>  ^^  ^.H  y  V/  /^ 


I— a?. 


^, 


This  is  the  earliest  known  history  of  TimQr, 
and  the  only  one  written  in  his  lifetime. 
All  that  is  known  of  the  author  is  what  may 
be  gathered  from  his  work.  He  states,  fol. 
99  b,  that  he  was  dwelling  in  Baghdad  when 
it  was  attacked  by  Timur  (A.H.  795)  and 
was  the  first  to  come  out  of  the  city  and  pay 
homage  to  the  conqueror,  by  whom  he  was 
graciously  received.  The  Tigris  was  then, 
he  says,  hidden  from  view  by  the  victorious 
army  swimming  across  it,  so  that  he  could 
not  tell  the  river  from  the  plain,  and  said  to 
himself :  what  manner  of  men  are  these  to 
whom  water  and  land  are  alike  ?  Some  years 
later  (A.H.  803)  having  reached  Aleppo  on 
his  way  to  the  Hijaz,  he  was  detained  there 
as  a  prisoner  at  the  time  of  the  siege;  he 
relates  ho^v,  standing  on  a  roof  opposite  the 
citadel,  which  was  still  holding  out,  he  saw 
five  armed  men  let  down  from  it  with  ropes, 
who,  after  cutting  down  the  mining  party  at 
the  bottom  of  the  wall,  were  palled  up  again 
riddled  with  arrows,  whether  dead  or  alive 
he  could  not  tell. 

These  two  incidents  are  related,  nearly  in 
the  author's  words,  by  'Abd  ur-Razzak  in  the 
Matla'  us-Sa'dain,  Add.  17,928, -foil.  222  and 


291,  and  by  Mir  Khwand,  Rauzat  us-Safa, 
Bombay  edition,  vol.  vi.  pp.  66,  108,  Price's 
Retrospect,  vol.  iii.  pp.  154,  331.  The  former 
calls  the  author  Maulana  Nizam  ud-Din 
ShamI,  and  says  that  nearly  all  the  facts  of 
Timiir's  history  are  derived  from  his  work. 
In  another  passage,  quoted  by  Dorn,  S.  Pe- 
tersburg Catalogue,  p.  287,  the  same  Abd 
ur-Razzak  refers  to  Nizam  ud-Din  'Abd  ul- 
Vasi'  as  his  chief  authority ;  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  the  present  author  is  there  meant. 
Mir  Khwand  calls  him,  in  the  first  of  the 
above-quoted  passages,  Maulana  Nizam  ud- 
Din  Shanab  Ghazani.  The  same  name  is 
given  him  by  Khwand  Amir,  who  had  not 
seen  the  present  work,  but  relates  the  same 
facts  on  the  authority  of  the  Matla'  us- 
Sa'dain ;  see  Habib  us-Siyar,  Bombay  edition, 
vol.  iii.  Juz  3,  p.  90.  It  appears  again  in 
Haj.  Khal.  vol.  ii.  p.  122,  but  erroneously 
coupled  with  the  Nisbah  Haravl  ^^_,^\  ^Iki 
^j\Ji-  L->:.t;  L-Jjj>\\  iSjj^^-  Shanab  i  Ghazan, 
from  which  this  name  is  derived,  is  a  place  or 
fort  in  or  near  Tabriz,  which  is  twice  men- 
tioned in  the  Matla'  us-Sa'dain  in  connection 
with  the  occupation  of  that  city  by  the  troops 
of  Mirza  Abu  Bakr ;  see  Or.  1219,  fol.  14,  and 
Quatremere's  version.  Notices  et  Extraits, 
vol.  xiv.  p.  63.  It  will  be  seen  further  on 
that  the  author  refers  to  Tabriz  as  his  birth- 
place. This  Shanab  i  Ghazan  was  evidently 
so  called  from  fhe  Moghul  Khan  Ghazan, 
who  is  known  to  have  endowed  Tabriz,  his 
favourite  residence  with  ramparts  and  exten- 
sive structures.  The  other  Nisbah  of  the 
author  ^_j«U*  has,  possibly,  reference  to  Sham, 
the  name  of  a  quarter  of  Tabriz ;  see  Nuzhat 
ul-Kuliib,  Add.  16,736,  fol.  161,  and  Ouse- 
ley's  Travels,  vol.  iii.  p.  415. 


HISTORY  OF  TIMUR. 


171 


The  earliest  mention  of  our  author  is  that 
which  is  found  in  the  Zafar-Nfimah  of  Sharaf 
ud-Din  Yazdl,  French  version,  vol.  iv.,  p.  248, 
where  he  is  stated  to  have  delivered  the 
Khutbah  before  Timur  in  his  camp,  near 
Ardabil,  on  the  'Id  or  festival  of  the  first  of 
Shavval,  A.H.  806.  He  is  there  called  Mau- 
lilna  Nizam  ud-DTn  ShanabI  (in  Matla'  us- 
Sa'dain,  Add.  17,928  fol.  353  b,  ^S!>\  pUii 
.ijo.y  jjj  ^li,  a/  ^_yjJbi.),  and  described  as  one 
of  the  elegant  writers  of  the  period  and  the 
chronicler  of  a  portion  of  the  life  of  Timur. 

The  author  states  in  the  preface,  that,  in 
A.H.  804,  he  was  sent  for  by  Timur,  who 
directed  him  to  revise  and  put  into  proper 
shape  and  order  the  records  hitherto  kept  by 
the  official  writers  attached  to  his  person, 
and  extending  from  the  beginning  of  his 
power  to  the  present  time.  Having  been 
particularly  cautioned  to  avoid  the  ornate 
style  of  composition,  which,  Timur  remarked, 
was  hardly  understood  by  one  person  in 
a  hundred,  he  answered  that,  although  well 
known  for  his  skill  in  a  variety  of  styles, 
he  deemed  that  the  best  which  the  vidgar 
could  understand  and  the  select  few  approve. 
He  immediately  applied  his  undivided  atten- 
tion to  the  work,  and  had  brought  it  down 
to  the  close  of  A.H.  806,  when  the  imperial 
standards  were  unfurled  on  the  return  march 
to  Samarkand.  He  then  obtained  leave  from 
Timur  to  return  to  his  "  native  place,"  was 
recommended  by  letter  to  Muzaffar  ud-Din 
Amirzadah  'Umar  Bahadur,  to  whom  the 
government  of  Iran  had  just  been  committed 
(and  whose  residence  was  Tabriz),  and  was 
enjoined  to  read  aloud  the  history  just  com- 
pleted in  the  presence  of  the  prince  and  for 
his  benefit.  It  is  further  stated,  fol.  5  b, 
that  the  title  of  Zafar  Namah  had  been  given 
to  the  work  by  Timur  himself.  In  the  sub- 
scription it  is  designated  as  j_ylj>\i>-  ^«^li^^ 

The  Mirza  'Umar,  whose  eulogies  take  up 
several  pages  in  the  above  mentioned  preface, 
was  the  second  son  of  Miran  Shah,  son  of 


Timiir,  and  was  bom  in  A.H,  785.  He  was 
dispossessed  of  his  government  in  A.H.  808  by 
his  brother  Mirza  Abu  Bakr.  He  subse- 
quently rebelled  against  Shahrukh,  was 
routed  by  him  near  Jiim,  in  Zulka'dah  A.H. 
809,  and,  having  been  wounded  and  captured 
in  his  flight,  died  miserably  some  days  later 
in  Herat ;  see  Matla'  us-Sa'dain,  Quatre- 
mere's  translation.  Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  104 — 107,  Price's  Retrospect,  vol.  iii. 
pp.  495—497. 

Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Descendants 
of  Chingizkhan,  especially  in  the  line  of 
Chaghatai,  t/b'Jw-,  and  early  life  of  Ti- 
mur, fol.  10  a.  Second  invasion  of  Tugh- 
luk  Timiir  in  Mavara-annahr,  fol.  16  a. 
Tughluk  Timur  returns  to  his  residence, 
leaving  Ilyas  Khwajah  Ughlan  in  Mavara- 
annahr,  fol.  15  b.  Amir  'Ali  Beg  seizes 
upon  Amir  Husain  and  Timur,  and  confiiies 
them  in  Makhan,  fol.  16  6.  Amir  Husain 
takes  Samarkand,  fol.  26  a.  Timur's  conflict 
with  Amir  Husain,  fol.  27  b.  Amir  Husain 
makes  overtures  of  peace ;  renewal  of  hosti- 
lities, fol.  29  a.  Amir  Miisa  flees  to  Amir 
Husain,  and  marches  against  Timur,  fol.  32  b. 
Timur  sends  Prince  Jahangir  to  the  king  of 
Herat,  fol.  34  b.  Kaikhusrau  and  Bahmm 
take  refuge  with  Tughliik  Timur,  fol.  36  b. 
Amir  Husain  marches  against  Timur,  fol. 
37  a.  Amir  Husain  proceeds  to  Balkh  after 
taking  Kabul,  fol.  40  b.  Kaikhusrau  and 
Shaikh  Muhammad  rebel  against  Amir  Hu- 
sain,  fol.  42  a.  Timiir's  campaign  against 
Amir  Husain,  fol.  43  a.  His  first  expedition 
against  Khwarazm,  fol.  48  a.  Second  expe- 
dition, fol.  49  b.  His  march  against  the 
Moghuls,  and  war  with  Kamar  ud-Din,  fol. 
50  b.  Third  campaign  in  Khwarazm,  fol. 
62  a.  Kamar  ud-Din  occupies  Uzkand,  fol. 
52  b.  Prince  Tuktamish  comes  to  Timur, 
fol.  54  b.  New  estrangement  between  Timur 
and  Yusuf  Sufi,  fol.  58  a.  The  government 
of  Khorasan  committed  to  Miranshah,  fol. 
69  b.  Timur's  first  campaign  against  Vali, 
z2 


172 


HISTORY  OF  TIMUR. 


fol.  65  h.    Expedition  to  Sistan,  fol.  67  a. 
Second   campaign  against   Vali,    fol.  69  h. 
Timur  goes  to  Lur  Kiichak  to  put  down  the 
rebels,   fol.   72   b.     Approach   of  Ankatura 
with  the  army  of  Tuktamish  ;  battle  fought 
by  'Umar  Shaikh  in  Julak,  fol.  78  b.     Ti- 
mur's  fourth  expedition  to  Khwarazm,  fol. 
79   b.      Revolt   of    Muhammad   Mirka,  his 
escape  to  ^j'kS,  and  his  arrest  in  Kuhistan, 
fol.  80  a.     Installation  of  Mahmud  Sultan 
on   the   throne,  fol.   82  b.     Timur's  march 
against  Tuktamish,  fol.  83  a.     His  expedi- 
tion to  Dasht  i  Kipchak,  fol.  87  a.     Timur 
sets  out  from  Mavarii-annahr  for   Irak  and 
Ears,  fol.  93  a.     His  march  from  Mazanda- 
ran  to  Ears,  fol.  94  a ;  to  Shiraz,  fol.  95  b ; 
to  Baghdad,  fol.  99  a.     Capture  of  Tikrit, 
fol.  101  b.     The  princes  are  dispatched  to 
Basrah   and  Vasit,    fol.   103   b.     Death   of 
"Umar   Shaikh,  fol  105  a.     Taking  of  the 
fortress  of  Avnik,  fol.  110  a.     Timlir's  second 
expedition  to  Dasht  i  Kipchak,  fol.  113  b. 
Insurrection  of  Sultan,  son  of    Abu  Sa'id, 
siju^  y^^.  c;*^)^.  in  Yazd,  fol.  119  b.     Gar- 
den and  kiosk  made  for  Yangl-Sultan,  fol. 
121  a.     Timur  sets  but  for  India,  fol.  123  a. 
Expedition  to  Katur,  j^,  and  what  befel 
the  infidels  there,  fol.  124  b.     Expedition  to 
the    country  of  Iryab,    u-^b^.^  fol.   127  a. 
The  submission  of  Shihab  ud-Din  Mubarak 
Tamim,   and  his   subsequent  rebellion,   fol. 
129  a.     Account  of  the  fort  of  Batnir,  fol. 
132  a.     Timur's  war  with  Sultan  Mahmud 
of  Dehli,  and  the  latter's  defeat,  fol.  136  b. 
Expedition  against  bands  of  robbers  on  the 
Ganges,  fol.  142  a.     One  day's   expedition 
against  a  body  of  Gabrs,  fol.  143  a.     Exter- 
mination of  the  Gabrs  of  the  valley  of  Ko- 
tilah,  S/  s-ijC>,  who   worshipped  a  stone  in 
the  shape  of  a  cow,  fol.  144  a.     Battle  of 
the  mount  of  Savalik,  fol.  145  a.     Expedition 
from  the  mount  of  Savalik  to  a  tract  on  the 
further  side,  covered  with  thick  woods,  fol. 
146  b.    Timiir's  stages  in  the  lands  of  Hamu, 


y^   (Jamil)   fol.  148  a.     Mosque  built  by 
Timur  in  Samarkand,  fol.  154  b.     Timur  sets 
out  after  his  Indian  campaign  for  Irak  and 
Azarbaijan,   fol.  155  b.     Campaign   against 
the  Georgians,  „f,  fol.  156  a.     Expedition 
to  Abkhar  (Abkhaz)  and  Gurgin,  fol.  157  a. 
Timur's  march  to  Sivas,  foL  159  b.    His  cam- 
paign  in  Syria   and   its  causes,  fol.  162  b. 
Taking  of  the  fortress  of  Bahasna  and  'Ain- 
tab,  fol.  164  a.     Capture  of  Halab,  fol.  165  a. 
War  with  the  Sultan  of  Egypt,  and  taking 
of  Damascus,    fol.   169   b.     Timur   goes  to 
Mardin,  fol.  176  a.  Baghdad  taken  by  assault, 
fol.  177  a.     Timur's  return  from  Baghdad  to 
Tabriz,  fol.  179  b.     Wintering  in  Karabagh, 
fol.  180  b.     Second  campaign  in  Rum,  fol. 
182  b.     Taking  of  the  fortress  of  Kamakh, 
fol.   185  b.     Arrival  of  the  ambassador  of 
Bayazid  and  review  of  the  army,  fol.  186  b. 
Intelligence   of  Bayazid's   arrival  with   the 
Turkish  army,  fol.  187  b.     Victory  of  Timur 
and  capture  of  Bayazid,  fol.  189  a.     Despatch 
of  troops  to  various  quarters,  and  festivities, 
fol.  192  b.     Prince  Muhammad  Sulta,n  goes 
to  Bursah,  fol.  193  b.     Submission   of  the 
king  of  Istambul  to  Timur,  fol.  194  b.  Arrival 
of  the  Sultan  of  Mardin  and  his  pa^rdon,  fol. 
195   b.     Capture   of  the  fortress   of  Izmir 
(Smyrna)    and   Earjah,   fol.   196   b.     Three 
fortresses  taken  in  one  day,  foL  198  b.   Death 
of   Prince   Muhammad   Sultan,    fol.   200    a. 
Arrival  of  the  Egyptian  envoys  with  tribute, 
fol.  201  a.     Dispatch  of  the  Karatatars  from 
Syria,  fol.  202  a.     Timiir's  return  from  Riim, 
fol.  202  b.     His  expedition  to  Georgia,  fol. 
203  b.     Taking  of  Bartas,  ^j,  one  of  the 
great  fortresses  of  Georgia,  fol.  205  b.     Timur 
goes   to   Abkhaz   to   fight   the   Armenians, 
fol.  208  a.    Justice  and  beneficence  of  Timur, 
fol.  210  a.     Building  of  Bailakan  and  digging 
of  its  moat,   fol.   211  a.     Victory  won  by 
Prince    Aba  Bakr  over    the    enemy,  (Kara 
Yiisuf)  and  restoration  of  Baghdad,  fol.  212  a. 
Arrival  of  the  Amir-Zadah'Umar  from  Samar- 
kand, fol.  212  b. 


HISTORY  OF  TIAIUR. 


173 


Add.  25,024. 

Foil.  758;   10  in.  by  7;  15  lines,  3|  in. 

long ;  written  in  elegant  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 

and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  15th 

.  century.    Bound  in  stamped  and  gilt  leather. 

A  history  of  Timur  from  his  birth  to  his 
death,  with  a  sketch  of  the  short  reign  of 
Ivhalil  Sultan. 

Author:  Sliaraf,  u-j^i 

Beg.  .'.io.  ^  ^^\\  Jy.  J.  ^^[^  }j^\s^ 

The  author,  who  designates  himself  by  the 
above  Takliallus,  is  Maulana  Sharaf  ud-Din 
'All  Yazdl,  a  native  of  Yazd,  who  attained 
a  position  of  great  eminence,  no  less  by  his 
learning  and  piety  than  by  the  rare  elegance 
of  his  style,  and  was  for  a  long  time  the 
favourite  companion  of  Shahrukh  and  of  his 
son,  Mirza  Ibrahim  Sultan.  It  is  related  in  the 
Tarikh  i  llashldi  (v.Erskine's  History  of  India, 
vol.  i.  pp.  45,  49),  that  the  former  entrusted 
to  his  keeping  and  able  tuition  Yunus  Khan, 
the  young  Khan  of  the  Moghuls,  who  had 
been  captured  in  A.H.  832  by  Mirza  Ulugh 
Beg,  and  who  stayed  with  Sharaf  ud-Din  till 
the  latter's  death.  In  A.H.  846  Mirza  Sultan 
Muhammad,  Avho  had  been  appointed  gover- 
nor of  Irak  and  established  his  residence  in 
Kum,  invited  Sharaf  ud-Din,  who  was  then 
teaching  crowds  of  pupils  in  his  native  city, 
to  his  court,  and  kept  him  there  an  honoured 
guest  and  trusted  adviser.  When  some  years 
later,  A.H.  850,  the  prince  having  raised  the 
standard  of  rebellion,  Shahrukh  came  with 
an  army  to  Ispahan,  to  enforce  his  submission, 
and  ordered  several  of  his  ill-advised  coun- 
cillors for  execution,  Sharaf  ud-Din,  who  was 
also  accused  of  having  instigated  the  prince, 
was  rescued  from  danger  by  the  timely  inter- 
ference of  Mirza  'Abd  ul-Latif,  who,  on  the 
plea  that  his  father,  Mirza  Ulugh  Beg,  re- 


quired the  Maulana's  assistance  for  his  astro- 
nomical observations,  dispatched  hira  to 
Samarkand.  After  the  death  of  Shahrukh, 
Sultan  Muhammad,  then  master  of  Khorasan, 
gave  him  leave  to  go  back  to  Yazd.  Sharaf 
ud-Din  returned  to  his  birth-place  in  A.H. 
853,  and  settled  in  a  neighbouring  village 
called  Taft.  He  died  there  in  A.H.  858,  and 
was  buried  in  the  precincts  of  a  college  built 
by  himself,  and  called  after  him  Sharafiyyah. 
See  Jami  'i  Mufidi,  Or.  210,  foil.  234—7,  and 
Matla'  us-Sa'dain,  Or.  1291,  fol.  226.  Com- 
pare Daulatshah,  Add.  18,410,  fol.  194, 
Hammer,  Schone  Redekiinste,  p.  284,  Latii'if- 
Namah,  Add.  7669,  fol.  15,  Habib  us-Siyar, 
vol.  iii.  Juz  3,  p.  148. 

The  Zafar  Namah  is  pronounced  by  Persian 
writers  a  model  of  elegance  and  the  very  per- 
fection of  historical  composition.  A  very  fair 
French  version  of  the  whole  work,  by  Petis 
de  la  Croix,  was  published  after  his  death, 
Paris,  1722,  and  translated  into  English  by 
J.  Darby,  London,  1723.  See  also  Haj.  Khal. 
vol.  iv.  p.  175,  Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  94, 
Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  p.  478, 
Stewart's  Catalogue,  pp.  8,  234,  Charmoy, 
Memoires  de  1' Academic  de  S.  P^tersbourg, 
6^  Serie,  vol.  iii.  p.  92,  Vienna  Catalogue, 
p.  189,  Copenhagen  Catalogue,  p.  19,  Munich 
Catalogue,  p.  80. 

The  following  account  of  the  origin  of  the 
work  is  given  in  its  second  chapter,  foil. 
13 — 16.  Timur  was  always  accompanied  by 
a  staff  of  Uighur  scribes  (Bakhshis)  and 
Persian  secretaries,  who  by  his  order  kept 
accurate  and  unbiassed  records  of  passing 
events.  These  records  were  afterwards 
dressed  in  elegant  language  by  accomplished 
writers,  and  repeatedly  read  before  Timur  in 
order  to  test  their  accuracy.  In  this  manner 
two  official  histories,  one  in  Turkish  verse 
and  another  in  Persian  prose,  were  composed, 
besides  which  independent  narratives  were 
written  by  some  pei'sons  attached  to  the 
court. 


174 


HISTORY  OF  TIMUR. 


"Wlicn  Ibrahim  Sultan  undertook  the  com- 
pilation of  the  present  work,  he  collected 
from  all  quarters  the  above-mentioned  mate- 
rials and  brought  together  a  number  of 
qualified  readers  and  secretaries.  For  each 
event  of  Timur's  history  the  Turkish  and 
Persian  texts  were  read  and  compared,  eye- 
witnesses were  sent  for  and  examined,  and 
in  doubtful  cases  messengers  were  even  dis- 
patched to  distant  places  to  obtain  the 
evidence  of  trustworthy  persons.  When  an 
accurate  version  had  thus  been  settled  by 
His  Highness,  it  was  dictated  and  revised  by 
him,  and  then  handed  over  to  Sharaf  ud-Din 
to  be  turned  into  fine  language.  The  ornate 
text  was  again  submitted  to  the  prince  for 
final  revision. 

The  French  translation  of  the  above  pas- 
sage is  somewhat  confused,  and  the  very  con- 
siderable share  which  Ibrahim  Sultan  took, 
according  to  the  original,  in  the  composition 
of  the  work,  is  erroneously  transferred  to 
Timur  himself;  see  "  Preface  de  I'auteur." 

Mirza  Ibrrdum  Sultan,  the  second  son  of 
Shahrukh,  was  born  in  A.H.  796.  Having 
had  the  government  of  Fars  conferred  upon 
him  by  his  father  in  A.H.  818,  he  held  his 
court  in  Shlraz  to  the  time  of  his  death,  which 
happened  on  the  4th  of  Shavval,  A.H.  838 ; 
see  Matla'  us-Sa'dain,  Notices  et  Extraits, 
vol.  iv.  p.  288,  and  Or.  1291,  fol.  178. 

The  date  of  composition  of  the  Zafar- 
Namah  is  not  stated  in  the  work  itself. 
According  to  the  Habib  us-Siyar,  loc.  cit.,  it 
was  completed  in  A.H.  828,  a  date  expressed 

by  the   chronogram,  j];jLi.  ^  t-ilfi,  "It  was 

composed  in  Shlraz."  Eulogies  on  Shahrukh 
and  Ibrahim  Sultan  are  found  in  the  intro- 
duction, foil.  10—12,  and  a  Ma§navi  in  praise 
of  the  latter,  foil.  754 — 758,  concludes  the 
work. 

The  present,  and  only  extant,  portion  of 
the  Zafar-Namah  is  headed  "  Book  the  first, 

treating  of  the  history  of  Timiir,"  Jj\  sJUU 


i^\^  ,  and  it  appears  from  the  author's  state- 
ments in  his  preface  and  his  epilogue,  that 
he  intended  to  devote  a  second  and  a  third 
book  (Makalah)  respectively  to  the  history  of 
Shahrukh  and  Ibrahim  Sultan. 

Add.  6538. 

Foil.  496;  9|  in.  by  6J ;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
15th  century.  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  and  the  next-following  contain, 
in  addition  to  the  Zafar-Namah,  and  pre- 
fixed to  it,  an  Introduction,  treating  of  the 
genealogy  of  the  Turkish  Khans,  and  of  the 
history  of  Chingizkhan  and  his  descendants, 
down  to  the  time  of  Timur.  It  occupies 
foil.  1 — 102  of  the  present  volume,  19  lines 
in  a  page,  and  is  written  in  a  hand  of  the 
17th  century. 

Beg.  (jSj^Jps  J  Ji^  s^'J  J  ^JJ^^  ^j^  r-^^ 
This  introduction,  which  was  written  some 
time  before  the  Zafar-Namah,  and  is  referred 
to  in  the  latter  work  as  Mukaddimah  (Add. 
25,024,  fol.  6  b),  is  here  twice  designated  by 
the  special  title  of  Tarikh  i  Jahangir,  foil. 
10  a,  18  b.  It  begins  with  a  wordy  preface, 
containing,  after  long  panegyrics  on  Timur, 
Shahrukh,  and  Ibrahim  Sultan,  the  follow- 
ing statement  regarding  the  composition  of 
the  work,  fol.  9  a.  The  family  of  Timur 
being  connected  with  the  race  of  Chingiz- 
khan, Ibrahim  Sultan  was  desirous  of  pro- 
curing an  authentic  account  of  the  latter. 
He  therefore  issued  his  commands  in  the 
beginning  of  his  reign,  A.H.  822,  that  his 
secretaries  and  chamberlains  should  place 
before  him  some  detached  records  penned  in 
Turkish  by  the  scribes  (Bakhshis)  of  Turk- 
istan  and  the  Court  Munshis  of  old,  in  order 
that  he  might  himself  examine  and  com- 


HISTORY  OF  TIMUR. 


17r 


pare  their  contents,  and  compile  from  them 
a  connected  narrative.  When  this  had 
been  drawn  up,  Sharaf  ud-Din  was  called 
upon  to  read  it  before  the  Prince,  and  after- 
wards to  grace  it  with  the  choicest  flowers 
of  the  Arabic  and  Persian  languages.  The 
same  year,  A.H.  822,  is  again  mentioned 
further  on,  fol.  11  a,  as  that  in  which  the 
work  was  written.  It  has  however  received 
subsequent  additions;  the  account  of  the 
Khans  of  Kipchak,  for  instance,  fol.  82  b,  is 
brought  down  to  A.H.  831. 

Contents :  Preface,  fol.  1.  Introduction, 
treating  of  various  teras,  fol.  10  a.  Fasl  I., 
on  Creation,  fol.  11  b.  Easl  II.,  history  of 
the  Prophets,  from  Adam  to  Noah,  fol.  13  b. 
Turk,  son  of  Japhet,  and  his  descendants, 
fol.  19  a.  The  Tatars,  fol.  20  a.  The  Mo- 
gliuls,  fol.  20  b.  Reign  of  Aghuz  Khan  and 
his  descendants,  fol.  22  a.  Bilzanjar  and 
his  descendants  (the  ancestors  of  Chingiz- 
khan),  fol.  26  a.  Reign  of  Timuchin,  (Chin- 
gizkhan),  fol.  35  b.  His  successors  in  the 
Great  Horde,  fol.  77  b,  in  Dasht  i  Kipahak, 
fol.  81  b,  in  Iran,  fol.  82  b,  and  in  Turan,  fol. 
92  a.  Abstract  (khulasah)  of  the  Mukaddimah, 
fol.  101  b.  This  last  section  contains  a  short 
sketch  of  the  descendants  of  Karajar  Nuyan, 
and  closes  with  the  death  of  Amir  Turaghai, 
the  father  of  Timur,  in  A.H.  762. 

It  has  been  noticed  above,  p.  164,  that  this 
Mukaddimah  bears  a  great  likeness,  as  re- 
gards matter  and  arrangement,  to  the  work 
known  as  Uliis  Arba'ah  and  the  Ninth  Ma- 
kalah  of  Khulasat  ul-Akhbar.  This  resem- 
blance often  amounts  to  textual  agreement, 
especially  in  the  passages  in  epic  verse,  in 
which  the  narration  is  frequently  carried  on. 

Copies  of  the  Mukaddimah  are  described 
in  the  Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  188,  and 
the  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  86. 

Add.  18,406. 

Poll.  540;  9|  in.  by  5|;  25  lines,  3^  in. 


long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  ruled  margins ; 
apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Yule.] 
The  Zafar-Namah,  with  the  Mukaddimah. 
The  latter  occupies  foil.  1 — 67  ;  it  is  written 
in  a  smaller  character,  although  apparently 
by  the  same  hand,  and  is  dated  Ramazan, 
A.H.  1077  (A.D.  1667). 


Add.  26,192. 

PoU.  344;  13|;  in.  by  9^  ;  21  lines,  6  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  an 
illuminated  border  enclosing  the  first  two 
pages,  and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  of 
the  15th  century.  [Wm.  Ekskine.  j 

The  Zafar  Namah. 

Scribe  :   |Jll»LJ\  ^  ^^  j^ 

The  first  three  pages  are  by  another  hand. 
The  fii-st  bears  the  Persian  stamp  and  the 
signature  of  Edward  Galley. 


Add.  26,193. 

Poll.  352;  13i  in.  by  8^;  21  lines,  6J  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  15tli 
century.  [Wm.  Erskine.J 

The  same  work. 

The  last  page  has  been  supplied  by  a  later 
hand. 

Add.  27,239. 

Poll.  462 ;  9|  in.  by  6.f ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
15th  century.    [John  Macdonald  Kinneir.] 

The  same  work. 

The  first  ten  leaves,  foil.  2 — 11,  have  been 
supplied  by  a  hand  of  the  16th  century.  A 
leaf  inserted  at  the  end,  foil.  462,  originally 


176 


HISTOET  OF  TIMUR. 


belonged  to  a  copy  of  Dara  Shikuli's  Safinat 
ul-auliya,  and  is  dated  A.H.  1065. 

On  fol.  1  is  found  ttie  stamp  of  Vala  Jah 
'Azlm  uddaulah,  Navvab  of  the  Carnatic,  with 
a  note  stating  that  he  presented  this  MS.  to 
John  Macdonald  Kinneir. 

Add.  7636. 

Poll.  274;  13^  in.  by  9;  23  lines,  6  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  with  ruled  margins ; 
dated  Herat,  Shavval,  A.H.  909  (A.D.  1504). 

[CI.  J.  EiCH.j 

The  same  work. 

The  first  leaf  is  lost ;  it  has  been  supplied 
by  a  spurious  beginning  in  a  modern  hand- 
writing. 

Add.  7635. 

Foil.  614 ;  12  in.  by  6 ;  17  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  an  elegant  Nestalik,  with  a 
rich  border,  enclosing  the  initial  lines  on 
two  opposite  pages,  and  with  gold-ruled 
margins;  dated  Eajab,  A.H.  929  (A.D. 
1523).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work. 

This  MS.  is  signed  by  a  penman  of  note, 
^Jj\JJi^\  J^^  j^-^^^  t_jo'i^^  j-iyi  to  whom  are 
also  due  two  other  copies  of  the  Zafar-Namah, 
viz.  Or.  1359,  dated  A.H.  959,  and  another 
dated  A.H.  953,  and  described  in  the  S. 
Petersburg  Catalogue,  p.  286. 

It  contains  fifteen  whole-page  miniatures 
in  the  Persian  style,  on  foil.  35  a,  67  b, 
102  a,  119  a,  136  b,  159  a,  199  «,  224  b,  282  6, 
326  a,  359  b,  389  a,  458  a,  498  a,  565  b. 


Or.  1359. 

Foil.  514 ;  13|  in.  by  8| ;  18  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  a  rich 
double-page  'Unvan,  gold  and  blue  headings. 


A.H.  959  (A.D.  1552).     Bound  in  stamped 
leather,  richly  ornamented  inside  and  out. 

[Sir  Chas.  Al.  Mukbat.] 

The  same  work. 

The  copy  contains  twelve  highly  finished 
whole-page  miniatures  in  the  Persian  style. 
They  occur  on  foil.  35,  82,  120,  164,  208, 
240,  289,  334,  389,  413,  452,  and  485. 

Although  the  writing  appears  uniform 
we  are  told  in  the  colophon  that  it  is  the 
work  of  two  penmen,  the  first  half  being  by 
Murshid  ul-' Attar  and  the  second  by  yasan 
ush-Sharif  ul-Katib. 


Or.  1052. 

Foil.  333;  12^  in.  by  8;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Muharram, 
A.H.  1009  (A.D.  1600). 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  contains  seven  whole-page  mi- 
niatures, well  executed  in  the  Indian  style, 
on  foil.  50  b,  67  b,  137  b>  182  b,  191  a,  2Qy  b, 
307  a. 


Add.  27,240. 


and 


gold-ruled 


margms 


dated   Ilabf  I. 


Foil.  484;  yf  in.  by  6^;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

The  same  work. 

On  the  first  page  is  a  note,  dated  A.H. 
1220,  stating  that  this  MS.  belonged  to  Mu- 
hammad Hasan, Khan  Knjar,  who  held  the 
rank  of  Ishik  AkasI  Bathi,  in  the  service  of 
the  Governor  of  Fars. 

Add.  18,806. 

Foil.  518 ;  HI  in.  by  6^  ;  18  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  with  an 
illuminated  border  enclosing  the  first  two 


IIISTOEY  OF  TIMUE. 


177 


pages,   and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently 
in  the  17tli  century. 

The  same  work. 

Add.  6537. 

Foil.  442  ;  10^  in.  by  5^ ;  21  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  character, 
with  ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  18th 
century.  [J.  F-  Hull.] 

A  copy  of  the  same  work,  wanting  a  few 
lines  at  the  end. 

On  the  first  page  is  written  the  name  of 
Charles  Hamilton,  with  the  date  1776,  and 
underneath  a  short  notice  of  the  work  by 
(Sir  Wm.)  Jones. 


Add. 


23,519. 


Foil.  246 ;  13.|  in.  by  9 ;  25  lines,  ej  in. 
long  ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century. 

The  same  work. 

On  the  first  page  is  a  note  partly  oblite- 
rated, dated  Arcot,  A.H.  1140.  On  the 
same  page  is  impressed  the  seal  of  Ea'is  ul- 
Umara  Muhammad  'Abd  ul-Husain  Khan, 
dated  A.H.  1215. 

Add.  5628. 

Foil.  175  ;  9i  in.  by  6  ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvun 
and  gold-ruled  margins  ;  dated  Rabl'  I.,  A.H. 
851  (A.D.  1447).  [N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  comprises  little  more  than  the 
last  fourth  of  the  Zafar-Namah,  extending 
from  Tunur's  arrival  before  Damascus  (Petis's 
translation,  vol.  iii.  p.  316)  to  the  end.  The 
first  five  leaves,  foil.  1 — 5,  contain  the  be- 
ginning of  the  work. 


Add.  16,685. 

Foil  312 ;  lOi  in.  by  5| ;  21  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  Tlnvan  and 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  cen- 
tury. [Wm.  Yule.] 

An  abridgment  of  the  Zafar-Namah  of 
Sliaraf  ud-Din  Yazdi. 

Author :  'Abd  us-Sattar  (B.)  Kasira,  cjt 
Beg.  J  t^Uj  ^j^^  j\^j'j   J>.^)  uij'JL-  _,  ^^ 

The  abbreviator,  who  lived  under  Jahangir 
and  describes  himself  as  having  lately  entered 
the  ranks  of  His  Majesty's  servants,  states 
that  he  wrote  this  condensed  version  in 
obedience  to  the  Emperor's  commands,  in 
Ajmir,  in  the  tenth  year  of  the  reign,  or 
A.H.  1024.  He  dwells  at  length  on  the 
three  blemishes  which  rendered  the  reading 
of  the  original  laborious  and  irksome,  and 
which  he  had  to  remove ;  these  are  the 
frequent  quotation  of  irrelevant  passages 
from  the  Goran  and  Traditions  in  Ai'abic,  the 
use  of  far-fetched  metaphors,  obscure  phrases 
and  jingling  rhymes,  and  lastly  the  redun- 
dant and  very  lame  verses  of  the  author. 

A  copy  of  the  same  abridgment  is  described 
by  Uri,  p.  278. 

Or.  158. 

FoU.  413  ;  12i  in.  by  8| ;  17  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  and  fair  Nestalik, 
with  "Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  about 
the  beginning  of  the  19th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  Memoirs  of  Amir  Tlmfir,  translated, 
as  alleged,  from  a  Turk!  original. 

Translator:  Abu  Talib  ul-Husaini,  w^^'-lay^ 

M 

A  A 


178 


HISTORY  OE  TIMUR. 


Beg.  »*^j3  wT  ^/LaiiLo  io  si  ^  1^^*^  jif .'  '^♦'' 

Abu  Talib  ul-Husainl,  also  called  ^./^'^ 
(Add.  16,687,  fol.  2  a,  Add.  6690,  fol.  4  «)  was, 
as  stated  in  the  amended  edition,  Add. 
16,686,  a  native  of  Khorasan,  and  presented 
these  Memoirs  to  Shahjahan  in  A.H.  1047, 
or  shortly  before.  He  says,  in  a  short  pre- 
amble, that  he  had  found  in  the  Holy  Places 
(Mecca  and  Medina),  in  the  library  of  Ja'far, 
ruler  of  Taman,  a  Turki  book,  in  which  Amir 
Timur  GurganI  had  recorded  the  events  of  his 
life  from  his  seventh  to  his  seventieth  year 
(or,  as  added  above  the  line,  "  his  seventy- 
fourth  year")  with  sundry  rules  and  ordi- 
nances relating  to  kingcraft  and  strategy> 
and  that  he  had  made  this  translation  of  it, 
to  serve  as  a  guide  to  kings. 

The  authenticity  of  these  Memoirs  is  open  to 
serious  objections.  The  suspicious  vagueness 
of  the  account  of  the  alleged  discovery,  the 
fact  that  the  supposed  original  has  never  been 
produced,  nor  its  existence  been  confirmed  by 
any  testimony,  above  all  the  absolute  silence 
of  a  writer  who,  like  Sharaf  ud-Din  Yazdi, 
enjoyed  the  full  confidence  of  Timur's  chil- 
dren, and  had,  through  them,  access  to  all  the 
genuine  records  of  his  reign,  as  to  a  document 
of  such  paramount  importance,  are  so  many 
reasons  which  tend  to  render  that  authen- 
ticity extremely  doubtful.  Shrdijahan  appears 
to  have  been  so  little  satisfied  of  it  that  he 
had  the  Memoirs  altered,  as  will  be  seen  in 
the  preface  of  the  next  MS.,  so  as  to  make 
them  agree  with  the  Zafar-Namah,  a  work 
written  thirty  years  after  Timur's  death. 

A  portion  of  the  Memoirs,  extending  from 
the  beginning  to  A.H.  777,  has  been  trans- 
lated by  Major  Charles  Stewart,  and  printed 
for  the  Oriental  Translation  Committee, 
London,  1830.  The  "Designs  and  Enter- 
prises," and  the  "  Institutes,"  which  form 
an  appendix  to  the  autobiography,  had  been 
previously  edited  by  Prof.  Joseph  White, 
with  a  translation  by  Major  "William  Davy, 


under  the  title  of  "  Institutes,  political  and 
military,  by  the  great  Timour,"  Oxford, 
1783.  An  account  of  the  work,  with  copious 
extracts  in  English,  will  be  found  in  Elliot's 
History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  pp.  389—477. 
See  also  Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  95,  and 
Erskine,  Memoirs  of  Baber,  pp.  2  and  3. 

The  present  volume  contains  the  whole  of 
the  narrative  portion  of  the  Memoirs,  brought 
down  to  Timur's  death.  The  fiction  is 
kept  up  to  the  end;  Timur  is  made  to 
describe  his  last  illness  through  all  its  stages 
and  to  conclude  with  these  words  :  "  On  the 
eve  of  the  17th  of  the  month  of  Sha'ban,  while 
calling  Allah,  Allah,  I  lost  consciousness, 
and  gave  up  this  borrowed  life  to  the  true 
Giver  of  life."  Poll.  2—107  comprise  that 
part  of  the  work  which  has  been  translated 
by  Stewart.  One  leaf  is  wanting  after  fol. 
22,  and  another  after  fol.  60.  Poll.  2—16 
are  in  another  and  later  hand.  Their  con- 
tents, which  correspond  to  pp.  4 — 23  of 
Stewart's  translation,  are  partly  repeated, 
with  some  variation,  in  the  next-following 
part  of  the  original  MSS.,  foil.  17—22. 

The  copy  was  written,  as  stated  in  the 
subscription,  by  Khwajah  Hidayat  Ullah,  for 
the  reigning  emperor  of  Dehli,  Muhammad 
Akbar  Shah  Padishah  Ghazi,  who  ascended 
the  throne  in  A.H.  1221.  It  contains  four 
miniatures,  in  fair  Indian  style,  on  foil.  93, 
28  6,  322,  and  371,  in  the  third  of  which 
some  Piringi  ambassadors  received  by  Timur 
are  depicted  in  the  costume  of  English  gen- 
tlemen of  the  time  of  George  III. 

The  work  is  designated  in  the  subscription 
by  the  name  of  iSjy^  ^jjy 

This  volume  bears  the  stamps  of  the  kings 
of  Oude,  Sulaiman  Jah,  Amjad  'All,  and 
Vajid  'All. 

Add.  16,686. 

Poll.  528  ;  114  in.  by  6f ;  15  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik  with  'Unvan 


HISTORY  OF  TIMUR. 


179 


and  ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  18th 
century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  amended  edition  of  the  Memoirs,  with 
the  editor's  preface. 

Editor :   Muhammed  Af zal  Bukhari,  s^ 

Beg.  J*   j';.i.ii'j    jl^b  jlii  j\Jl>  j\   ^^J3i^  .\v»- 

The  editor  says  in  the  preface  that  a  com- 
plete record  of  Timur's  life,  from  his  seventh 
to  his  seventy-first  year,  that  of  his  death, 
had  been  written  in  Turki  by  Timur  him- 
self, or  by  others  from  his  dictation.  In  the 
vicissitudes  of  time  that  precious  volume 
passed  from  the  library  of  his  illustrious 
children  into  that  of  the  emperors  of  Rum 
and  of  some  Amirs  of  their  realm.  A  cer- 
tain Mir  Abii  Talib,  of  t_-Jj3  (Turbat  ?)  in 
Khurasan,  having  arrived,  on  his  travels 
through  Riim  and  Arabia,  at  the  "  city  of 
Yaman,"  became  tliere  acquainted  with 
Ja'far  Pasha,  the  ruler  of  Yaman,  and  having 
been  shown  by  him  that  valuable  work  in 
his  library,  immediately  set  about  transla- 
ting it.  He  brought,  we  are  told,  this  weighty 
task  to  an  end  in  India.  His  translation, 
however,  was  not  free  from  errors;  it  in- 
cluded some  facts  not  recorded  in  the  Zafar- 
Namah  and  other  trustworthy  histories,  and 
omitted  events  chronicled  by  all  historians. 
When  it  was  read  before  Shahjahan,  glaring 
discrepancies  in  facts  and  dates  were  noticed 
by  the  emperor,  who,  in  consequence,  ordered 
in  A.H.  1047,  the  humblest  of  his  servants, 
Muhammad  Afzal  Bukhari,  to  collate  the 
work  with  the  Zafar-Namah  and  other  stan- 
dard histories,  to  throw  out  the  additions  of 
Mir  Abu  Talib,  supply  his  omissions,  trans- 
late the  Arabic  and  Turkish  passages,  and 
correct  the  dates  which  did  not  tally  with 
those  of  the  Zafar-Namah. 


The  portion  of  the  Memoirs  corresponding 
to  Major  Stewart's  translation  extends  from 
fol.  4  a  to  fol.  123  b  of  the  present  copy. 
Notwithstanding  the  changes  announced  in 
the  preface,  the  text  is  found  to  agree  in 
the  main  very  closely  with  that  of  the  pre- 
ceding MS. 

Add.  16,687. 

Foil.  191 ;  10|  in.  by  6^;  11  lines,  33  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  large  and  fair  Nestalik, 
on  gold-sprinkled  paper,  with  two  Tlnvans 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  early  in 
the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

*  A  portion  of  the  Memoirs  of  Timiir,  be- 
ginning with  Abu  Talib's  preface  and  ending 
abruptly  in  the  account  of  the  events  of 
A.H.  768.  It  corresponds  to  pp.  4 — 177 
of  Stewart's  translation.  Four  miniatures, 
taken  from  other  and  earlier  MSS.,  have 
been  pasted  on  foil.  4,  57,  122,  and  176. 

The  heading  is .J\A^\  ^j>  ^,'.laLJ\  oUlj 

ij^}^  jy^  j^\  and  the  titles  VaViat  i  Amir 
Timur, Vaki  at  i  Timuri,  are  found  on  the  first 
page. 

Seals  of  a  former  owner,  Husain,  with  the 
date  A.H.  1150,  and  of  Maharajah  Tikait 
Rae,  the  Oude  Minister,  are  impressed  on 
the  same  page. 

Add.  26,191. 

Foil.  347 ;  9  in.  by  6^ ;  14  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  on  European  paper,  in  a  cur- 
sive Indian  character;  dated  Sha'ban,  A.H. 
1230  (A.D.  1816).  [Wm.  Ebskine.] 

Another  copy  of  the  Malfuzat  i  Timuri, 
containing : — 

1.  The  Preface  of  Abu  Talib,  and  the 
Memoirs  from  the  beginning  to  the  siege  of 
the  fort  of  Kalat,  A.H.  783  (Or.  158,  foil. 
2—125  a).  The  portion  translated  by  Maj. 
Stewart  ends  on  fol.  206  b. 

2.  The  Designs  and  Enterprises,  correspond- 

AA   2 


180 


HISTORY  OF  TlilUR. 


ing  to  pp.  2—152  of  Prof.  Joseph  White's 
edition,  fol.  238  a. 

Heading  :  j  ^^J/  CJi*  jy>\  ^J     'i^  eJ^jS 

3.  The  Institutes  or  Tuzukat,  properly  so 
called,  the  first  part  of  which  corresponds  to 
pp.  156—406  of  White's  edition,  fol.  278  b. 

After  the  portion  edited  by  White,  which 
ends  here,  fol.  326  a,  there  is  a  continuation 
occupying  foil.  326  a — 347  b,  and  containing 
Timur's  prescriptions  as  to  the  special  treat- 
ment required  by  each  of  the  conquered 
races,  and  his  decisions  upon  various  liti- 
gious questions  referred  to  him,  is^\^  . 


Add.  5560. 

Poll.  131 ;  11  in.  by  6f ;  21  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  character, 
apparently  in  the  18th  century, 

[Charles  Hamilton.] 

Another  copy  of  the  Malfuzat,  wanting 
the  preface.     It  contains : — 

1.  The  portion  of  the  Memoirs  which  has 
been  translated  by  Maj.  Stewart,  pp.  4^154. 

2.  The  Institutes  (White's  edition,  pp.  156 
—408),  fol.  88  a. 

3.  The  Designs  and  Enterprises  (White's 
edition,  pp.  2—152),  fol.  110  a. 

4.  The  latter  and  inedited  portion  of 
the  Institutes,  corresponding  to  foil.  326 — 
347  of  the  preceding  copy.  Add.  26,191, 
fol.  124  a. 


Egerton  1005. 


Foil.  192 ;  10  in.  by  5^ ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long,  in  a  page ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian 
character,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

A  copy  of  the  same  work,  imperfect  at 
beginning  and  end. 

It  contains :  1.  The  Memoirs  from  the 
middle  of  the  "  Presages  "  (Stewart's  transla- 


tion p.  14,)  to  the  siege  of  the  fortress  of 
Kalat,  A.H.  783  ;  fol.  4  a.  2.  The  Institutes 
(White's  edition,  pp.  156—408),  fol.  134  a. 
3.  The  Designs,  imperfect  at  the  end  (White's 
edition,  pp.  2—112),  fol.  172  b. 

Add.  23,518. 

Foil.  140;  Hi  in.  by  7^ ;  21  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  on  European  paper,  in  small 
and  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the  19th 
century.  [EoB.  Taylor.] 

Another  copy  of  the  same  work,  con- 
taining :  1.  The  Preface  of  Abu  Tfdib,  fol.  1  b. 
2.  The  Memoirs,  from  the  beginning  to  the 
siege  of  Kalat,  A.H.  783,  fol.  2  b.  3.  The 
Designs,  fol.  93  b.  4.  The  Institutes,  fol. 
Ill  b,  and  their  continuation  (Add.  26,191, 
foil.  326—347),  fol.  131  a. 

Add.  7637. 

Foil.  98;  8f  in.  by  6|;  12  lines,  3f  in. 
long;  written  in  a  neat  Persian  Shikastah- 
amlz,  about  the  beginning  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury. [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  the  "  Designs  " 
and  the  "Institutes,"  evidently  transcribed 
from  White's  edition,  with  which  it  agrees  in 
all  particulars. 

Or.  159. 

Foil.  119  ;  101  in.  by  G| ;  15  lines,  3i  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
15th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  tiie  empire  of  TImur  during 
the  period  that  immediately  followed  his 
death,  A.H.  807-808. 

Beg.  {_^Ij  j_^  jiJ:,  J-^j  u-V*  J  '^■^  J-^^ 

The  most  important  portion  of  the  preface, 
the  account  of  the  origin  of  the  work,  u^*-* 
^.^Ixi  i_ajJ15  ,  is  nearly  entirely  wanting,  some 
leaves  being  lost  after  fol.  8  i,  where  it  begins. 


HISTOEY  OF  TIMUR. 


181 


The  author's  name  does  not  appear.  He 
evidently  lived  under  Shahrukh,  of  whom  he 
always  speaks  as  the  reigning  sovereign. 
His  circumstantial  and  flattering  narrative 
of  the  doings  of  that  prince  and  of  his  gene- 
ral, Amir  Shahmalik,  as  well  as  the  verbal 
extracts  which  he  gives  of  some  of  Shah- 
rukh's  lettei's,  make  it  very  probable  that  he 
held  some  ofiice  at  his  court,  and  had  access 
to  the  royal  chancelry.  His  style  is  like 
that  of  Vassaf,  an  extremely  diffuse  and  ornate 
prose,  freely  interspersed  with  verses  and 
maxims  in  Arabic  and  Persian. 

Some  notion  of  its  prolixity  may  be  formed 
from  the  fact  that  no  less  than  sixteen  pages, 
foil.  10 — 17,  are  taken  up  by  a  description  of 
the  gloom  and  consternation  which  over- 
spread the  whole  world  at  the  death  of 
Timur. 

The  narrative  begins,  fol.  18,  with  an 
account  of  the  measures  taken,  after  that 
event,  by  the  two  Amirs  in  command  of  the 
army,  Shaikh  Nur  ud-Din  and  Shahmalik, 
the  failure  of  the  attempt  of  Sultan  Husain 
on  Samarkand,  the  surrender  of  that  place 
to  Mirzii  Khalil  Sultan,  the  return  of  Shah- 
malik with  the  sons  of  Shahrukh  to  Bukh- 
ara and  his  meeting  Avith  that  prince  on  the 
bank  of  the  Jlhun,all  in  substantial  agreement 
with  the  closing  chapters  of  the  Zafar-Namah. 
The  nesociations  and  hostilities  of  Shahrukh 
with  his  nephew  KhalU,  and  his  correspon- 
dence with  his  brother  Miranshah,  are  then 
related  at  great  length,  with  some  other 
transactions  of  the  same  period.  The  last 
event  recorded  is  the  advance  of  Pir  Muham- 
mad, the  rightful  heir,  from  Balkh,  and  his 
defeat  by  Khalil  on  the  4ith  of  Ramazan, 
A.U.  808  (a  little  more  than  a  year  after  the 
death  of  Timur),  after  Avhich  Mirza  Ulugh 
,  Beg  and  Amir  Shahmahk,  who  had  been 
sent  by  Shahrukh  to  the  assistance  of  Pir 
Muhammad,  bring  back  to  Herat  the  news 
of  his  discomfiture.  Here  the  MS.  comes  to 
an  abrupt   termination. 


The  battle  above-mentioned  is  stated  in 
the  Matla'  us  Sa'dain,  Notices  et  Extraits, 
vol.  xiv.  p.  84,  to  have  taken  place  on  the 
2nd  of  Ramazan,  A.H.  808. 

A  few  leaves  are  wanting  here  and  there 
in  the  body  of  the  volume,  and  many  blank 
spaces,  apparently  reserved  for  the  insertion 
of  rubrics  and  Arabic  texts  in  red  ink  or 
gold,  have  not  been  filled. 

Mlrza  Muhammad  B.  Mu'tamad  KhJin,  who 
became  possessor  of  this  MS.  in  Dehli,  A.H. 
1160,  deplores,  in  a  note  written  on  fol.  3  o, 
the  defective  state  of  the  preface,  which  pre- 
vented him  from  ascertaining  by  whom  the 
work  was  written,and  whether  it  was  complete 
or  not,  but  adds  that  the  correctness  and  ele- 
gance of  the  language  leave  no  doubt  as  to 
its  being  by  one  of  the  great  masters  of  style. 

In  an  Arabic  note  written  at  the  end,  pro* 
bably  in  the  18th  century,  a  person,  whose 
name  does  not  appear,  states  that  he  bought 
this  book  called  ^^^  ij-*^  in  Lucknow, 
but  was  not  able  to  procure  another  copy  to 
correct  and  complete  it. 

The  same  title,  (^^  y-*^,  is  written  on 
the  first  page  and  repeated  by  later  hands 
on  the  fly-leaves. 

Add.  17,928. 

Poll.  379 ;  9i  in.  by  6.^ ;  21  lines  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik  dated  Rabl'  II., 
A.H.  900  (A.D.  1495). 

A  history  of  Persia  and  the  adjoining 
countries,  from  A.H.  704  to  A.H.  875. 

Author:  'Abd  ur  Razzak  B.  Ishak  us- 
Samarkandl,  (^jjJ»y»-J^  J*^   u^  J^^  '^ 

Beg.  j^  t—alalj  JLc  -hj;*!  ^j^ly^  ^ia*  y«.» 

Kamfd  ud-Dln  'Abd  ur-Razzak,  born  in 
Herat,  A.H.  816,  was  the  son  of  Maulanii 
Jal.il   ud-Dln  Ishak   Samarkaudi,  who  had 


182 


HISTOHY  OF  TTMUR. 


been  attached  as  KazT  and  Imiim  to  the 
camp  establishment  of  Shahrukh.  He  relates 
in  vol.  ii.  of  the  present  work,  Or.  1291,  fol. 
186  by  that  he  was  first  introduced  to  that 
sovereign's  notice  after  his  father's  death,  in 
A.H.  841,  at  the  age  of  flve-and-twenty,  by- 
means  of  a  commentary  upon  Azud-ud-Din's 
treatise  of  the  noun  and  particle,  which  he 
had  dedicated  to  him,  and  that  he  was  at 
once  admitted  to  his  service.  In  A.H.  845 
he  was  sent  by  Shahrukh  to  the  king  of 
Bijanagar  on  a  mission  which  lasted  three 
years,  a  full  account  of  which  forms  one 
of  the  most  interesting  features  of  his  his- 
tory, Or.  1291,  foil.  197—216.  In  A.H.  850 
'Abd  ur-Razzak  was  again  sent  on  an  em- 
bassy  to  Gilan,  and,  after  the  death  of  Shah- 
rukh, happening  in  the  same  year,  he  was 
successively  attached  to  the  service  of  seve- 
ral of  his  sons  and  lastly  of  Sultan  Abu 
Sa'id.  The  latter  part  of  his  life  was  spent 
in  pious  retirement;  he  was  appointed  in 
A.H.  867  Shaikh  of  the  monastery  (Khankah) 
of  Shahrukh  in  Herat,  where  he  died  A.H. 
887.  See  Habib  us-Siyar,  vol.  iii.  Juz  3, 
p.  335,  and  a  detailed  account  of  his  life  by 
Quatremere,  Notices  et  Extraits,  vol.  xiv. 
pp.  3-7. 

The  contents  of  the  Matla'  i  Sa'dain  have 
been  fully  stated  by  Hammer,  Jahrbiicher, 
vol.  71,  Anz.  Blatt,  pp.  32 — 47.  An  excel- 
lent account  of  the  work,  including  the 
history  of  the  first  part  of  the  reign  of  Shah- 
rukh in  French,  and  the  narratives  of  the 
Chinese  and  Indian  embassies  in  Persian  and 
French,  has  been  published  by  Quatremere 
in  vol.  xiv.  of  Notices  et  Extraits,  pp.  1 — 514. 
Copious  extracts  will  be  found  in  Dorn's 
Muhammadanische  Quellen,  Theil  iv.,  pp. 
154—237. 

For  various  editions  of  fragments  of  the 
same  work  see  Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  98.  Com- 
pare Haj.  Khal.  vol  v.  p.  603,  Charmoy, 
Mdmoires  de  I'Academie  de  S.  Petersbourg, 
&   Serie,   vol.  iii.  p.  94,  Elliot's  History  of 


India,  vol.  iv.  pp.  89  — 126,  Ouseley's  Travels, 
vol.  i.  p.  322,  Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii. 
p.  190,  S.  Petersburg  Catalogue,  p.  286,  and 
Munich  Catalogue,  p.  87. 

In  a  preface,  which  is  defective  in  the  pre- 
sent copy,  one  leaf  or  more  being  lost  after 
fol.  6,  the  author  states  that  this  history 
embraces  a  period  beginning  with  the  birth 
of  Abu  Sa'id  Bahadur  Khan,  A.H.  704,  and 
closing  with  A.H.  874.  But  it  will  be  seen 
that  it  was  subsequently  brought  down  to 
the  month  of  Safar,  A.H.  875. 

In  the  body  of  the  work  two  years  are 
incidentally  mentioned  as  the  dates  of  com- 
position, A.H,  ,872,  towards  the  beginning, 
Add.  17,928,  fol.  33  b,  and  A.H.  875  towards 
the  end,  Or.  1291,  fol.  380  a.  The  author 
states  in  a  subscription,  which  has  been  tran- 
scribed in  the  next  MS.,  Or.  1291,  fol.  402  5, 
that  he  completed  the  original  copy  on  the 
27th  of  Muharram,  A.H.  880. 

The  work  is  divided  into  two  volumes 
(Daftar)  of  nearly  equal  extent.  The  first, 
contained  in  the  present  MS.,  begins  with 
the  birth  of  Abu  Sa'id  Bahadur  Khan  in 
A.H.  704,  and  closes  with  the  death  of  Timur 
and  the  accession  of  Khalil  Sultan  in  Samar- 
kand,  A.H.  807.  The  author  remarks,  fol. 
33  a,  that  the  birth  of  Timur,  whose  his- 
tory is  the  maia  subject  of  the  present 
volume,  A.H.  736,  coincides,  within  a  few 
days,  with  the  death  of  Abu  Sa'id,  the  last  of 
the  house  of  ChingTz  who  ruled  Iran.  He 
was  thus  induced  to  begin  his  work  with  an 
account  of  the  latter,  and  of  some  short-lived 
contemporary  dynasties,  by  way  of  introduc- 
tion. From  the  time  of  Abu  Sa'id's  accession 
the  main  events  are  recorded  year  by  year.  A 
general  sketch  of  Timur's  character,  rule  and 
mode  of  life,  follows  the  record  of  his  birth, 
foil.  33 — 40.  Accounts  of  the  origin  of  the 
Sarbadar  and  Muzaffar  dynasties  are  inserted 
at  the  time  of  their  first  appearance  on  the 
scene,  foil.  50  a,  55  b. 


Copyist 


J-^   (i;'>iai«» 


HISTOUY  OF  TIMUR. 


183 


Or.  1291. 

FoU.  403 ;  9|  in.  by  6^ ;  23  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi ;  dated  Malian,  in 
Kirman  llamazan,  A.H.  1056  (A.D.  1646). 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work, 
beginning  with  the  accession  of  Shahrukh, 
in  Herat,  A.H.  807,  and  closing  with  the 
second  accession  of  Abul-Ghiizl  Sultan  ^u- 
sain  in  Safar,  A.H.  875. 

Beg,  job  ^5)kft  LdiLi  ^J\JJ  J  s^  J^  sJM 

The  last  two  pages  are  occupied  by  an 
eulogy  on  the  work,  written  apparently  in 
the  author's  life-time.  The  anonymous  writer, 
dwelling  on  its  exceptional  trustworthiness, 
remarks  that  it  was  founded,  partly  on  the 
record  of  Hafiz  Abrii,  an  ocular  witness  of 
most  events  chronicled  by  him  (whose  work 
Zubdat  ut-Tavfirikh  is  indeed  sometimes 
quoted),  partly  on  the  personal  recollections 
of  the  author,  who,  although  he  had  served 
several  of  the  Timuride  princes,  never  allowed 
a  spirit  of  adulation  to  make  him  deviate 
from  the  path  of  truth. 

Copyist  i-:^ja*>  «— a-»j^.  tji^ 

Or.   467. 

Foil.  129;  10|  in.  by  7;  written  in  a 
cursive  Indian  Shikastah-Amlz,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm,  Hamilton.] 


.IJ>'^\ 


J^ 


Genealogical  tables  of  the  families  of  Chin- 
gizkhan  and  Timur. 

Beg.  ^jl  ^  jjo  U^  .  ,  .  .  ^j^'^  ^j  <iU  aJ^ 
C^  t^ji^j  iir^i)  '-r'^^^ 

These  tables  were  compiled,  as  stated  in 
a  short  preface,  by  order  of  the  reigning 
Sultan,  Shahrukh  Bahadur  Khan,  in  A.H. 
830.     They  begin  with  Burtah  Chinah,  the 


ancestor  of  Chingizkhan,  and  conclude  with 
the  great-grandchildren  of  Timur.  The 
names  of  the  leading  personages  are  accom- 
panied with  miniature  portraits  in  Indian 
style,  apparently  fanciful,  and  with  notices 
showing  the  dates  of  birth  and  death,  the 
length  of  reign,  and  the  names  of  their  wives, 
Vazirs,  and  Amirs.  In  the  latter  part  of  the 
work,  these  notices  are  supplemented  by 
extracts  from  the  Rauzat  us-Safa.  The  pre- 
sent MS.  is  confused  and  incorrect ;  it  wants, 
after  fol.  93,  six  leaves,  which  contained  the 
beginning  of  the  line  of  Timur. 

A  copy  of  the  same  work,  preserved  in  the 
Paris  Library,  has  been  used  by  D'Ohsson 
Tor  his  Histoire  des  Mongols;  see  vol.  i. 
p.  45. 

Or.   156. 

Foil.  601 ;  11  in.  by  7  ;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  Nestalik, 
in  the  19th  century. 


^jo|^  J.lo 


History  of  the  Moghuls,  of  Timiir,  and  of 
some  contemporary  dynasties. 

Author  :   Din  Muhammad  Khurasan!,  ^J>_a 

Beg.   Li*-J  >»j,jy,  J^  ljij\^ 

This  is  a  late  compilation  of  little  value. 
The  author,  who  conveys  in  the  following 
enigmatical  verse 

the  fact  that  Kabul  was  his  dwelling-place, 
lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  present  century: 
he  relates  incidentally,  fol.  316  a,  that  he 
had  witnessed  in  Herat  the  profuse  bounties 
of  Fath  Khan  Dunlni,  the  Vazir  of  Shiih 
Mahmud,  king  of  Kabul  and  Kandahar. 
Fath  Khan  held  that  post  from  A.D.  1800 


184 


HISTORY  OF  THE  SAEAVIS. 


to  the  deposition  of  Shiih  Mahmud  in  1803, 
and  fell  in  an  encounter  with  Shuja'  ud-Dau- 
lah  in  1808  (see  Elphinstone's  "  Cabul,"  vol. 
ii.  pp.  322 — 349).  As  the  author  speaks  of 
him  as  a  man  of  the  past,  it  may  be  inferred 
that  he  wrote  after  the  latter  date. 

Contents  :  Ancestors  of  Chingizkhan,  fol. 


15  a. 


Life   of  Chingiz, 


fol. 


43   a. 


Uktai 

Ka'an  and  his  successors,  fol.  101  b.  Khans 
of  Kipchak,  fol.  118  b.  The  descendants  of 
Chingiz  in  Iran,  fol.  125  b.  The  Ilkanis, 
fol.  253  b.  Sarbadars,  fol.  304  b.  Kurts, 
fol.  323  6.  Al  i  Muzaffar,  fol.  341  a.  History 
of  Timur,  from  his  birth  to   the  events  of 


A.H.  806,  where  the  MS.  comes  to  an  abrupt 
termination. 

The  early  part  of  this  compilation  agrees 
substantially  with  the  work  above  described 
under  the  title  of  s^J  i^^\,  Add.  26,190, 
p.  164;  the  rest  appears  to  be  principally 
derived  from  the  Eauzat  us-Safa,  with  in- 
tentional alterations  in  the  wordinsr  and 
arrangement. 

The  present  copy  seems  to  have  been  re- 
vised by  the  author;  several  passages  are 
scored  out,  and  others  are  substituted  in  the 
margra. 

A  full  table  of  contents  is  prefixed,  foil.  1 — 6. 


HISTORY    OF     THE      SAFAVIS. 


Add.  27,241. 

Foil.  359;  121  in.  by  7^;  14  lines,  3f  in. 
long;  written  in  large  and  fair  Nestalik, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  appa- 
rently in  the  17th  century;  disfigured  in 
some  parts  by  large  holes. 

[John  Macdonald  Kinneie.] 

History  of  Persia,  from  the  death  of  Shrdi 
Tahmasp,  A.H.  984,  to  the  end  of  the  25th 
year  of  the  reign  of  Shah  'Abbas  I.,  A.H.  1020. 

Author :  Jalal  ud-Dln  Muhammad  Munaj- 
jim  Yazdi,  t^iijj.  ^  a,^  ^.>iiJl  j!i)^»- 

Beg.  p^L-!\  (^jjJi!^  |»^U]\  ciiU^  rfU  s^^ 

The  work  has  neither  preface  nor  title. 
It  begins  with  a  prayer  for  the  preservation 
of  the  reigning  sovereign,  Shah 'Abbas.  The 
author's  name,  which  does  not  appear  at  the 
beginning,  occurs,  as  given  above,  inciden- 
tally under  A.H.  999,  fol.  92  a,  where  he 
relates  that  in  the  course  of  that  year  he 
was  twice  sent  by  'Abbas  to  Khan  Ahmad, 
the  prince  of  Gilan  (see  above,  p.  110  b,  and 


Geschichte  von  Gilan,  edited  by  Dorn,  p.  99), 
on  a  mission  connected  with  the  marriasre  of 
that  prince's  daughter  with  the  Sh"h's  son. 
In  other  places  he  refers  to  himself  by  the 
shorter  names  of  MuUa  Jalal  (fol.  94  b)  or 
Jalal  the  Astrologer,  ^  j^U  (fol.  155  a). 
He  appears  to  have  been  in  constant  atten- 
dance upon  'Abbas,  whose  old  and  ancient 
servant,  ^J^>y>  *!i)^  j5>,  he  calls  himself,  and 
with  whom  he  was  not  afraid  occasionally 
to  remonstrate;  see  fol.  91  b. 

Mulla  Jalal  is  mentioned  by  Malcolm,  on 
the  authority  of  "Zubd  ul-Tuarikh,"  as 
chief  astronomer  at  the  court  of  'Abbas ;  see 
History  of  Persia,  vol.  i.  p.  526.  It  is  stated 
by  Abul-Hasan  Kazvmi,  in  the  Fava'id  i  Sa- 
faviyyah.  Add.  16,698,  fol.  256,  that  in  A.H. 
1002  Maulana  Jalal  ud-Din  Muhammad  Mu- 
najjim  Yazdi  represented  to  Shah  'Abbas, 
that,  the  aspect  of  the  planets  foreboding 
destruction  to  the  sovereign  of  Iran,  it 
behoved  him  to  abdicate  for  a  time  and  place 
upon  the  throne,  as  a  substitute,  a  person 


niSTOEY  OF  THE  SAFAVIS. 


186 


whose  life  was  legally  forfeited.  In  conse- 
quence a  certainYusufi,  tarkasliduz,  or  quiver- 
stitcher,  a  Mulhid  or  infidel,  was  selected  for 
the  unenviable  distinction,  and,  after  enjoy- 
ing for  three  days  the  pomp  and  joys  of  royal- 
ty, exhausted  by  his  death  the  evil  influence 
of  the  stars.  The  same  author  draws  an 
amusing  picture  of  the  terror  of  the  luckless 
astrologer,  when  told  that  the  temporary  king 
miglit,  before  his  impending  doom,  wreak  his 
vengeance  upon  him.  The  same  incident  is  re- 
lated on  the  faith  of  "  Zubd  ut-Tuarikh,"  but 
without  the  astrologer's  name,  by  Malcolm, 
vol.  i.  p.  527. 

The  present  work  is  a  circumstantial  nar- 
rative, in  plain  and  easy  language,  of  the 
early  life  of  'Abbas  and  the  greatest  part  of 
his  reign  by  a  contemporary  writer,  who  was,  in 
most  cases,  an  ocular  witness  of  the  events 
recorded. 

Contents  :  Genealogy  of  'Abbas,  traced  on 
the  father's  side  to  the  Imam  Musa  Kazim, 
and  on  the  mother's  side  to  the  Sayyids  of 
Mazandaran,  fol.  4  a.  Birth  and  early  life 
of 'Abbas,  fol.  5  h.  Death  of  Tahmasp,  A.H. 
984,  and  following  events,  fol.  8  h.  Death  of 
Shah  Ismfi'il  II.,  A.n.  985,  and  reign  of 
Sultan-Muhammad,  fol.  20  h.  The  events  of 
that  reign  are  narrated  year  by  year  from 
A.H.  990,  fol.  29  a,  to  A.U.  995,  fol.  42  a. 
The  same  arrangement  is  followed  in  the 
reign  of  'Abbas  (who  is  stated,  fol.  45  a,  to 
have  ascended  the  throne  in  Kazvin  at  the 
end  of  Zul-hijjah,  A.H.  995)  from  A.H.  996, 
fol.  53  «,  to  A.H.  1020,  fob  328  «. 

The  latter  part  of  the  space  devoted  to 
A.H.  1020,  foil.  346  i— 359  «,  is  taken  up  by 
a  detailed  account  of  the  flight  of  the  Uzbak 
Khan,  Vali  Muhammad  Khan,  to  Persia,  of 
the  honourable  r^^ception  which  he  found  at 
the  court  of  'Abbas,  of  his  return  to  his  do- 
minions, and  finally  of  his  defeat  and  death  at 
the  hands  of  his  nephew  Imamkull  Khan  on 
the  seventh  of  Kajab,  A.H.  1020  (tlie  MS. 
has,  by  mistake,  ^  ^  J^ja  ,  A.H.  1030). 


On  the  first  page  is  impressed  the  seal  of 
the  Navvab  Valajah  'Azim  ud-Daulah,  below 
which  is  written,  "  From  His  Highness  the 
Nabob  of  the  Carnatic  to  John  Macdonald 
Kinneir." 

Add.  16,684. 

Foil.  427 ;  10|  in.  by  6| ;  27  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  fair  Naskhi,  with 
three  'Unvuns,  apparently  in  the  17th  cen- 
tury. [Wm.  Yule.J 

^Up  c^y  jji$>  ^15 

•  A  history  of  the  life  and  reign  of  Shah 
'Abbas  I.,  with  an  introduction  treating  of 
his  predecessors. 

Author  :    Iskandar,  known    as    Munshi, 

Beg.  ij>\i^\  ^^.j^  *r  ^T  ^\,J  cuU!*^  ^^^ 

Iskandar  Beg  was  born  about  A.H.  968 ; 
for  he  writes  on  completing  the  present 
work,  in  A.H.  1038,  that  he  had  then  reached 
the  age  of  seventy.  He  states  in  his  preface 
that  he  had  spent  his  early  life  in  the' 
study  of  arithmetic  and  in  the  service  of  the 
rich,  as  an  accountant.  Having  afterwards 
given  up  that  occupation  for  the  nobler  art 
of  composition,  "  Insha,"  he  soon  became  a 
proficient  in  it,  and  was  enrolled  iu  the 
number  of  tlie  royal  Munshis.  He  appears 
to  have  been  attached  to  the  Vazir,  I'timad- 
ud-Daulah  Hatiiu  Beg,  and  was  near  him  at 
the  time  of  his  sudden  death  durinsr  the 
siege  of  Urumi  or  Urmia,  A.H.  1019;  see 
fol.  314  a. 

The  present  work  was  completed  in  its 
original  shape  in  A.H.  1025,  which  is  also 
the  date  of  its  preface.  It  comprises  a 
Mukaddimah  and  two  Parts  termed  SahiCah. 

A  continuation,  called  Maksad  i  Sani,  and 
completed  in  A.H.  1038,  was  subsequently 

BB 


186 


HISTORY  OP  THE  SAFAVIS. 


added  to  it.  The  author  says  at  the  end  of 
this  last  section  that  he  intended,  should  life 
and  leisure  he  spared  to  him,  to  complete  the 
work  by  appending  to  it  a  Khatimah,  con- 
taining various  anecdotes  and  curious  notices 
collected  during  his  long  life.  See  Morley's 
Catalogue,  p.  133;  Erdmann,  de  Manuscripto 
Iskenderi  Menesii,  Cazan,  1822  ;  Zeitschrift, 
vol.  XV.  p.  457 ;  S.  de  Sacy,  Journal  Asia- 
tique,  vol.  v.  p.  86  ;  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  10  ;  Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  174. 

A  continuation  of  the  'Alarn  Arrd  'AhbasT, 
written  for  Murtaza  Kuli  Khan,  Governor  of 
Ganjah,  and  comprising  the  reign  of  Shah 
Safi,  is  ascribed  in  the  S.  Petersburg 
Catalogue,  p.  291,  to  Iskandar  Munshi,  but 
in  the  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  80,  to  another 
writer,  Muhammad  Ma'siim  B.  Khwajagi 
Isfahan! . 

Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Mukaddimah. 
Genealogy  of  'Abbas,  fol.  3  b.  Shaikh  Safi 
ud-Din  and  his  successors,  fol,  5  b.  History 
of  Shah  Isma'Il,  fol.  13  b.  Reign  of  Shah 
Tahmasp,  fol.  21  b. 

Sahifah  I.  Birth  of  Shah  'Abbiis,  A.H.  978, 
his  early  life,  death  of  Shah  Tahmasp,  and  his- 
tory of  Isma  il  Mirza  and  Sultan  Muhammad, 
down  to  the  accession  of  Shah  'Abbas,  fol.  32  b. 

Sahifah  II.  Accession  of  Shah  'Abbas  and 
history  of  the  first  thirty  years  of  his  reign, 
down  to  the  end  of  A.H.  1025,  fol.  135  b. 

Maksad  II.,  or  continuation  of  the  pre- 
ceding part,  containing  the  history  of  the 
same  reign  from  the  beginning  of  A.H.  1026 
to  the  death  of  'Abbas  on  the  24th  of  Ju- 
mada  I.,  A.H.  1038,  and  the  subsequent 
proclamation  of  his  successor  Shah  Safi  in 
Isfahan,  fol.  358  b.  This  last  section  is 
written  by  another  hand,  and  dated  Eajab, 
A.H.  1067  (A.D.  1657). 

On  fol.  135  is  a  note  stating  that  this 
volume  had  been  read  in  A.H.  1213  by  the 
Safavi  prince  Sultan- Muhammad  Mirza ;  see 
above,  p.  133  b. 


Or.  152. 

Poll.  602  ;  13  in.  by  7| ;  25  Unes,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  small  and  fair  Nestalik, 
with  two  'Unvans  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
early  in  the  17th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work  complete,  viz. :  Preface 
and  Introduction,  fol.  10  b.  Sahifah  I.,  fol. 
54  b.  Sahifah  II.,  fol.  196  a'.  Maksad  II., 
fol.  4996. 

This  volume  once  belonged  to  Sultan- 
Muhammad  Kutubshah,  who  has  written  on 
fol.  10  a  a  short  notice  of  the  work.  He 
was  the  nephew,  son-in-law,  and  successor 
of  Sultan  Muhammad  Kuli  Kutubshah,  and 
maintained,  like  his  predecessor,  friendly  re- 
lations with  the  Safavis.  We  learn  from 
the  'Alam  Arae  itself,  fol.  476  a,  that  Shah 
'Abbas  sent  him  an  ambassador  A.H.  1021  to 
congratulate  him  upon  his  accession.  His 
death  is  recorded  in  the  continuation  of  the 
same  work,  fol.  588  b,  under  A.H.  1036. 

Another  note  on  the  same  page  states  that 
the  MS.  subsequently  passed  into  the  pos- 
session of  Khwajah  'Anbar  Habashi,  minister 
of  the  Nizamshahis  of  Daulatabad,  whence  it 
fell  by  conquest  into  the  hands  of  Shahjahan. 
It  afterwards  became  the  property  of  Sardar 
Singh,  son  of  Rajah  Shirsingh  (who  lived  at 
the  court  of  Shah  'Alam  and  Akbarshah),  and 
then  of  his  cousin  Rao  Gangaram,  of  whom 
it  was  bought  by  Col.  G.  W.  Hamilton  in 
1864. 

Prefixed  are:  V.  A  notice  of  the  MS. 
and  its  successive  owners,  in  Persian,  dated 
Dehli,  21st  Sept.  1865,  fol.  1  a— 3  a. 

2°.  A  full  tablc'of  contents,  foil.  4  6—9  b. 

Some  portions  missing  in  the  original  MS., 
and  Maksad  IL,  which  was  not  yet  written 
when  the  book  came  into  Kutubshah's  pos- 
session, have  been  supplied  by  a  later  hand. 

Add.  7653. 

Poll.  366 ;  11|  in.  by  1\  ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  SAFAVIS. 


187 


long;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  early 
in  the  18th  century.  [CI.  J.  EiCH.J 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  wants  one  page  at  the  beginning, 
and  about  twelve  at  the  end.  A  spurious 
beginning  and  end  have  been  supplied  by  a 
later  hand,  A.H.  1224. 

Add.  16,682. 

Foil.  236;  11  in.  by  7  J ;  19  lines,  4|  in. 
long  ;  wi'itten  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Agra, 
Ramazan,  A.H.  1070  (A.D.  1600). 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  first  half  of  the  same  work,  contain- 
ing the  preface,  Mukaddimah,  and  Sahlfah  I. 

Add.  17,927. 

Foil.  476;  9|  in.  by  6i ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  probably 
in  the  17th  century. 

A  portion  of  the  same  work.  The  text  of 
this  copy  differs  in  some  particulars  from 
the  preceding  MSS.  Although  giving,  like 
these,  A.H.  1025  in  the  body  of  the  work, 
fol.  195  a,  as  date  of  composition,  it  bears 
some  traces  of  an  earlier  recension.  The 
preface  contains,  fol.  5  b,  an  eulogy  on  the 
author's  patron,  the  Vazir  Abu  Tfilib  Khan, 
son  and  successor  of  I'timad  ud-Daulah 
Hatim  Beg.  Abu  Talib  was  raised  to  the 
Vazirate,  as  we  learn  from  another  part  of 
the  work,  Add.  16,684,  foil.  425  6,  314  a, 
after  his  father's  death  in  A.H.  1019,  and 
held  it  for  the  space  of  two  years  only.  This 
fixes  the  date  of  the  present  preface,  and 
accounts  for  the  disappearance  of  this  pas- 
sage in  the  ordinary  recension,  where  the 
preface  is  dated  A.II.  1025. 

The  division  is  also  different.  The  present 
volume  contains  twelve  sections  called  Ma- 
kalah.  The  first,  which  makes  up  nearly 
the  whole  of  its  bulk,  foil.  7  b — 461  b,  corre- 
sponds to  the  Mukaddimah  and  SahUah  I.  of 


the  later  recension.  It  contains  the  history 
of  the  ancestors  of  Shah  'Abbas,  of  the  reigns 
of  his  predecessors,  and  of  his  early  life,  down 
to  the  time  of  his  accession.  The  remaining 
eleven  Makalalis  are  extremely  short ;  they 
treat  of  the  following  subjects  : — I.  Piety  of 
Shah  'Abbas,  fol.  465  b.  III.  His  wisdom, 
fol.  466  a.  IV.  His  good  fortune,  fol.  467  a. 
V.  His  justice  and  the  security  of  his  realm, 
fol.  469  a.  VI.  His  authority,  fol.  470  a. 
VII.  His  policy,  fol.  470  b.  VIII.  His  sim- 
plicity, fol.  471  b.  IX.  His  kindness  towards 
his  servants,  fol.  472  a.  X.  His  happy  dis- 
position, fol.  473  a.  XI,  His  constructions, 
fol.  473  b.     XII.  His  victories,  fol.  476  a. 

The  MS.  breaks  off"  at  the  second  page  of 
the  last  section. 

Add.  26,194. 

Foil.  217  ;  14  in.  by  9 ;  29  lines,  6  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik ;  dated  Marv 
Shahjahan,  in  the  months  of  Rajab  and 
Ramazan,  A.H.  1091  (A.D.  1680). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  containing 
the  preface  and  Sahifah  I. ;  foil.  1  b — 155  b ; 
the  second  Maksad  foil.  156  b  —  219  a. 
The  first  Sahifah  is  here  stated  in  the  preface, 
fol.  3  a,  to  be  subdivided,  as  in  Add.  17,927, 
into  twelve  Makalahs ;  but  of  these  the  first 
alone,  which  has  nearly  the  same  contents 
as  in  the  preceding  copy,  is  found  in  the 
body  of  the  work. 

Add.  22,696. 

Foil.  271;  13  in.  by  8;  21  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  cursive  Nestalik ;  dated 
Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1079  (A.D.  1669). 

[Sir  JouN  Ca.mpbell.] 

The  same  portion  of  the  work,  viz : — 1°.  The 
Preface   and   Sahifah   I.,   foil.  1  6—191   «. 
2°.  Mak.sad  II.,'  foil.  191  6—271  o. 
bb2 


188 


HISTOEY  OF  THE  SAEAVIS. 


The  same  division  of  Sahifah  I.  into  twelve 
Makalalis  is  indicated  in  the  preface,  but  not 
observed  in  the  body  of  the  work. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
MS.  was  written  by  order  of  Amir  Asian 
Beg,  son  of  Bastam  Kull  Mir  Akhur,  by 
Ismail  B.  Murad  Kurd  Shaml. 

Add.  23,520. 

Foil.  425 ;  10^  in.  by  7^ ;  25  lines,  4§  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik;  dated  Zul- 
hiijah,  A.H.  1094  (A.D.  1683). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  'Alam  Arfd 
'Abbasi,  containing  Sahlfah  II.  and  Maksadll. 
The  latter  begins  on  fol.  327  b. 

Add.  23,521. 

Foil.  337 ;  13  in.  by  9 ;  26  lines,  6  in.  long ; 
written  in  plain  Nestalik ;  dated  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  1109  (A.D.  1698) ;  much  water-stained 
and  partly  torn.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  same  portion  of  the  work,  viz : — 1°. 
Sahlfah  II.,  wanting  the  first  page,  foil, 
12  a— 252  a.  2".  Maksad  H.,  foil.  253  b— 
337  a. 

Prefixed  are :  V.  A  full  table  of  contents, 
foil.  1  a — 9  a.  2°.  The  first  four  pages  of  the 
Preface,  foil.  10  a— 11  b. 

A  note  at  the  end  states  that  this  copy 
was  written  for  Aka  'All  Beg  by  Mulla  Sal- 
man B.  Gada  'All. 

Add.  18,872. 

Foil.  494;  10  in.  by  61;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  probably  in 
the  17th  century. 

The  same  portions  of  the  'Alam  Arai,  in 
inverted  order,  viz :  1.  Maksad  II.,  wanting 
about  eight  pages  at  the  beginning  and 
twenty-five  at  the  end,  foil.  1  a — 110  b. 
2.  Sahlfah  II.,  wanting  about  sixteen  pages 
at  the  beginning  and  two  or  three  at  the  end, 
foil.  Ill  a— 494  b. 


Add.  26,195. 

Foil.  251;  14  in.  by  9 ;  21  lines,  6^  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik;  dated 
Ramazan,  A.H.  1073  (A.D.  1663.) 

[Wm.  Erjkine.] 

Sahlfah  II.  of  the  same  work,  or  the  his- 
tory of  the  first  thirty  years  of  the  reign  of 
Shah  'Abbas. 

Add.  16,683. 

Foil.  140;  121  in.  by  7^;  21  lines,  41  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  A.H.  1213 
(A.D.  1798).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

Maksad  II.  of  the  same  work. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
MS.  was  written  by  order  of  the  Safavi 
Prince,  SultSn-Muhammad  Mirza  (see  p. 
133  b),  for  the  use  of  Col.  Scott. 

Add.  7655. 

Foil.  89;  9  in.  by  5^;  18  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  A.H.  1104 
(A.D.  1693).  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  history  of  the  general  Rustam  Khan 
and  of  the  contemporary  period  of  Persian 
history,  dow^n  to  the  time  of  his  death 
(A.H.  1052.) 

Author:  BTjan  Tarlkh-Safavl-Khwan,  or 
reciter  of  the  Safavi  Annals,   ^^  ^fi  tc^^ 

Beg.  ^  ijt^U  J^jjiS  J  ^^-   u^J.^jfe^jJ^^^ 

The  author  states,  in  his  preamble,  that 
he  wrote  this  histgry  by  desire  of  the  grand- 
son of  Rustam  Khan,  whom  he  designates  as 
Sipah-salar  and  Beglerbegi  of  Azarbaijan. 
His  information  was  chiefly  derived  from  the 
oral  statements  of  Rustam  Khan  himself  and 
his  brothers. 

Rustam  Khan,  son  of  Kara-Bijan,  one  of 
the  retainers  of  Daud  Khan  of  Georgia, 
fleeing  with  his  family  from  his  country, 


HISTORY  OF  THE  SAFAVIS. 


189 


then  invaded  by  the  Turks,  entered  the  ser- 
vice of  Shah  'Abbas  I.  in  A.H.  1007,  at 
eleven  years  of  age.  Rising  rapidly  into 
favour  he  became  Yasaval  i  Suhbat,  or  per- 
sonal attendant  of  the  Shiih  in  1012,  Sardfir  in 
1033,  and  Divan  Begl  in  1036.  He  defended 
Tabriz  against  the  Turks  in  1033  and  1036, 
relieved  Baghdad  and  took  Hillah  in  1040, 
and  suppressed  the  rebellion  of  Daud  Khan 
in  Georgia  in  1042.  Appointed  in  1044 
Sipahsalar  of  Iran  and  Beglerbegi  of  Azar- 
brdjan,  he  took  Erivan  in  1045,  and  was,  at 
the  time  of  the  accession  of  'Abbiis  II.,  at 
the  head  of  the  Persian  forces  in  Khorasan. 
At  the  instigation  of  his  rival,  Vazlr  Mirza 
Taki,  he  was  put  to  death  at  Mashhad, 
A.il.  1052. 

After  a  short  introduction,  treating  of  the 
descent  of  Rustam  Khan,  fol.  4  b,  and  of  the 
troubles  of  Georgia  from  A.H.  963  to  his 
time,  fol.  5  b,  the  biography  proper  begins 
on  fol.  7  b,  and,  with  the  rapid  rise  of  Rus- 
tam Khan,  soon  merges  into  history.  It  is 
in  fact  a  record  of  the  chief  military  events 
in  Persia,  during  the  reign  of  'Abbas  I.,  from 
A.H.  1033  to  his  death,  fol.  9  a,  of  Shfih  Safi, 
fol.  11  b,  and  of  'Abbas  II.,  fol.  81  a,  closing 
with  an  account  of  the  sumptuous  reception  of 
the  Chinsrizkhani  Prince  Imam  Kuli  Khan  at 
the  latter' s  court. 

In  the  Khatimah,  fol.  86  b,  the  author 
only  alludes,  in  covert  words,  to  the  death  of 
Rustam  Khan.  He  then  prays  for  his  grand- 
son, the  Beglerbegi  of  Azarbaijan,  who  is 
called  here  by  the  same  name  as  his  grand- 
sire,  Rustam  Khan,  and  concludes  with 
a  rapid  summary  of  the  principal  events  in 
his  hero's  life. 

ImamkuH  Khan,  Uzbak  Khanof  Turkistan, 
afflicted  with  blindness,  abdicated  in  favour 
of  his  brother  Nazr  Muhammad,  and  repaired 
to  the  court  of  'Abbiis  II.  in  Kazvin,  A.H. 
1052;  see  Kisas  ul-Khakfini,  Add.  7656, 
fol.  48  b.  We  learn  from  Tahir  Vahid,  Add. 
11,632,  fol.  49  a,  that  Rustam  Khan's  enemy, 


the  Vazlr  Mirza  Taki,  did  not  long  survive 
him ;  he  was  assassinated  by  some  Amirs  on 
the  20th  of  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1055. 

Add.  11,632. 

Foil.  156;  8i  in.  by  4|;  15  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  17th  century. 

A  history  of  the  first  fifteen  years  of  the 
reign  of  Shah  'Abbas  II. 

Author  :    Muhammad  Tahir  Vahid   fsee 

•  •  •  \ 

fol.  4  b),  jjL»j  ^IL  :y^ 

Beg.  J1X-.  oj^  ^JJj  «/ti*-»lj«.  \j  ^^  [J-iSf? 

Mirza  Muhammad  Tahir,  takh.  Vahid,  son 
of  Mirza  Husain  Khan  Kazvini,  was  born  in 
Kazvin.     He  was  employed  as  Munshi  by 
the  grand  Vazir,  Mirza  Taki  ud-DIn  Muham- 
mad, and  by  his  successor  Khallfah  Sultan. 
He   states  in   the  present  work,  fol.  55  a, 
that  in  A.H.  1055  he  was  appointed  Majlis- 
Navis,    or    court-historiographer,    by  Shah 
'Abbiis.     He  was  raised  to  the  dignity  of 
Vazlr,  according  to   Zinat  ul-Majalis,  Add. 
23,515,  fol.  689  b,  in  A.H.  1101,  and  remained 
eighteen  years  in  office.     The  last  years  of 
his  life  were  spent  in  retirement  and  he  died 
at  the  age  of  ninety.     He  was  reputed  the 
first  master  of  style  of  his  day,  and  has  left, 
besides  the  present  work,  an  Insha  including 
several  letters  written  in  the  name  of  Shah 
'Abbas  (see  Add.  7690)  and  a  Divan  of  con- 
siderable   extent.      His    poems    were  only 
praised,  according  to  the  Atashkadah,   on 
account  of  the  author's  rank.     See  Kisas  ul- 
Khakanl,  Add.  7656,  fol.  164  a,  Hazln's  Taz- 
kirah.   Add.    16,728,   fol.    21,    Atashkadah, 
Add.  107  a,  Riyaz  ush-Shu'ara,  Add.  16,729, 
fol.  496,  Oude  Catalogue,  p.  137. 

The  preface  contains  a  wordy  panegyric 
on  Shah  'Abbas  II.,  and  on  the  author's  late 
patron,  the  Vazir  Khallfah  Sultan  (who  was 
in  office  from  A.H.  1055  to  his  death,  A.H. 
1064,  Kisas  ul-Khakani,  Add.  7656,  fol.  131). 

The  author  says  that,  serving  the  latter  as 


190 


HISTORY  OE  THE  SAEAA^IS. 


secretary,  he  had  been  through  him  intro- 
duced to  the  Shah's  favourable  notice,  and 
that  his  official  duties  brought  him  constantly 
to  His  Majesty's  presence,  by  whose  com- 
mands he  wrote  the  present  history. 

Contents:  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Birth  of 
Shah  'Abbas  11.,  A.H.  1041,  fol.  9  b.  His 
genealogy,  fol.  11  a.  His  accession  on  the 
11th  of  Safar,  A.H.  1052,  and  events  of  the 
first  year  of  the  reign,  fol.  17  a.  Erom  this 
point  the  history  proceeds  year  by  year  to 
the  end  of  A.H.  1066.  The  last  event  men- 
tioned is  a  destructive  earthquake  in  the 
city  of  Kazvin.  It  must  be  noticed,  however, 
that  the  designation  of  the  several  years  has 
been  omitted  in  this  as  well  as  in  the  following 
copies,  so  that  they  can  only  be  determined 
by  comparison  with  other  works. 

Letters  written  by  the  author  in  the  name 
of  the  Shah  are  frequently  inserted  in  full ; 
see  foil.  85  6,  88  6,  105  a,  151  a. 

The  work  bearing  no  special  title,  it  is 
commonly  called  from  the  author's  name 
Tilrikh  i  Tahir  Vahid.  It  is  thus  endorsed 
in  the  present  copy.  In  the  Kisas  ul-Kha- 
kiim,  Add.  7656,  fol.  130  b,  it  is  designated 
as  Tarikh  i  Jadid. 

In  a  copy  described  by  Dr.  Dorn,  S.  Peters- 
burg Catalogue,  p.  292,  the  history  is  said 
to  come  down  to  A.H.  1074.  Compare 
Asiatisches  Museum,  p.  382,  and  Mackenzie 
Collection,  vol.  II.,  p.  123. 

Add.  10,594. 

EoU.  141 ;  Q\  in.  by  5f ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Kestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century. 

The  same  work. 

The  rubrics  are  frequently  omitted.  On 
the  fly-leaf  is  written  "John  Carnac,  29th 
April  1766." 

Add.  25,788. 

Eoll.  164;  9|  in.  by  7;   15  lines,  4^  in. 


long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik  on  European 
paper,  bearing  in  its  water-mark  the  date 
1806.  [Wm.  Cuukton.] 

The  same  work. 

The  cover  bears  the  Indian  stamp  of 
Edward  Sheffield  Montague,  with  the  date 
1815. 

Add.  7656. 

Eoll.  180;  12  in.  by  8^;  27  lines,  5|  in. 
long;  written  in  a  small  and  fair  Naskhi  ; 
dated  Etliyabad,  Ears  Sha'ban,  A.H.  1028 
(probably  for  1128,  A.D.  1716)  ;  bound  in 
painted  and  glazed  covers.        [CI.  J.  Eicu.] 

A  full  history  of  the  reign  of  Shah 'Abbas  II., 
with  an  account  of  his  predecessors. 

Author :  Vali  Kuli  ShamlQ  Ibn  Da'ud  Kull, 
Beg ji-b  lUjS  ^Jy->y  Ulo  xi\  li^ 


^    U^J  J^^    J^    *^   L^'-^ 


u>r^ 


"VVe  learn  from  the  preface  that  the  author 
left  Herat  in  his  youth  for  Sijistan,  where  he 
found   favour  with    the  local   ruler,  Malik 
Nusrat  Khan,  who  appointed  him  Mustaufi 
of  his  establishment.  After  having  filled  this 
post  for  several  years,  he  repaired  to  Kan- 
dahar, where  a  book  came  under  his  notice, 
in  which  Indian  chroniclers  had  described 
the   campaigns   of  the   sovereigns   of  Hin- 
dustan acjainst  Kandahar  and  the  Kizilbash. 
This  inspired  him  with  the  idea  of  writing,  as 
a  counterpart  to»it,  a  record  of  the  warlike 
deeds  of  the  latter.     But  having  been  in  the 
meanwhile   appointed   by   the   governor   of 
Kandahar,  Zulfakar  Khan,  superintendent  of 
the  palace,  his  official  duties  deprived  him 
of  the  necessary  leisure,  until,  after  the  death 
of  Zulfakar    Khan  and   the   installation  of 
his  brother  Mansur  Khan  in  his  government 
(A.H.  1073  ;  V.  fol.  144),  the  intrigues  of 


HISTORY  OF  THE  SAFAVIS. 


191 


two  personal  enemies  led  to  his  dismissal. 
He  then  made  use  of  his  recovered  freedom 
for  the  composition  of  the  present  work, 
which  he  commenced  at  the  age  of  thirty- 
eight  years,  in  A.H.  1073,  a  date  which 
by  a  remarkable  coincidence,  he  says,  is 
expressed   by    the    title    of    this    history, 

As  might  be  expected  from  the  above 
preface,  the  author's  attention  is  much  en- 
grossed by  the  Indian  wars,  and  he  gives  a 
very  circumstantial  narrative  of  the  siege 
of  Kandahar,  of  which  he  was  an  ocular 
witness. 

The  work  is  divided  into  five  unequal 
parts,  as  follows  : — 

Mukaddimah.  Genealogy  of  'Abbas  II., 
fol.  4  a. 

Bab  I.  Account  of  his  ancestors  from 
Sultan  Firuzshah,  the  first  who  settled  in 
Ardabil,  to  the  rise  of  Shah  Isma'il,  fol.  4  b. 

Bab  II.  Account  of  the  reigns  of  his  pre- 
decessors on  the  throne,  namely:  Shah 
Isma'il,  fol.  7  a.  Tahmiisp,  fol.  10  a.  Is- 
ma'il II.,  fol.  18  a.  Khudabandah,  fol. 
19  a.  Shah  'Abbas  I.,  fol.  22  a.  Shah  Saf i, 
fol.  37  b. 

Bab  III.  History  of  the  reign  of  Shah 
'Abbas  II.,  from  his  accession  in  A.H.  1052, 
to  his  death,  which  happened  in  Khusrava- 
bad,  district  of  Damghan,  on  the  25th  of 
Rabi'  I.,  A.H.  1077,  fol.  47  b. 

Khatimah.  Biographical  notices  of  the 
eminent  men  of  the  reign  of  'Abbas  II., 
divided  into  two  Tazkirahs :  1.  'Ulama, 
literati,  physicians,  and  Shaikhs,  fol.  156  a. 
2.  Poets,  fol.  162  b. 

The  latter  part  of  the  work,  and  especially 
the  biographical  notices,  have  been  written 
in  A.H.  1076,  as  appears  from  numerous 
passages  in  which  that  date  is  mentioned  as 
that  of  the  current  year;  see  foil.  156  S, 
160  a,  161  b,  176  b,  etc.  The  account  of 
the  Shah's  death  is  necessarily  a  subsequent 
addition,  as  also  are  some  passages  in  which 


later  dates  are  introduced,  as  A.H.  1079, 
fol.  143  b,  A.H.  1082,  and  A.H.  1085, 
fol.  165  a. 

Or.  154. 

Foil.  131;  8  in.  by  4^;  14  lines,  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Lucknow, 
Ramazan,  A.H.  1226  (A.D.  1811.) 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  the  family  called  Al  i  Da'ud. 

'  Author  ;  Muhammad  Hashim,  son  of 
Sayyid  Muhammad  Mirza,  surnamed  Shith 
Sulaiman  II.,  yUjJutf  i\JLi  »_Jil*  \y*«  s^  Jom*  ^^^ 

^U.  j^  ^Jo 

Beg.  \Zj^\yj>  \j  (_^jj-«  (j^-^  ^.  i^U_S  j  x^ 

Sayyid  Muhammad  Mirza,  the  author's 
father  and  the  main  subject  of  this  notice, 
was  the  son  of  Sayyid  Mirza  Muhammad 
Da'ud  ul-Husaini  and  of  a  Safavi  princess, 
daughter  of  Shiih  Sulaiman.  During  the 
fierce  struggles  which  followed  the  death  of 
Nadirshah,  he  was  proclaimed  by  some  Arab 
Khsins  at  Mashhad,  A.H.  1163,  under  the 
name  of  Shah  Sulaiman  II.,  caused  Shah- 
rukh,  the  latter's  successor,  to  be  cruelly 
blinded,  and  after  forty  days'  reign  met  with 
the  same  fate  at  the  hands  of  Yusuf  'All 
Khan,  when  the  blind  grandson  of  Nadir- 
shah was  restored  to  the  throne.  See  Sir 
Wm.  Jones's  Histoire  de  Nader  Chah,  vol. 
ii.  p.  197,  Malcolm,  vol.  ii.  p.  Ill,  Fava'id 
Safaviyah,  Add.  16,698,  foil.  57  b,  108  a. 

The  author  states  in  the  preface,  that, 
after  the  taking  of  Ispahan  by  Mahmud,  the 
Afghan,  and  the  downfall  of  the  Safavis,  a 
period  of  anarchy  followed,  during  which 
none  of  the  members  of  that  family  could 
find  leisure  to  put  in  writing  any  record 
of  their    lives  or  genealogies,  and  that  he 


192 


HISTORY  OF  NADIE  SHAH. 


was  induced  by  tliat  consideration  to  draw 
up,  for  the  benefit  of  the  survivors,  an  ab- 
stract of  the  history  of  their  forefathers  and 
some  record  of  their  foundations  and  pos- 
sessions, especially  those  of  Kasim-abad  and 
Khan-Saadat,  still  subsisting  at  the  date  of 
composition,  that  is  A.H.  1218. 

The  work  comprises,  according  to  the 
preface,  a  Mukaddimah,  two  Babs  and  a 
Khatimah.  The  latter,  however,  does  not 
appear  in  this  copy. 

Contents:  Mukaddimah.  Account  of  Amir 
Kivam  ud-Din  Sadik,  and  his  descendants, 
the  ancestors  of  Mirza  Muhammad  Da'ud, 
fol.  6  h. 

Bab  I.  History  of  Mirzii  Muhammad  Da'ud 
ul-Husainl  and  his  children,  fol.  31  b.     (He 


was  born  in  Ispahan,  A.H.  1065,  and  died  at 
the  same  place  at  the  age  of  sixty-two.) 

Bab  II.  History  of  the  youngest  son  of  the 
above,  Sayyid  Muhammad  Mirza,  afterwards 
Shah  Sulaiman  II.,  and  his  children,  fol.  64  b. 
(He  was  born  in  Ispahan,  A.H.  1126,  as- 
cended the  throne  on  the  5th  of  Safar,  A.H. 
1163,  and  died  on  the  6th  of  Zulka'dah,  A.H. 
1176). 

This  chapter,  the  last  in  this  copy,  con- 
cludes with  a  short  notice  of  the  author,  the 
fifth  son  of  the  preceding.  He  was  born  at 
Mashhad  A.H.  1165,  and  lived  with  his  elder 
brother  Kasim  Mirza,  partly  in  Sliiraz,  Avhere 
they  were  honourably  treated  by  Karim 
Khan,  partly  in  Ispahan  with  his  relatives. 

A  modern  table  of  contents  is  prefixed. 


HISTORY  OE  NADIR  SHAH. 


Add.  7661. 

Foil.  267;  11  in.  by  7^;  15  lines,  4 J  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Rabi'  I., 
A.H.  1182  (A.D.  1768.)  [CI.  J.  RicH.j 

History  of  Nadir  Shah,  from  his  rise  to 
his  death,  A.H.  1160. 

Author  :  Muhammad  Malidl  Astarabiidi 
B.  Muhammad   Nasir    (see   fol.   3   a),  ^^ 

Beg.  ^l^jL»So.  (jl-i'jjj  aOiij  ^J'^'^jyj  u'^.^^'^y 


This  work  was  translated  into  French  by 
Mr.,  afterwards  Sir  William,  Jones,  under  the 
title  of  Histoire  de  Nader  Chah,  Paris,  1770. 
An  English  translation  was  published  by 
the  same  scholar  in  London,  1773.  Several 
editions  of  the  text  have  appeared  at  Tabriz, 


Teheran  and  Bombay.  See  also  Morley's 
Catalogue,  p.  138,  S.  Petersburg  Catalogue, 
p.  293,  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  81,  and  Copen- 
hagen Catalogue,  p.  23. 

Mirza  Mahdi  Khan's  minute  and  circum- 
stantial account  of  Nadir's  actions  would 
suffice  to  prove  that  he  was  attached  to  his 
service  ;  but  he  writes  himself,  vol.  i.  p.  191, 
that  he  was  present  when  Nadir,  on  his  way 
to  Ispahan,  in  A.H.  1146,  received  the  news 
of  the  birth  of^his  grandson  Shahrukh,  and 
in  another  passage,  fol.  255  a,  which  has  not 
been  rendered  with  suflicient  clearness  in 
the  translation,  vol.  ii.  p.  179,  he  states  that, 
in  A.H.  1160,  the  last  year  of  Nadir's  life, 
he  was  sent  by  His  Majesty,  along  with 
Mustafa  Khan  Shamlu,  on  a  mission  to  the 
Sultan  of  Turkey.  According  to  Sir  Harford 
Brydges,  History  of  the  Kajars,  p.  clxxxi. 


HISTORY  OF  NADIR  SHAH. 


193 


note,  he  was  present  as  Nadir's  private 
secretary  at  his  interviews  with  Muhammad 
Shah,  and  was  known  by  the  latter  to  be 
writing  Nadir's  life. 

No  title  appears  in  the  work  itself,  which 
is  generally  known  as  ^jjii'o  ^J3,  but  in  the 
subscription  of  some  copies  and  in  the 
Turikh  i  Zandiyyah,  Add.  26,198,  it  is  called 
^^,^\j  ^liijl^  if  jIj.  The  preface  contains  no 
dedication,  and  it  is  not  clear  to  whom  the 
author  refers  when  he  says  that  he  "  is  one 
of  His  Highness's  servants  and  commissioned 
to  record  events,"  lax-ij  j  jy^  ul/V  J^  ** 
Cjm\  jyt^  ^S>j  ,  certainly  not  to  Nadir,  who 
is  spoken  of  as  dead  in  the  next  line.  Some 
MSS.  contain  an  epilogue,  dated  A.II.  1171, 
in  praise  of  Muhammad  Hasan  Khan,  the 
chief  of  the  Kajars,  which  appears  also  in 
the  French  translation,  pp.  198,  199. 

The  present  copy,  as  well  as  all  the  follow- 
ing, but  two,  concludes  with  the  death  of 
Ibrahim  Shah  and  'Ali  Shah;  see  French 
translation,  vol.  ii.  p.  197.  It  does  not 
contain  either  the  account  of  the  ephemeral 
reign  of  Sayyid  Muhammad  or  the  epilogue 
above  mentioned,  which  are  found  only  in 
Add.  25,790  and  21,590. 

Add.  26,196. 

Foil.  154;  12^  in.  by  7f ;  21  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  elegant  Persian 
Shikastah-amlz ;  dated  A.H.  1184  (A.D. 
1770).  [Wm.  Eeskine.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  6576. 

Foil.  237;  10^  in.  by  6^;  14  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  Indian  Nestalik,  with  'Un- 
van  and  ruled  margins;  dated  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  1196  (A.D.  1782).  [J.  F.  Hull.] 

The  same  work,  with  a  table  of  contents, 
foil.  1  a — 3  a.  On  the  first  page  is  impressed 
the  Persian  seal  of  Mr.  James  Grant. 


Add.  6154. 

Foil.  293;  9 J  in.  by  BJ;  13  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Shawal,  A.H. 
1197  (A.D.  1783). 

The  same  work. 

Add.  26,197. 

Foil.  203 ;  12  in.  by  7^ ;  21  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik ;  dated  in  the 
village  of  Haj  Karah,  RabI'  L,  A.H.  1204 
(A.D.  1789).      '  [Wm.  Ekskine.] 

The  same  work. 

Copyist :  ^  .w«»  ^^i  4)11  sts-  j-«» 

Add.  19,530. 

Foil.  188 ;  94  in.  by  6| ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long,  in  a  page ;  written  in  fair  Shafi'a,  with 
'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins;  apparently 
early  in  the  19th  century.  Bound  in  hand- 
somely painted  and  glazed  covers. 

The  same  work. 

On  the  fly-leaf  is  written :  "  From  Harford 
Jones  to  his  much  esteemed  friend  Mr  James 
Morier,  the  15th  of  Nov.,  1808." 

Add.  23,522. 

Foil.  187 ;  11|  in.  by  7i ;  17  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  on  European  paper, 
apparently  in  the  19th  century. 

[Rob.  Taylok.J 

The  same  work. 

Four  leaves  at  the  beginning  and  three  at 
the  end  have  been  supplied,  in  A.H.  1256, 
by  a  later  hand;  also  a  table  of  contents, 
foil.  2—5. 


Add.  23,523. 


Foil.  297 ;  10^  in.  by  7 ;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins, apparently  about  the  beginning  of  the 
19th  century.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

cc 


194 


HISTORY  OP  NADIE  SHAH. 


The  same  work,  (jji>l3  ^Jo 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  contents,  foil.  2  b — 
7  a,  dated  Eajab  A.H.  1258. 

Add.  25,790. 

Foil.  170;  11  in.  by  7|;  20  lines,  5^  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi;  dated  Isfahan, 
Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1219  (A.D.  1804). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  has  the  continuation,  which 
appears  in  the  French  translation,  pp.  197 — 
199,  and  is  wanting  in  all  the  preceding. 

Appended  is  a  Dibajah,  or  preamble  in 
ornate  prose,  to  the  deed  of  marriage  of 
Rlza  Kuli  Mirza,  the  son  of  Nadir,  by  the 
author,  Mahdi  Khan,  \jjx^  fi^j'  "  r^  '^'^.A 
sHii  \jj^  J.S  Uj  C-^a?  yli-  ^jA^  foil.  167  b — 
170  a. 

Scribe :   ^^ji^  s^^ 

A  table  of  chapters,  fol.  2,  is  prefixed. 

Add.  21,590. 

Foil.  336 ;  9i  in.  by  5J ;  15  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  with  "Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the 
18th  century. 

The  same  work,  with  the  same  continuation 
as  in  the  preceding  copy. 

The  latter  part  of  this  MS.,  from  fol.  323 
to  the  end,  has  numerous  small  gaps,  owing 
apparently  to  the  damaged  state  of  the 
copy  from  which  it  was  transcribed. 

Add.  25,789. 

Foil.  218 ;  10  in.  by  6 ;  with  an  average 
of  20  lines,  about  4|  in.  in  length ;  written 
in  a  coarse  and  cursive  Indian  character; 
dated  A.H.  1247  (A.D.  1831). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

The   same   work.      This   copy    concludes 


with  an  account  of  the  usurpation  of  Sayyid 
Muhammad  and  restoration  of  Shahrukh, 
foil.  216  a — 218  b,  different  from  the  pre- 
ceding, and  more  detailed,  but  so  badly  writ- 
ten as  to  be  scarcely  legible. 

Copyist :  i^l3  j^  j/U  J\jS>j  ^y>  ^^Ijy 
On  the  first  page  is  written :  "  Jahdnkushd, 
Mohansdl,  25th  Feb.  1839,  Kdbul,"  which  an 
appended  note  states  to  be  in  the  handwriting 
of  Sir  Alexander  Bumes. 

Add.  10,581. 

Foil.  283 ;  9^  in.  by  6^ ;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  ruled  mar- 
gins ;  dated  Rabr  II.,  A.H.  1220  (A.D.  1805). 

The  same  work. 

The  latter  part  of  this  volume,  foil.  260  b — 
283  a,  contains  a  fragment,  which,  although 
written  in  continuation  of  the  Tfirikh  i  Na- 
diri  and  without  apparent  break,  is  quite 
distinct  from  it.  It  is  a  circumstantial 
account,  imperfect  at  the  beginning,  of  the 
events  which  followed  the  death  of  Nadir, 
from  the  execution  of  the  young  princes,  by 
order  of  'AIT  Shah,  to  the  27th  of  Ramazan, 
A.H.  1161,  when  Shahrukh  declined  the  ur- 
gent appeal  of  Ibrahim  Khan  to  leave  Mash- 
had  and  join  him.  Although  agreeing  in 
general  substance  with  the  corresponding 
portion  of  the  Tarikh  i  Nadirl,  pp.  191 — 196  of 
the  French  translation,  vol.  ii.,  it  is  much  more 
diffuse  in  style  and  more  abundant  in  details. 

Add.  27,242. 

Foil.  243 ;  10|  in.  by  6^ ;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long;  written  'in  Shikastah-Amiz ;  dated 
Shavval,  A.H.  1208  (A.D.  1794). 

[John  Macdonald  Kinneir.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  contains  at  the  end,  fol.  231  a — 
243  «,  a  portion  of  the  fragment  found  in 
the  preceding  copy.  It  corresponds  to  foil. 
260  6—272    a  of  the   latter    MS.,   and    is 


HISTORY  OF  NADIR  SHAH. 


195 


evidently  derived  from  the  same  source ;  for 
its  abrupt  beginning  tallies  exactly  -mth 
thai  of  the  same  addition  in  Add.  10,581. 

The  subscription  contains  an  eulogy  on 
Navvfib  'Umdat  ul-Mulk  Valajah  Amir  ul- 
Hind  Asaf  ud-Daulah  Anvar  ud-Din  Khan, 
to  whom  the  MS.  was  presented  in  A.H. 
1208  by  Shamir  Masihi  j<»r*j4-U.. 

Copyist :  ^\>.„.J^  Jb  j-^^  Jj  ^jS^  jM 

The  seal  of  Navvab  Valajah  *Azim  ud-Dau- 
lah with  the  date  1216  is  impressed  on  the 
first  page,  and,  at  the  beginning  of  a  prefixed 
index  of  contents,  foil.  2,  3,  is  written  "  From 
His  Highness  the  Nabob  of  the  Carnatic  to 
John  Macdonald  Kinneir." 

Add.  11,634. 

Foil.  171 ;  7|  in.  by  4^ ;  14  lines,  2^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Shikastah-amiz,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century. 

The  first  half  of  the  same  work,  corres- 
ponding to  pp.  1 — 196  of  vol.  i.  of  the  French 
version. 

Add.  7659. 

Foil.  221 ;  9i  in.  by  6^ ;  14  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik ;  dated  Bagh- 
dad, Zulka'dah,  A.H.  1216  (A.D.  1802). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  history  of  Nadir  Shiih  from  his  rise  to 
his  death. 

Author :  Muhammad  Mahdi  B.  Muhammad 
Nash'  (see  fol.  12  a)j^  s^^  ^^   ,j<i^  ij-»s£° 

Beg.    ^^jS  (j:>o-Uai  t-.>US  l_jII^  »»-^i?.'i  p-Wi*^ 

This  work,  although  written  by  the  same 
author  as  the  preceding,  and  containing  sub- 
stantially the  same  matter,  is  yet  quite  dis- 
tinct from  it.    Instead,  of  a  plain  narrative, 


it  is  an  elaborate  and  artificial  composition, 
written  in  imitation  of  tlie  history  of  Vassaf, 
which  is  set  up  as  a  model  in  the  preface? 
fol.  6  b.  Its  language  is  so  fai*-fetched  and 
abstruse  as  to  require  a  vast  number  of 
explanatory  notes,  which  fill  the  margins  of 
this  copy  and  the  following. 

The  preface  occupies  no  less  than  eight- 
and-twenty  folios.  The  last  chapter  treats 
of  the  assumption  of  the  regal  title  by 
Ibrahim  Khan  at  Tabriz  and  his  subsequent 
capture  and  execution,  A.H.  1161. 

The  title,  as  given  in  the  preface  (fol.  28  a. 
Or.  1360,  fol.  33  b,  and  Add.  7660,  fol.  26  a) 
is  Durrah  i  Nadirah,  not  Durrah  i  Nadiri. 
The  work  is,  however,  designated  by  the  latter 
name  in  the  preface  of  the  Tfirikh  i  Muham- 
mad!, Add.  27,243,  fol.  8  a,  and  in  the  Fava'id 
i  Safaviyyah,  Add.  16,698,  fol.  107  a,  where 
Durrah  i  Nadiri  and  Tarikh  i  Nadiri  are  men- 
tioned as  two  distinct  works  of  Mirza  Mahdl 
Khan. 

The  Durrah  i  Nadirah  has  been  lithographed 
at  Bombay,  A.H.  1280.  It  is  described,  but 
without  the  author's  name,  in  the  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  176. 

Or.  1360. 

FoU.  267 ;  12^  in.  by  SJ ;  10  lines,  5  in. 
long  ;  written  in  large  Nestalik;  dated  A.H. 
1182  (A.D.  1768).  [SirCuABLES  Al.  Murray.] 

The  same  work. 

At  the  end  are  some  lines  of  poetry  Avritten 
in  praise  of  the  work  by  the  transcriber, 
Ibrahim  ul-Husaini,  the  last  of  which  ex- 
presses by  a  chronogram  the  date  of  tran- 
scription. 

Add.  7660. 

Foil.  196;  9  in.  by  5^;  15  Hues,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  Baghdad, 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1232  (A.D.  1817). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 
The  same  work. 

cc2 


(     196     ) 


HISTORY  OF  THE  ZAND  AND  KAJAR  DYNASTIES. 


Add.  23,524. 

Foil.  148  ;  Hi  in.  by  7^ ;  20  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik,  about  the 
close  of  the  18th  century.        [Rob.  Taylok.] 


iS\lS  ^  ^^ 


A  history  of  the  Zand  Dynasty,  from  the 
rise  of  Karim  Khan  to  the  death  of  Lutf 
All  Khan,  the  last  of  the  race,  A.H.  1209. 

Authors :    Mirza    Muhammad    Sadik   ul- 


Musavi,  sumamed  Nami, 


s^r^r*"  ij' 


,11      -iiiU    A.^ 


^Ky>      (_>a, 


\it^\  and    'Abd   ul-Karim    B.    'All 
Riza  ush- Sharif  ^>j^\  \^j  ^Js-  ^^  ^>j^\  sxs- 

Beg.    j.^-1  jyjj  jjj^  ^  ^\^jy.    ^!^jl> 

The  author  of  the  Atashkadah,  writing  in 
A.H.  1180,  mentions  Mirza  Muhammad 
Sadik,  sumamed  Nami,  as  one  of  the  con- 
temporary poets,  and  says  that  he  was  then 
engaged  upon  a  history  of  the  Zand  Dynasty. 
He  belonged  to  a  family  of  Musavi  Sayyids, 
which  had  been  transferred  from  Pars  to 
Ispahan,  and  had  for  a  century  and  a  half 
given  court-physicians  to  the  Safavis.  Mirza 
Eahim,  his  uncle,  was  Hakim  Bashi.  Mirza 
Sadik  had  from  his  youth  been  devoted  to 
literary  pursuits,  and  was  then  known  as  the 
author  of  two  Magnavis,  Laila  u  Majnun  and 
Khusrau  u  Shirin ;  see  Add.  7671,  fol.  196  b. 
A  fragment  of  a  third,  Vtimik  u  Azra,  is 
preserved  in  Add.  7721 ;  compare  Ouseley's 
Travels,  vol.  iii.  p.  557. 

It  is  related  in  the  Fava'id  i  Safaviyyah, 
Add.  16,698,  fol.  135  b,  that  Mirza  Muham- 
mad Sadik,  takh.  Nami,  was  severely  rebuked 
by  'All  Murad  Khan  (A.H.  1196—1199)  for 
the  noble  origin   he  had  mendaciously  as- 


signed in  his  Tarikh  i  Zandiyyah  to  the 
Zand  family,  and  was  compelled  to  drink  the 
water  in  which  his  own  copy  of  that  history 
had  been  washed  off.  The  rough  draught, 
however,  had  been  preserved.  It  was  pro- 
duced at  the  desire  of  Ja'far  Khan  (A.H. 
1199 — 1203),  and  the  author  received  as  a 
reward  500  Tumans,  which  he  gave  away  to 
the  poor. 

The  above  statements  can  only  refer  to  the 
earlier  portion  of  Mirzii  Sadik's  history  ;  for  in 
its  present  shape  the  work  belongs  to  a  later 
period. 

In  the  preface  Abul-MuzalTar  Muhammad 
Ja'far  Khan  Zand  is  named  as  the  reigning 
sovereign,  and  it  is  stated  that  it  was  by  his 
order  that  the  present  history  was  written.  It 
is  also  remarked  in  the  body  of  the  work, 
fol.  91  a,  that  its  main  object  was  to  record 
the  "  present  reign,"  by  which  is  meant 
that  of  Ja'far  Khan.  The  author  derived 
much  of  his  information,  as  we  are  told, 
fol.  86  i,  from  the  Vazir  of  Ja'far  Khan, 
Mirza  Muhammad  Husain  Famhani. 

The  continuator,  'Abd  ul-Karim,  who  has 
been  mentioned  above,  p.  135,  as  the  writer 
of  a  portion  of  Zinat  ut-Tavarikh,  and  es- 
pecially of  the  account  of  Fath  'All  Shah's 
reign,  which  is  brought  down  to  A.H.  1221, 
was  a  pupil  of  the  author.  He  says  in  the 
conclusion.  Add.  7662,  fol.  152  a,  that  he 
had  enjoyed  the  tuition  of  that  great  master 
of  the  art  of  writing,  in  Shiraz,  from  the  age  of 
twelve  for  three  full  years, until  the  time  when 
Mirzii  Sadik  had  been  called  upon  to  write 
this  history.  He  adds  that,  after  his  master's 
death,  in  A.H.  1204,  he  was  himself  com- 
missioned by  the  above-named  Vazir  to 
complete  the  work  which  had  been  left  un- 
finished at  the   capture    of  the  citadel  of 


HISTORY  OF  THE  ZAND  DYNASTY. 


197 


Isfahan,  on  the  21st  of  Muharram,  A.H. 
1200  (fol.  Ill  b).  He  did  not,  however,  bring 
it  to  a  close  until  after  the  death  of  Lutf 
'All  Khan  in  A.H.  1209.  Although  he  shows 
himself  in  this  history  a  decided  partisan  of 
Lutf  *Ali  Khan,  he  was  attached  at  the 
time  of  writing,  according  to  his  own  state- 
ment, Add.  7662,  fol.  142  b,  to  the  service  of 
his  successful  competitor  for  the  empire, 
Aka  Muhammad  Kajar. 

After  two  introductory  chapters  treating  of 
the  origin  and  history  of  the  Zand  tribe,  fol.  3  b, 
and  of  the  events  which  followed  the  death  of 
Nadir  Shah,  fol.  5  a,  the  detailed  narrative 
begins,  fol.  6  b,  with  A.H.  1164,  and  is  carried 
on  year  by  year  to  the  end.  The  beginning 
of  each  year  and  some  of  the  principal  events 
are  marked  by  rubrics.  The  history  of  Karim 
Khan  occupies  more  than  the  first  half  of  the 
volume ;  his  death  in  A.H.  1193  is  recorded  on 
fol.  88  b. 

This  copy  breaks  off  in  the  fourth  page  of 
the  chapter  treating  of  the  march  of  Akii 
Muhammad  Kajar  upon  Shiraz,  A.H.  1206. 
It  wants  ten  or  eleven  leaves  at  the  end. 

The  work  received  from  'Abd  ul- Karim 
(Add.  7662,  fol.  163)  the  title  of  Tarikh 
1   Gitikushae.     It  is   also  frequently  called 

jjjoj  2ijX>,  as  on  the  fly-leaf  of  this  MS.,  and 

it  is  often  quoted  by  Sir  John  Malcolm, 
History  of  Persia,  vol.  ii.  p.  119,  &c.,  as 
"Tuarikh  Zundeah,  by  Meerza  Saaduck." 
The  title  s>j  ^J^  t>.^  ^Jo  written  as  a  head- 
ing at  the  beginning  of  the  present  copy, 
and  of  Add.  25,794,  is  obviously  inadequate. 
The  same  work  is  mentioned  under  the  title 
of  Tarikh  i  Zandiyyah  in  Melanges  Asiatiques, 
vol.  iii.  p.  731. 

Add.  7662. 

Poll.  153 ;  12  in.  by  7^  ;  21  lines,  4^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Shikastah-amiz,  about  the 
close  of  the  18th  century.  [CI.  J.  EiCH.] 


Another  copy,  complete,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  rubrics,  most  of  which  are 
wanting. 

Add.  25,794. 

Foil.  162 ;  12^  in.  by  8^  ;  21  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Nestalik  in  India ; 
dated  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1236  (A.D.  1820). 

[Wm.  Cureton.] 

Another  copy  of  the  same  work,  wanting 
most  of  the  rubrics.  At  the  end  are  a  few 
lines,  not  found  in  the  other  copies,  in  which 
the  author  states  his  intention  to  write  a 
eontinuation  of  this  history  in  a  second 
volume,  to  be  called  Julus-Namah. 

This  copy  was  written,  according  to  the 
subscription,  in  the  house  of  Ghulam  'All 
Khan  Subadar. 


Copyist :    J^ 


im       ^V.».-».     ^y^    lis*    SXf 


Add.  26,199. 

Foil.  262;  8|  in.  by  6^;  19  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  India,  in  the  19th  century. 

[Wm.  Ebskine.] 

Another  copy  of  the  same  work,  wanting 
all  the  rubrics. 


Add.  24,904. 

FoU.  145 ;  7|  in.  by  5 ;  16  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  a  small  and  elegant  Shafi'a, 
with  a  rich  'Unvan,  and  gold-ruled  margins, 
about  the  close  of  the  18th  century ;  bound 
in  painted  covers,  representing  on  one  side 
Karim  Khan,  and  on  the  other  his  brother 
Sadik  Khan,  with  their  children  and  oflBcers. 

The  first  part  of  the  same  work  (Add. 
23,524,  foil.  2  6-89  a),  ending  with  the 
death  of  Karim   Khan,  A.H.  1193.     Two 


\ 


198 


niSTOEY  OE  THE  ZAND  DYNASTY. 


short  sections  relating  to  the  taking  of  Basrah, 
by  'AH  and  to  hostilities  with  the  Arabs 
(Add.  23,524,  foU.  86  6—88  b)  are  wanting. 

Add.  24,903. 

Toll.  138  ;  7i  in.  by  5^ ;  9  lines,  ^  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Safar  A.II.1218 
(A.D.  1803)  ;  bound  in  painted  covers,  re- 
presenting the  two  rival  kings,  namely,  on 
one  side  Agha  Muhammad  Khan  attended 
by  Haji  Ibrahim,  and  on  the  other  Lutf  'AIT 
Khan  with  Mirza  Husain. 

A  history  of  the  Zand  Dynasty,  from  the 
death  of  Karlm  Khan,  A.H.  1193,  to  the 
defeat  and  capture  of  Lutf  'AH  Khan,  A.H. 
1209.     ' 

Author:  Ibn  'Abd  ul-KarIm  'AH  Rizae 
Shirazi,  i^j^j^  ^J^^jAs-  o^\  jj*  ^\ 

Beg.   ^JtlJ  J  \i^j  ^\^\  J  ^Jii)^^  j  cif-  i-jb,^  j> 

The  author  says  in  the  preface,  that, 
although  the  history  of  Nadir  Shah  had  been 
written  by  Mh'zii  Mahdi  Khan  Astara])adi  in 
his  Tarikh  i  Jahankushae  Nadiri,  and  that  of 
Karlm  Khan  by  Mirza  Sadik  Munshi,  takh. 
Nam],  in  his  Tarikh  i  Saltanat  i  Karim  Khan, 
while  some  others  had  recorded  the  rise  and 
progress  of  the  Kajars,  none  bad  ever  at- 
tempted to  narrate  the  decline  and  fall  of 
the  Zand  dynasty,  until  he  had  been  induced 
by  the  urgent  instances  of  a  friend  not  named 
to  supply  that  deficiency  by  the  present 
work. 

He  begins  with  a  rapid  review  of  the  last 
years  of  Karim  Khan,  fol.  5  a,  and  then  pro- 
ceeds to  a  detailed  narrative  of  the  short  and 
stormy  reign  of  his  successors,  Zaki  Khan, 
fol.  8  a,  Abu  '1-fath  Khan,  fol.  15  a,  Sadik 
Khan,  fol.  17  a,  'AH  Murad  Khan,  fol.  26  a, 
Ja'far  Khan,  fol.  33  a,  and  Lutf  'AH  Khun, 
fol.  66  a. 


Although  treating  of  the  same  events  as 
the  latter  half  of  the  Tarikh  i  Giti  Kusha, 
the  present  work  is  distinct  from  it.  The 
narrative  is  more  condensed,  couched  in 
plainer  language,  and,  while  the  former 
breathes  devotion  to  the  fallen  dynasty,  the 
present  writer  misses  no  opportunity  of  court- 
ing the  rising  sun  of  the  Kajars.  Notwith- 
standing that  discrepancy,  the  latter  portion 
of  the  present  history  agrees  in  many  passages 
word  for  word  with  the  GitT  Kusha.  The 
author,  however,  whose  name  is  distinctly 
written  Ibn  'Abd  ul-KarIm  'AH  Riziie  Shirazi 
in  the  present  and  the  two  following  copies, 
cannot  be  confounded  with  the  continuator 
of  the  latter  work,  who  is  invariably  called 
in  all  four  MSS.  of  that  work  'Abd  ul-Karim 
B.  'AH  Riza  ush-Sharif. 

"  Aly  Reza's  History  of  the  Zund  Family," 
is  the  principal  authority  followed  by  Sir 
John  Malcolm  for  that  period ;  see  vol.  ii. 
pp.  147,  153—202.  A  sketch  of  the  Zand 
dynasty  in  E.  Scott  Waring's  Tour  to  Sheeraz, 
pp.  259 — 305,  is  also  principally  drawn  from 
the  present  work.  Compare  Aumer,  Munich 
Catalogue,  p.  82. 

A  note  written  at  the  end  and  signed 
"  Muhammad  Mahdi,  commonly  called  Imil- 
mi,"  states  that  this  copy  was  transcribed  by 
desire  of  Sir  John  Malcolm.  By  the  side  of 
it  is  impressed  a  seal  bearing  the  name  of 
Muhammad  Mahdi  ul-HamzavT  ul-Miisavi, 
and  the  date  1210. 

Add.  26,198. 

Eoll.  103;  Si  in.  by  5^ ;  10  lines,  2\  in. 
long ;  written  on  European  paper  in  cursive 
Nestalik;  dated  Muharram,  A.H.  1217  (A.D. 
1802).  "  [Wm.  Erskine.J 

The  same  work. 

Add.  23,525. 

Eoll.  94 ;  7|  in.  by  7  ;  11  lines,  3|  in.  long ; 


HISTORY  OP  THE  KAJAB  DYNASTY. 


199 


written  on  European  paper  in  cursive  Nesta- 
lik,  about  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century. 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  same  work. 

The  title  s>j  Ji-  Jc  i_fiU  ^J3  is  written  at 
the  top  of  the  first  page. 

Add.  27,243. 

Foil.  249;  9  in.  by  51;  14  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  A.H.  1222 
(A.D.  1807) ;  bound  in  painted  covers. 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

A  history  of  the  rise  of  the  Kajars  and  of 
the  reign  of  Aka  Muhammad. 

Author :   Ibn   Muhammad  Taki  us-Saru'i 

Muhammad,  j^  t^jjLJ\  ^  o^  ^^\ 

Beg.   y^  ]^..'^i*»<   ^  J   Vjj   ^ji'^y*^  Cjs^ 

The  work  was  written  in  the  lifetime  of 
Aka  Muhammad,  who  is  eulogized  in  the 
preface  as  the  reigning  sovereign,  but  it  was 
not  completed  until  after  his  death.  The 
author,  who  calls  himself  one  of  the  royal 
servants,  states  that  he  wrote  it  by  order  of 
a  Kajar  prince,  whose  name  is  left  out  in  the 
present  copy,  but  appears  in  the  next,  fol. 
6  a,  viz.  Path  'All  (afterwards  Fath  'Ali 
Shah),  who  gave  it  the  title  of  Tarikh  i  Mu- 
hammad! in  allusion  to  the  names  of  both  hero 
and  writer.  It  closes  with  a  Kasidah,  composed 
in  praise  of  it  by  Mirza  Fath  'AH  Kashi, 
takh.  Saba,  appointed  by  the  said  prince 
Malik  ush-Shu  ara,  in  which  the  date  of  its 
completion,  A.H.  1211,  is  fixed  by  the  chro- 
nogram,   Oj^  ]S>yi^   ^   ^3  iyi  . 

The  introduction  contains  an  account  of 
the  career  of  Fath  'All  Khan,  the  first  Kajar 
who  rose  to  power,  fol.  9  b,  of  his  son  Mu- 
hammad Hasan  Khan,  fol.  13  a,  and  of  the 


latter's  son  Husain  Kuli  Khan,  fol.  21  a. 
The  history  of  Aka  Muhammad,  the  latter'g 
brother,  begins  with  his  captivity  in  Shiraz, 
fol.  29  a,  and  from  his  escape,  at  the  time  of 
Karim  Khan's  death,  A.H.  1193,  it  is  carried 
on  year  by  year  until  his  death,  which  hap- 
pened on  the  21st  of  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1211; 
see  fol.  235  a.  The  last  chapters  treat  of  the 
march  of  the  prince  (Fath  'Ali  Shah)  from 
Shiraz  to  Teheran,  his  victory  over  Sadik 
Khan  Shakakl,  and  the  transfer  of  the  Shah's 
remains  to  Najaf  in  Eamazan,  A.H.  1212. 
The  concluding  portion  must  be  a  later  addi- 
tion; for  the  poem  above-mentioned  which 
speaks  of  the  history  as  completed,  was  evi- 
dently written  before  Aka  Muhammad's 
death. 

This  work  is  quoted  by  Malcolm  under  the 
name  of  History  of  the  Kujur  family,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  282,  283  etc.  It  is  described  in  Morley's 
catalogue,  p.  139,  under  the  title  ^j'^y^^  ^r-*"^  • 
This  supposed  title  is  taken  from  a  passage  of 
the  preface,  in  which  the  author  says  that  he 
might  with  some  reason  call  his  work  "  the 
fairest  of  histories,"  if  that  would  not  amount 
to  culpable  conceit ;  but,  he  adds,  the  prince 
has  given  it  the  title  of  Tarikh  i  Muhammad! . 
Morley  calls  the  author  "  Samad  Ben  Muham- 
mad Taki  Sarawi."  The  name  Samad  is  due 
to  a  mistaken  reading  of  this  passage,  fol.  8  a, 

s^  ijjj\^\  ^JJ  ,i^  ^^\  iVe  ^j  ^Xt-^  i^>^ , 
in  which  Samad  is  not  a  name  at  all,  but  an 
epithet  of  the  preceding  t«^  "  the  Lord,"  in- 
troduced on  account  of  its  rhyming  witli  the 

author's  real  name,  Muhammad.  Saru'i  i/j  j'— , 
not  Sarav!,  means  a  native  of  Sar!,  a  town  of 
Mazandaran,  also  called  Saru;  see  Ouseley's 
Travels,  vol.  iii.  p.  267. 


Add.  23,526. 

Foil.  183;  12  in.  by  7i ;  19  lines,  4^  in. 
long;    written  in  fair   Shikastah-am!z,   on 


200 


HISTORY  OF  THE  KAJAR  DYNASTY. 


European  paper,  by  the  same  hand  as  Add. 
23,527  (see  p.  136  b),  about  A.D.  1812. 

[Rob.  Tatlob.] 

I.  Poll.  2—138  a.  The  same  work,  with 
the  heading  jWl5  sLi.  ^s!"  ^j^  and  this  title 

written  on  the  first  page  ^^\i>■  ^y^  ^^  ^J^ 

II.  EoU.  138  6—183  a.  A  history  of  Eath 
'All  Shah,  entitled jW^  »^-  J«^  ^?>^^  ^^® 
same  author,  Muhammad  B.  Muhammad 
TaVi  us-Saru'i,  ^j}^^  Ji-^  ^^  w^  ^-^ 

Beg.  w^T  ci.*.^  'i-  J  cy  u?^  '^"^^v  V^ 

The  author  begins  with  a  short  summary 
of  the  predecessors  of  Path  'All  Shah,  for  a 
more  detailed  account  of  whom  he  refers  the 
reader  to  his  work  entitled  Tarikh  i  Muham- 
madi. 

Contents :  Early  life  of  Path  'Ali  Shah, 
fol.  139  b.  His  proceedings  after  the  death 
of  the  late  Shah,  fol.  143  a.  Events  of 
the  year  of  the  hare  {sic),  corresponding 
to  A.H.  1212—1213,  fol.  148  b.  Erom  this 
point  the  history  of  the  reign  is  carried  on 
without  any  distinction  of  the  years.  The 
last  chapter  contains  a  prolix  description  of 
the  nuptials  of  Prince  'Abbas  Mirza,  which 
were  solemnized  in  A.H.  1217  (see  Brydges, 
Dynasty  of  the  Kajars,  p.  161),  and  concludes 
AA'ith  the  marriage  deed,  drawn  up  by  the 
author. 

This  abrupt  termination  and  some  evident 
gaps  in  the  body  of  the  work,  where  entire 
years  are  passed  over,  render  it  probable 
that  it  was  left  in  an  unfinished  state. 

Add.  7665. 

Foil.  71 ;  12  in.  by  7,f  ;  15  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  a  fine  large  Nestalik,  with 
'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  early  in  the 
19th  century.  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  history  of  Fath  'Ali  Shah. 


Add.  22,697. 

Foil.  230;  llf  in.  by  8;  15  lines,  4^  in. 
long;  written  in  a  cursive  Naskhi;  dated 
Zulka'dah,  A.H.  1236  (A.D.  1821). 

[Sir  John  Campbell.] 

A  history  of  the  first  ten  years  of  the  reign 
of  Fath  'All  Shah. 

Author :  Muhammad  Sadik  Marvazl  ,i.^ 
(read  ^^jj*)  }^.jjo  J^U 

Beg.  <D^\  LiDjj^-ill  t^  ^^  b  J.4UI  ^s^ 

It  is  stated,  in  a  long  and  wordy  preface, 
foil.  1  b — 7  b,  that  the  work  was  written  by 
order  of  Fath  'Ali  Shah,  who  gave  it  the 
above  title.  It  is  mentioned  in  Morley's 
Catalogue,  p.  141,  and  in  Melanges  Asia- 
tiques,  vol.  iii.  p.  731. 

Contents :  Origin  of  the  Turks,  fol.  7  b. 
Genealogy  and  rise  of  the  Kajars,  fol. 
10  b.  Birth  and  early  life  of  Path  'All 
Shah,  fol.  16  6.  Decline  and  fall  of  the  Zand 
Dynasty,  and  reign  of  Agha  Muhammad, 
fol.  19  b.  Departure  of  Path  'Ali  Shah  from 
Shirilz  for  Tehran  on  the  receipt  of  the  intel- 
ligence of  Affha  Muhammad's  death,  fol.  31  a. 
Campaign  against    Sadik  Khan,   fol.  35  a. 

Accession  of  Path  'Ali  Shah  and  first  year 
of  his  reign,  fol.  41  b.  Year  of  the  sheep, 
A.H.  1213—4,  fol.  58  a.  Year  of  the  ape, 
fol.  74  a.  Year  of  the  hen,  fol.  82  b.  Year 
of  the  dog,  fol.  100  a.  Year  of  the  swine, 
fol.  114  a.  Year  of  the  rat,  fol.  124  a. 
Year  of  the  ox,  fol.  149  a.  Year  of  the  tiger, 
A.H.  1220—1,  fol.  1716.  Virtues  of  Path 
'All  Shah,  fol.  183  a.  His  treasures  and 
jewels,  fol.  188  a.  His  children,  fol.  194  6. 
His  Yazirs,  Amirs,  confidants  and  poets,  fol. 
195  a.  (Here  the  author  refers  for  more 
ample  information  on  poets  to  his  work  en- 
titled Zinat  ul-Mada'ih).  His  army,  fol. 
198  6.  His  works  and  constructions,  fol. 
200  6. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  KAJAR  DYNASTY. 


201 


The  last  chapter  of  the  history  proper, 
foil.  177  6—183  a,  treats  of  the  expedition 
sent  under  command  of  Prince  Muhammad 
'All  Mirza  against  'All  Pasha,  governor  of 
Baghdad,  the  defeat  and  capture  of  the  lat- 
ter's  Kyahya,  Sulaimun  Beg,  and  his  subse- 
quent liberation.  Here  the  author  states 
that  he  was  sent  with  the  latter  to  Baghdad 
in  order  to  negociate  and  draw  up  a  treaty. 
The  last  date  mentioned  is  that  of  the  return 
of  the  Shah  to  Tehran  on  the  22nd  of 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1221. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  says  that  he  will 
now  proceed  to  record  in  another  volume 
the  second  decade  of  the  reign.  This  second 
volume  was  written  ;  a  copy  of  it  is  preserved 
in  the  Library  of  the  Boyal  Asiatic  Society ; 
see  Morley,  No.  civ. 

Or.  1361. 

Foil.  151 ;  8|  in.  by  5i  ;  13  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik  with  gold-ruled 
margins,  about  A.D.  1855. 

[Sir  Chas.  Al.  Murray.] 

An  appendix  to  the  History  of  Fath  'All 
Shah's  reign. 

Author:  Fazl  UUah  ul-Husaini  ush-Shi- 
razl,   takh.  Khavari,  cfj^/i-^^  ij^r^'^  ^^  J-^ 

Beg.  «/  Ow *«^  till*   Xto-  ^^)^  ji   «-»jU. 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that  he 
had  been  ordered  by  Fath  'Ali  Shah  to  add  to 
his  record  of  that  sovereign's  reign,  here  desig- 
nated by  the  name  of  ^^S^  &?^^Jjj.  an  ap- 
pendix containing  notices  of  the  Shah's  chil- 
dren, grandchildren,  and  other  relatives,  of 


his  Amirs  and  Vazirs,  and  of  the  ordinances 
of  his  realm.  After  Fath  'Ali  Shah's  death,  and 
when  the  rule  of  his  successor  had  been  firmly 
established,  he  received  the  latter's  commands 
to  compose  a  new  chronicle  si,s»-  ^j^>  a^^itl 
proceeded,  in  the  first  instance,  to  complete 
the  present  appendix.  It  is  divided  into 
Babs  and  Fasls,  as  follows : 

Bub  I.  Beauty  and  virtues  of  Fath  'Ali 
Shah,  fol.  2  a. 

Bab  II.  His  children  and  wives,  in  three 
Fasls.  (It  is  here  stated  that  Fath  'All  Shah 
had  260  children,  159  of  whom  died  before 
him).  1.  Notices  of  57  of  his  sons,  fol. 
.12  a.  2.  Notices  on  46  of  his  daughters, 
fol.  36  b.  3.  Notices  on  30  of  his  wives, 
fol.  57  b. 

Bab  III.  in  three  Fasls:  1.  Children  of 
his  sons,  fol.  79  b.  2.  Children  of  his 
daughters,  fol.  132  b.  3.  His  brothers,  un- 
cles, cousins,  and  other  relatives,  fol.  140  b. 

The  last  chapter  is  not  completed ;  it  ends 
with  the  enumeration  of  the  twelve  sons  of 
Mustafa.  Kull  Khan,  an  uncle  of  Fath  'Ali 
Shah. 

The  work  must  have  been  written  after 
A.H.  1254,  for  that  year  is  incidentally  men- 
tioned as  past;  see  fol.  31  a.  The  author 
frequently  quotes  his  own  verses  and  refers 
to  his  poetical  compositions  as  highly  appre- 
ciated by  the  Shah.  He  appears  to  have 
acted  as  tutor  to  some  of  the  princes. 

It  is  stated  in  a  Persian  note,  on  the  first 
page,  that  he  was  Munshl  to  Mirza  Muham- 
mad Shafi',  the  Sadr  i  A'zam,  and  had  writ- 
ten a  detailed  history  of  the  late  Shah. 

On  the  same  page  is  written  in  English, 
but  by  an  Eastern  hand :  "  To  his  Excellency 
the  Hon.  C.  A.  Murray  from  his  friend  Nayeb 
ul-ayalah  Farhad  Meerza,  2ith  November 
1855,  13  Rabee  I.,  1272." 


DD 


(     202    ) 


LOCAL    HISTORIES    OF  IRAK 


Add.  7633. 

Foil.  216;  10^  in.  by  6;  18  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik ;  dated  Mu- 
harram,  A.H.  1067  (A.D.  1656). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  History  of  Tabaristiin  from  the  earliest 
records  to  the  author's  time. 

Author:  Muhammad  B.  ul-Hasan  B.  Is- 

fandiyar,  jb  jji-jl  ^^  tr~*   u^  '^"^^ 

Beg.  \j   ijiJ^Ji^jil   y^  ^_sJ  -^  J  ^  J  '^♦^ 

The  author  states  in  the  preface,  that  on 
his  return  from  Baghdad  to  Irak,  in  A.H. 
606,  he   received  the  mournful  intelligence 
that  Shams  ul-Muluk  Rustam  B.  Ardashir 
(who  reigned  in  Mazandaran  from  A.H.  602 
to    606;  see  Dorn,  Geschichte  Tabaristan's, 
p.  95)  had  been  treacherously  murdered  on 
the  4ith  of  Shavval  of  the  same  year.  Seeking 
some  comfort  in  reading,  during  a  stay  of 
two  months  at  Rai,   he    discovered  in    a 
library  attached  to  the  Madrasah  of  King 
Rustam  B.  Shahriyar  a  few  quires  treating 
of  Gaobarah,  and  recollected  that  the  late 
king,    Husam  ud-Daulah    Ardashir    (A.H. 
567 — 602,  ib.)  had  often  asked  him  whether 
he  had  ever  found  in  Arabic  or  Persian 
books  any  mention  of  a  king  of  Tabaristan 
nicknamed  Gaobarah  (ib.  p.  70),  whereupon 
he  had  confessed  that  he  had  never  heard  of 
that  name  before,  and  knew  of  no  history  of 
Tabaristan  but  the  Bavand  Namah,  written 
in  verse  in  the  time  of  Husam  ud-Daulah 
Shahriyar   B.   Karan    (A.H.    466^503,  ib. 
p.  92),  and  founded  upon  popular  legends. 
Having  therefore  carefully  examined  these 
quires  he  found  them  to  contain  an  elegant 


Arabic  composition,  written  by  the  Imam 
Abul-Hasan  (*Ali)  B.  Muhammad  ul-YazdadI, 
one  of  the  celebrated  scholars  of  Tabaristan," 
and  determined  to  translate  that  work,  and 
to  add  to  it  a  record  of  the  great  qualities 
and  glorious  deeds  of  his  late  benefactor, 
Husam  ud-Daulah  Ardashir,  and  of  his 
ancestors  and  descendants,  as  a  slight  return 
for  his  bounties. 

He  had  completed  the  translation  in  a  few 
days  and  nights,  when  he  was  suddenly  re- 
called home  by  his  aged  father,  and  set  out 
for  Amul,  which  he  reached  after  a  thousand 
hardships.     He  was  obliged  however,  after  a 
short  rest,  to  take  leave  of  him  again,  and 
repair  to  Khwarazm,  which  was  then  the 
gathering-place  of  the  learned.     Five  years 
later  he  found  there  in  a  bookseller's  shop  a 
volume  containing  some  treatises  translated 
from  the  Hindu  tongue  (^jjJa  into  Arabic, 
in  A.H.  197,  by  Da'ud  Yazdi,  for  a  native  of 
Sind  called  'Ala  B.  Sa'id,  and  another  tract 
or  epistle,  translated  by  Ibn  ul-Mukaffa'  from 
Peblevi  into  Arabic.     This  last  had  been 
written  by  Tannasar  j— i> ,  a  Persian  sage  and 
the  head  priest  »^y>  jo^  of  Ardashir  i  Babak, 
in  answer  to  a  letter  of  Jasnafshah,  prince  of 
Tabaristan    ^Ix-yla    JiSljsU.     A-Uu^:^    (see 
Dorn,  Geschichte   Tabaristan's,  p.   68,  and 
Sehir-eddin,  p.  31).     Finding  it  full  of  wise 
thoughts,  the  author  translated  it,  and  made 
it  the  opening  chapter  of  the  present  history. 

The   exact   date   of    composition    is    not 


»  "We  learn  from  another  part  of  the  work,  fol.  81  a, 
that  he  lived  at  the  court  of  Kabus  B.  Vashmagir,  and 
collected  that  prince's  compositions  in  prose  and  verse 
under  the  title  of  iciUI  JUS^  ijW  ,,„,*■  ^Kj 


HISTORY  OF  TABAEISTAN. 


203 


stated  in  the  preface ;  but  A.H.  613  is  in- 
cidentally mentioned  in  the  body  of  the 
work,  fol.  47  a,  as  the  current  year. 

The  work  is  divided  into  four  parts  (Kism), 
the  contents  of  which  are  thus  stated  in  the 
preface :  jj^  j  iJ^^J^  'J^   >^>J^^  J^  Jj^  *~j' 

C-'Sjii  ^Iji^^l     ,i>   Ajii   ^-<j'  lj««»  _j   l*\»-    J     j,yti    ^^\  J 

y^J^ji  J^)  ^LL-\    O4J-0  J  &>y  JT  j^jaC^u  JT 

The  contents  of  the  MS.  agree  only  in  part 
with  the  above  statement  of  the  preface; 
they  are  as  follows  : — 

Kism  I.  Bab  1.  Notice  of  Ibn  ul-Mukaffa', 
fol.  5  h.  Translation  of  his  tract,  fol.  6  h. 
Appendix  by  the  author,  fol.  23  a. 

To  the  letter  of  Tannasar  is  prefixed  a  short 
introduction  by  Ibn  al-Mukaffa',  foil.  6  J — 8  a, 
in  which  are  set  forth,  after  a  rapid  sketch  of 
the  fate  of  the  Persian  empire  from  the  con- 
quest of  Alexander  to  the  rise  of  Ardashir 
B.  Babak,  the  circumstances  under  which 
the  letter  was  written.  Jasnafshah,  prince 
of  Tabaristan  and  Tarshuvadgar,  reluctant 
to  submit  to  ArdasliTr,  who  had  hitherto 
spared  his  independence,  had  written  for 
advice  to  the  great  Hirbad,  Tannasar  (so 
called,  we  are  told,  because  his  entire  body 
was  covered  with  long  hair  like  a  horse's 
head  with  its  mane),  who  had  been  his 
father's  trusted  councillor.  Tannasar's  letter, 
foil.  8  6—23  a,  is  a  detailed  answer  to  the 
complaints  and  criticisms  of  the  prince  on 
the  rule  and  policy  of  Ardashir.  The 
author's  appendix,  beginning  with  a  state- 
ment of  the  prince's  submission  to  Ardashir, 


and  a  short  account  of  Anushirvan,  ends 
with  moral  anecdotes. 

Bub  2.  First  settlements  in  Tabaristan  and 
construction  of  its  cities,  fol.  30  h.  Bab  3. 
Peculiarities  and  wonders  of  Tabaristan, 
fol.  42  h.  Bab  4.  Notices  of  kings,  fol.  51  a, 
wealthy  men,  fol.  70  J,  'Ulama,  fol.  71  «, 
secretaries,  fol.  73  i,  ascetics,  fol.  74  a, 
philosophers,  fol.  77  a,  physicians,  astrono- 
mers, and  poets,  fol.  78  a. 

A  notice  of  the  dynasties  of  Vashmagir 
and  Buvaih,  fol.  79  h.  Although  headed 
*^.y  J^  ^i>jc<*>^  O  j^  J  ji^-J^j  jT  cJj»>  i/^x:j\  jtS 
Jc^jxis  tl^^.^j  ji ,  this  section  contains  only 
*  short  notices  of  'Azud  ud-Daulah,  fol.  79  b, 
and  Kilbus  B.  Vashmagir,  foL  81  a,  dealing 
chiefly  with  their  eminent  qualities  and  the 
literary  glories  of  their  reigns.  The  author 
refers  here  to  a  second  volimie  .^  ^ji  for  a  de- 
tailed account  of  the  invasion  of  Tabaristan 
by  the  Buvaihis  and  the  expulsion  of  Kabils. 

History  of  the  early  kings  of  Tabaristan 
from  the  time  of  Kayus,  son  of  Kubad,  and 
of  the  dynasties  by  which  they  were  super- 
seded, fol.  85  a.  This  section,  which  has  no 
heading,  begins  with  Kayus  and  Gaobarah, 
fol.  89  6,  Dabtiyah  and  his  successors,  fol.  91  b, 
"Umar  B.  ul-'Ala  and  the  governors  sent  by 
the  Khalifs,  fol.  105  a,  in  general  agreement 
with  the  first  chapter  of  Khwandamir,  Ge- 
schichte  Tabaristan's,  pp.  68 — 73  a.  It  then 
passes  on  to  the  history  of  the  descendants 
of  Sukhra  B.  un-Nada,  fol.  108  b,  (the  Kiiran- 
vandan  of  Sehir  Eddin,  p.  154),  and  of  the 
rule  of  the  TalibI  Sayyids,  fol.  128  b,  Hasan 
B.  Zaid,  fol.  130  b,  Da'i  ul-Kabir,  fol.  145  *, 
Nasir  Kabir  and  his  descendants,  fol.  151  a, 
of  Vashmagir,  fol.  167  b,  of  the  Buvaihis, 
fol.  169  b,  and  of  Kiibiis  and  his  successors, 
fol.  172  b.  The  account  of  the  latter,  with 
which  the  section  concludes,  is  brought 
down  to  Glhinshah  B.  Kaikaiis,  who  suc- 
ceeded his  father  in  A.H.  462,  and  was  driven 
out  by  the  Saljuki  Sultan  Tughril.  Of  his 
dd2 


204 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


successor,  AnusliirvanB.  Minuchihr  B.  Kabiis, 
it  is  only  said  that  he  ascended  the  throne  at 
the  time  of  Tughril's  death,  A.H.  471. 

Kism  IV.  History  of  the  Bavands  from 
first  to  last,  ^j>■~\  ^  »5j!  ^^^.  J^j^-^J^  ^jW  r^ 
fol.  184  h. 

This  section  comprises  the  three  lines  of 
the  Bavands,  also  called  Isfahbads  or  Hill- 
Kings  JUU  ui)jl*,  (an  abstract  of  whose  his- 
tory is  given  by  Khwandamir,  Geschichte 
Tabaristan's  pp.  90—96,  104—106),  as  fol- 
lows: First  line,  from  Bao  B.  Shapur,  A.H. 
45,  to  Shahriyar  B.  Dara,  A.H.  387,  fol.  184  h. 
Second  line,  from  Husam  ud-Daulah  Shahri- 
yar B.  Kfiran,  A.H.  466,  to  Shams  ul-Muluk 
Rustam  B.  Ardashir,  slain  A.H.  606,  fol. 
188  h.  Third  line,  from  Husam  ud-Daulah 
Ardashir  B.  Kinakliwaz,  who  died  A.H.  647, 
to  Fakhr  ud-Daulah  Hasan,  murdered  in  A.H. 
750,  fol.  205  a. 

This  last  section  is  evidently  a  later  addi- 
tion to  the  original  work.  The  murder  of 
Fakhr  ud-Daulah,  which  took  place  in  A.H. 
750,  is  referred  to  in  the  opening  lines,  and 
in  the  conclusion  the  children  of  that  prince, 
who  were  not  ten  years  old  when  their  father 
fell,  are  spoken  of  as  grown  up  men.  This 
could  hardly  have  been  written  before  A.H. 
760,  or  about  a  century  and  a  half  after  the 
time  of  Ibn  Isfandiyar.  The  whole  chapter 
must  therefore  be  the  work  of  some  anony- 
mous continuator,  who  used,  no  doubt,  for  the 
earlier  period,  the  history  of  his  predecessor, 
and  brought  it  down  to  his  own  time.  The 
continuator  speaks  in  his  own  person  when  he 
describes,  fol.  205  a,  an  "  old "  inscription, 
which  he  saw  in  the  palace  built  near  Amul  by 
Husam  ud-Daulah  Ardashir  (A.H.  635—647). 
But  an  earlier  passage,  fol,  193  h,  in  which 
the  writer  relates,  on  the  authority  of  his 
father,  an  incident  of  the  latter  years  of 
Shahriyar  B.  Kfiran  (about  A.H.  500)  may 
eafely  be  ascribed  to  Ibn  Isfandiyar. 

The  work  teems  with  poetical  quotations 


in  Arabic,  Persian,  and  in  the  dialect  of 
Tabaristan ;  see  foil.  78  a,  79  a,  207  «,  etc. 
Copyist:  ^Ja\  ^\  s^  \j^)^  ^^  i_Jll9  s.^ 
Copies  of  this  history  are  found  in  the 
Bodleian,  the  East  India  Library,  and  the 
Library  of  the  S.  Petersburg  University.  A 
transcript  of  the  latter,  collated  by  Dr.  Dorn 
with  the  London  MSS.,  belongs  to  the  Asia- 
tic Museum,  S.  Petersburg.  See  Dorn's 
preface  to  Sehir  Eddin's  Geschichte  Tabaris- 
tan's, p.  5,  Caspia,  p.  2,  Ouseley's  Travels, 
vol.  ii.  p.  214,  vol.  iii.  p.  304,  554  etc. 
Ouseley's  Collection,  No.  283,  Frahn,  Indi- 
cations bibliographiques,  p.  8,  and  Spiegel, 
Zeitschrift,  vol.  iv.  pp.  62 — 71. 

Add.  18,185. 

Foil.  183;  6|  in.  by  3|;  13  lines,  from 
If  to  2  in.  long ;  written  in  Naskhi ;  dated 
Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1068  (A.D.  1658). 

A  History  of  Shiraz   from  its   origin   to 

A.H.  744. 

Author:  Abu-1-' Abbas  Ahmad  B.  Abu-1- 
Khair,  surnamed  Mu'In,  whose  grandfather 
was  commonly  called  Shaikh  Zarkub  ush- 
ShirazT,  ^Ji*^  >_-»iLl4l  j4^  ^^  ^Ji  <y*-0'\  t^jJ^\  y>\ 

Beg.  j_^s^  \j  J>.J>\  dyj  jjsiy>  J>x**^  c>\^\ 
The  author,  who  is  called  in  the  heading 
i^}]jt^  '-r'/jj  >i-*»-l  liji*^'  j^  itA')  gi'^^s  in  the 
preface  the  following  account  of  the  circum- 
stances which  led  to  its  composition.  On 
his  return  from  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  in 
A.H.  734,  he  betook  himself  to  Baghdad, 
where  he  stayed  two  years.  Finding  himself 
some  day  in  a  select  assembly  there,  he 
recited  some  verses  of  his  own  in  praise  of 
Shiraz  and  of  the  sweet  water  of  Euknabad, 
while  one  of  his  interlocutors  extolled  the 
superior  merits  of  Baghdad.     Having  after- 


HISTORY  OP  SHIRAZ. 


205 


wards  been  shown  a  book  written  by  one  of 
the  learned  men  of  Hamadan  in  praise  of  the 
latter  city,  its  illustrious  men  and  its  holy 
shrines,  he  resolved,  after  his  return  home, 
and  at  the  request  of  a  friend,  to  compose  a 
similar  work  in  honour  of  his  native  town. 

•  A.H.  744  is  mentioned  in  the  body  of  the 
work,  fol.  174  «,  as  the  current  year. 

The  work  is  divided  into  an  introduction 
(Mukaddimah),  two  parts  (Fasl),  and  an  ap- 
pendix (Khatimah),  as  follows : 

Mukaddimah,  in  three  chapters  :  1.  On  the 
pre-eminence  of  the  province  of  Pars,  fol. 
11  b.  2.  On  the  beauties  of  Shiraz  and  the 
excellence  of  the  water  of  Ruknabad,  fol.  19  b. 
3.  On  the  foundation  of  Shiraz,  fol.  24  b. 

Part  I.  History  of  the  successive  rulers  of 
Pars,  in  six  sections,  namely:  1.  The  Buvaihis, 
fol.  31  b.  2.  The  Saljukis,  fol.  43  o.  3.  The 
Salghuris,  fol.  54  a.  4.  The  Moghuls,  fol. 
80  b.  5.  Mahmiid  Shah,  fol.  89  b.  6.  The 
sons  of  Mahmud  Shah,  viz.  Mas'Qd  Shah  and 
Amir  Shaikh  Abu  Isliak,  fol.  96  a. 

In  the  last  section  the  history  is  brought 
down  to  the  reign  of  Jamal  ud-Din  Amir 
Shaikh  Abu  Ishak,  son  of  Mahmud  Shah, 
who  established  his  rule  in  Shiraz  in  A.H. 
743,  and  it  closes  with  the  events  of  A.H.  744. 

Part  II.  Notices  of  the  eminent  Shaikhs 
and  Imams  of  Shiraz,  in  the  following  six 
Tabakahs,  or  generations:  1.  Abu  'Abd  Al- 
lah Muhammad  B.  Khafif,  who  died  A.H. 
331,  and  his  contemporaries,  fol.  112  a. 
2.  Abu  Ishak  Ibrahim  B.  Shahriyar  al-Kaza- 
runl,  who  died  A.H.  426,  and  his  contem- 
poraries, fol.  124  a.  3.  Abu  Shuja'  Muham- 
mad B.  Sa'dan  ul-Makarlzi  ^j<i>j3\\,  who 
died  A.H.  509,  and  his  contemporaries,  fol. 
132  a.  4.  Abu  Muhammad  Euzbahan  B. 
Abi  Nasr,  who  died  A.H.  606,  'Izz  ud-Din 
Maudud  B.  Muhammad,  commonly  called 
Zarkub,  the  author's  grandfather,  who  died 
A.H.  663,  and  their  contemporaries,  fol. 
136  a.     5.  Nakhib  ud-Din  'All  B.  Barghash 


ij^cji  ul-'Alavi,  who  died  A.H.  098,  and  his 
contemporaries,  fol.  153  a.  6.  The  Shaikhs 
who  flourished  in  the  author's  lifetime  and 
were  his  teachers,  fol.  167  b.  The  dates  of 
their  deaths  range  from  A.H.  708  to  733. 

Khatimah,  in  two  chapters:  1.  On  the 
descendants  of  the  prophet,  who  entered 
Shiraz,  fol.  172  a.  2.  On  some  holy  men, 
whose  shrines  are  held  in  reverence  by  the 
inhabitants,  fol.  181  b. 

At  the  beginning  of  his  account  of  Shaikh 
Abu  Ishak,  fol.  96,  the  author  states  that  he 
had  written  a  history  of  that  prince  in  two 
volumes. 

.  See  the  S.'  Petersburg  Catalogue,  p.  293, 
Sir  Wm.  Ouseley's  travels,  vol.  ii.  pp.  28,  33, 
473,  Kiimpfer,  Amoenitates  exotica),  p.  301, 
Biblioth.  Sprenger,  No.  209. 

Sloane  2744. 

Poll.  71;  8i  in.  by  6^;  15  lines,  3^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  A.H.  1099,  (A.D. 
1688). 

The  same  work. 

The  author's  name  is  written  in  the  preface 

ijj\jf^\  ^^jj>,  and  in  the  subscription  -aJ:^ 
Copyist :  ^y^\  tiUUj  i— »^~4^  ^^  Ly^'j>  a^ 

Add.  27,244. 

Poll.  59 ;  8  in.  by  4| ;  15  lines,  3  in.  long; 
written  in  small  Nestalik,  with  gold-ruled 
margins,  early  in  the  19th  century. 

[JoH.N  Macdonald  Kinneib.] 

The  same  work. 

The  copyist,  j^  li1  Vj^  (•.5*:/*  •^3  ^;  ^^ 
jolyj  ^^jSo\  j\^  ,J^,  states  in  the  subscrip- 
tion that  he  wrote  this  copy  by  order  of 
Macdonald  Sahib,  envoy  of  the  English  court. 


206 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


Add.  22,380. 

FoU.  273 ;  8  in.  by  4 ;  19  lines,  2|  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Slia'ban, 
A.H.  1002  (A.D.  1594) ;  bound  in  painted 
covers.  [Sir  Gore  Ouseley.] 

yZJ^j^S   &JoJk«   iwiU»j\   ^9   CjliU   CL>l>^j5; 

A  history  of  the  city  of  Herat  from  its  ori- 
gin to  A.H.  876. 
Author :  Mu'in  uz-Zamaji  ul-Asfizari,  ^^^ 

Beg  ft>  CMt^yut  \j  ^J-i^\  ulJJU  (jiJ.^X->  J  o"U-» 

Maulilna  Mu'in  ud-Din  Muhammad  Asfl- 
ziiri  was,  according  to  the  Habib  us-Siyar, 
Bombay  edition,  vol.  iii.  Juz  3,  p.  342,  the 
first  letter- writer  of  his  day,  and  also  a  poet 
and  calligrapher  of  repute.  He  left,  besides 
his  history  of  Herat,  a  treatise  on  epistolary 
composition  ^J^Ji^  He  gives  in  the  present 
work,  fol.  35  b,  a  detailed  description  of  the 
canton  of  Asflzar,  the  garden  of  Herat,  in 
which  he  was  born  and  grown  up,  and  of  its 
principal  place,  the  fortress  of  Muzaffar  Kuh, 
He  also  relates  incidentally.  Add.  16,704,  fol. 
344  b,  that  he  was  called  upon  to  draw  up  a 
royal  Nishan,  or  edict,  at  the  beginning  of 
Sultan  Husain's  reign.  This  Mu'in  is  not  to 
be  confounded  with  his  namesake  and  con- 
temporary Mu'in  ud-Din  Farahi,  who  has 
been  mentioned  p.  149  a. 

An  account  of  the  present  work,  with 
copious  extracts  in  French,  by  Barbier  de 
Meynard  will  be  found  in  the  Journal  Asia- 
tique,  5^  Sdrie,  vol.  xvi.  pp.  461  —  520. 
Compare  Ouseley's  Travels,  vol.  ii.  p.  442, 
D'Ohsson,  Histoire  des  Mongols,  vol.i.  p.xlv., 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  157,  vol.  iii.  p.  493, 
and  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  9. 

The  work  begins  with  a  long  panegyric  on 


the  reigning  sovereign,  Abu-1-Ghazi  Sultan 
Husain,  under  whose  rule  Herat  is  said  to 
have  attained  the  highest  degree  of  pros- 
perity. After  dwelling  on  that  city's  distinc- 
tion as  the  residence  of  Maulana  Jami,  and 
describing  at  length  its  celebrated  Mosque 
and  its  fortress,  Ikhtiyar  ud-Din,  the  author 
refers  to  the  following  earlier  historians  of 
Herat :  Imam  Abu  Ishak  Ahmad  B.  Yasin, 
Sikat  ud-Din  Shaikh  'Abd  ur-Rahman  Fiimi, 
Rabi'i  FQshanji,  who  wrote  the  Kurt-Namah 
in  verse,  and  Saif  i  Haravi,  who  left  a  record 
of  some  of  the  Kurt  kings.  He  concludes 
with  a  eulogy  on  his  patron,  the  Vazir  Kivam 
ud-Din  Nizam  ul-Mulk,  by  whose  commands 
he  wrote  this  history. 

This  Nizam  ul-Mulk,  after  having  been 
about  twenty  years  in  office,  incurred  the 
Sultan's  displeasure  and  was  imprisoned  and 
afterwards  put  to  death  in  A.H.  903.  See 
HabIb  us-Siyar,  Add.  6561,  fol.  467  b. 

The  date  of  composition  is,  according  to 
Haj.  Khal.,  Ouseley,  and  Barbier,  loc.  cit., 
A.H.  897;  but  it  does  not  appear  in  this 
copy. 

The  work  is  divided  into  six  and  twenty 
Gardens  (Rauzah),some  of  which  are  subdi- 
vided into  Lawns  (Chaman),  as  follows : 

1.  Foundation  of  Herat,  fol.  17  b.  2.  Its 
topography,  fol.  26  b.  3.  Pre-eminence  of 
Khurasan  generally,  and  of  Herat  in  particu- 
lar, fol.  31  a.  4.  Suburbs  of  Herat  and  the 
adjoining  places,  Asflzar,  Fushanj,  Badghis, 
fol.  34  a.  5.  Account  of  more  distant  places, 
such  as  Balkh,  Andakhud,  Marvi  Shahjahan, 
Ablvard,  Fasa,  Mashhad,  Jam,  Khwaf,  Bu- 
khara, Tarshiz,  Jtuvain,  Asfarain,  Tabaristan, 
Kandahar  etc.,  fol.  50  a.  6.  Rulers  of  Herat 
from  the  introduction  of  Islamism  to  the 
time  of  Sultan  Sanjar,  fol.  93  a.  7-  The 
GhOris  and  Kurts,  fol.  100  b.  8.  MaHk 
Mu'izz  ud-Din  Husain  Kurt,  and  his  son, 
Pir  'Ali,  fob  130  b.  9.  Conquest  of  Khura- 
san by  Timur,  fol.  142  b.  10.  Timur  gives 
the  government  of  Khurasan  to  Shrihrukh, 


HISTORIES  OP  HERAT  AND  YAZD. 


207 


fol.  148  a.  11.  Some  events  which  took 
place  in  Herat  in  ancient  and  modern  times, 
fol.  150  a.  12.  Attack  of  Bujrii  B.  DSnish- 
mand,  sent  by  Uljaitu  Sultan  against  Herat, 
fol.  162  a.  13.  Events  of  the  reign  of  Shah- 
rukh,  fol.  168  h.  14.  Restoration  of  Herat 
and  Khurasan,  after  the  devastation  effected 
by  TQli  Khan  B.  Chingizkhan  and  Moghul 
governors,  fol.  176  h.  15.  Events  which 
happened  in  Herat  after  the  death  of  Shah- 
rukh,  fol.  187  a.  16.  Installation  of  Abu'l- 
kasim  Bilbur  Khan  on  the  throne  of  Khura- 
san, fol.  203  a.  17.  Second  accession  of 
Babur  Mirza  and  his  reign,  fol.  211  h. 
18.  Sultan  Sa'id  (Abu  Sa'id)  marches  into 
Khurasan,  and  seizes  upon  the  throne,  fol. 
226  h.  19.  Reign  of  the  Turkaman  Jahan- 
shah  Mirza,  son  of  Kara  Yusuf,  in  Khurasan, 
fol.  230  a.  20.  Second  accession  of  Sultan 
Said,  fol.  233  a.  21.  Expedition  of  Sultan 
Sa  id  to  Irak,  fol.  246  h.  22.  His  capture  by 
the  Turcomans  and  his  death,  fol.  250  h. 
23.  Accession  of  Abu'l-ghazi  Sultan  Husain, 
fol.  256  h.  24.  Some  events  of  the  beginning 
of  his  reign,  fol.  260  h.  25.  Accession  of 
Yadgar  Muhammad  Mirza,  fol.  265  a».  26.  Re- 
storation of  Abu'l-ghazI  Sultan  Husain,  (A.H. 
876),  fol.  270  a. 


Add.  16,704. 

Poll.  349 ;  7  in.  by  4 ;  17  lines,  2|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  small  and  neat  Nestalik, 
with  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  1002  (A.D.  1594).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work.  In  this  copy  the  work 
is  stated  in  the  preface,  fol.  24  h,  to  consist 
of  twenty-seven  Rauzahs.  The  additional 
chapter,  Rauzah  27th,  fol.  344  a,  treats  of 
the  generosity  and  benevolence  of  Sultan 
Husain,  as  evinced  in  the  reform  of  oppressive 
abuses  and  other  acts  of  his  reign.  In  con- 
clusion the  author  states  that  he  intended, 
should  life  be  vouchsafed  to  Ixim,  to  record  in 


another  volume  the  buildings  erected  by 
the  Sultan  and  princes,  and  the  festivities  and 
other  occurrences  of  the  reign,  beginning 
with  A.H.  900. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  contents  in  the  same 
hand  as  the  text,  foil.  1  h — 5  a. 

This  MS.  appears  to  have  belonged  to  the 
imperial  li])rary  of  Dehli ;  the  fir^  page  is 
covered  with  'Arz-Didahs  and  seals,  the 
earliest  of  which  bears  the  name  of  Amanat 
Khan  Shahjahani,  with  the  date  1042. 

Or.  210  and  211. 

.  Two  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  376  and  302  ;  9^  in.  by  5i  ; 
15  lines,  2|  in.  long ;  written  in  Nestalik  by 
the  same  hand,  and  having  a  continuous 
pagination ;  dated  A.H.  1089  and  1090  (A.D. 
1678-9).  [Geo.  W,  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  Yazd  and  its  celebrated  men. 

Author:  Muhammad  Mufid  Mustaufi  B. 
Najm  ud-Din  Mahmud  Bafaki  Yazdl  (Or. 
211,  foil.  164^  301),  ^  (^   JjL-»  M^   y^ 

\^i>j>.  ^V  ^y*^  {J>A^ 

Beg,  j^^jL»  jyi^  iy>-  t^'jj  do  («^j  U 

Respecting  the  author,  the  following  may 
be  gathered  from  the  memoirs  of  his  life  and 
from  his  conclusion.  Or.  211,  foil.  163—214, 
301-2.  He  was  born  in  Yazd,  and  was  ap- 
pointed in  A.H.  1077,  shortly  after  the 
accession  of  Shah  Sulaiman,  Mustaufi  of 
the  Vakfs  of  that  city,  and  two  years  later 
Nazir  of  the  same  Vakfs.  He  soon  after 
resigned  that  office,  and  set  out  in  Rajah,  A.H. 
1081,  for  Isfahan,  proceeded  thence  to  the 
holy  shrines  of  Najaf  and  KarbaUl,  and 
settled  for  a  time  in  Basrah,  where  he  com- 
menced the  present  work  in  A.H.  1082,  but 
was  soon  interrupted  by  a  severe  illness, 
which  lasted  four  months.     On  his  recovery 


208 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


in  Eajab  of  the  same  year,  he  took  ship 
to  India,  and  landing  at  Surat,  went  on  to 
Dchli  and,  after  a  short  stay  there,  to  Hai- 
darubad.  After  some  years'  wandering,  in 
the  course  of  which  he  visited  Burhanpiir  in 
A.H.  1081,  and  Dehli  again  in  1086,  he 
reached  in  Safar,  A.H.  1088,  the  city  of 
Ujjain,  then  the  residence  of  Prince  Mu- 
hammad Akbar,  who  took  him  into  his 
service  as  Khrmsanian.  In  the  next  year  he 
followed  the  prince  to  Multan,  and  there,  in 
Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1090,  he  completed  the 
present  work,  upon  which  he  had  been  en- 
gaged during  eight  years  of  almost  incessant 
travelling. 

These  two  MSS.,  written  evidently  by  the 
author  himself,  with  many  corrections  and 
additions  in  his  own  hand,  form  together  the 
third  volume  (Mujallad)  of  that  extensive 
work.  While  the  first  two  volumes  con- 
tained, as  appears  from  the  conclusion,  the 
political  history  of  Yazd,  the  third  comprises 
the  biographical  and  topographical  portions 
of  the  work.  It  is  divided  into  two  books 
(Jild),  containing  together  five  discourses 
(Makiilah)  and  a  Khatimah,  as  follows : — 

Jild  I.  Makrdah  I.  Biographical  notices, 
arranged  in  seven  Majlis:  1.  Sayyids,  Or. 
210,  fol.  2  a.  2.  Vazirs,  fol.  96  a.  3.  Ka- 
lantars,  fol.  193  a.     4.  Mustaufis,  fol.  197  a. 

5.  Minbashis  and  Yuzbashis,  fol.  215  a.  The 
last  two  Majlis,  which  were  to  treat  of  the 
administrators  of  the  Vakfs  and  of  the  Divan 
officials,  were  left  unwritten,  the  author 
pleading  for  his  excuse  the  duties  of  his 
new  office  in  the  prince's  household. 

Makalah  II.  Biographical  notices  in  ten 
Fasls :  1.  'Ulama  and  litterati  (fuzala),  fol. 
233  b.  2.  Kazis,  fol.  269  a.  3.  Muhtasibs, 
fol.  287  a.     4.  Preachers  (Va'iz),  fol.  288  a. 

6.  Khatlbs,  fol.  292  a.  6.  Astrologers,  fol. 
293  a.  7.  Calligraphers,  fol.  295  a.  8.  Phy- 
sicians, fol.  302  a.  9.  Poets,  fol.  310  a. 
10.  Men  of  rank  and  wealth,  fol.  332  b. 
Ascetics,  geometers,  and  artists,  fol.  370  a. 


Jild  II.  Makalah  III.  Biographical  no- 
tices of  the  holy  Imamzadahs  and  Shaikhs 
of  Yazd  and  their  disciples.  Or.  211,  fol.  2  ft. 

Makalah  IV.,  in  five  Guftars  :  1.  Mosques, 
fol.  94  ft.  2.  Colleges,  fol.  100  ft.  Monas- 
teries, fol.  104  ft.  Cisterns  (Masna'ah),  fol. 
109  a.  3.  Villages,  gardens,  suburbs,  canals, 
etc.,  fol.  113  a.  4i.  Origin  of  the  ancient 
buildings,  foundation  of  the  citadel,  fol.  152  ft. 
The  fifth  Guftar  is  wanting. 

Makalah  V.  The  author's  life  and  travels, 
fol.  163  ft. 

Khatimah.  Abstract  of  geography,  won- 
ders of  the  world,  curiosities  of  nature, 
various  anecdotes,  etc.,  fol.  214  ft. 

Add.  23,531. 

Foil.  369  ;  11|  in.  by  7^  ;  19  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Naskhi  by  different  hands  ; 
dated  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1079  (A.D.  1669). 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

History  of  the  Kurds. 

Author  :    Sharaf  B.  Shams  ud-Din,  cJ;^ 

Beg.    jj.b  \j  (J6U»:)1>.  ^Uj  j  >.w>  i^  ^^^ 

Sharaf  Khan,  son  of  Amir  Shams  ud-Dln, 
prince  of  Bidlis,  was  born  A.H.  949  in  Karah- 
rud,  a  dependency  of  Kum,  where  his  father, 
■dispossessed  of  his  estate,  had  fixed  his  resi- 
dence. He  was  brought  up  in  the  palace  of 
Shah  Tahmasp,  and  appointed  at  the  age  of 
twelve  years  Amir  of  the  Kurdish  tribe  of 
RuzakT.  He  distinguished  himself  some 
years  later  (A.H.  975),  in  the  conquest  and 
settlement  of  Gilan,  and  was  rewarded  with 
a  government  in  Shirvan,  and  subsequently 
with  the  office  of  Amir  vd-Umara  of  all 
the  Kui-ds.  Having  incurred,  however,  the 
suspicion  of  Shah  Isma'il  II.,  he  was  re- 
legated to  Nakhchivan,  passed  over  to  the 


HISTORY  OF  THE  KURDS. 


209 


Turks,  and  was  reinstated  by  Sultan  Murud 
in  his  hereditary  estate  of  Bidli8  in  A.H. 
986,  There  he  wrote  the  present  work, 
which  he  completed  in  A.H.  1005. 

Accounts  of  the  contents  of  the  Sharaf- 
Namah  and  of  the  author's  life  liave  been 
published  by  Wolkov,  Journal  Asiatique, 
vol.  viii.  pp.  291 — 298 ;  byMorley,  Descriptive 
Catalogue,  pp.  143 — 151  ;  by  Dr.  Barb, 
Sitzung's  Berichte  der  philol.  histor.  Classe 
der  "Wiener  Akademie,  vol.  x.  p.  258,  vol. 
xxii.  p.  3,  vol.  xxviii.  p.  3 ;  and  by  Veliaminof- 
Zernof,  in  the  preface  to  his  edition  of  the  text, 
*' Scheref-Nameh  ou  Histoire  des  Kourdes," 
S.  Petersburg,  1860.  Compare  Haj.  Khal., 
vol.  ii.  p.  134,  Rich's  Narrative,  vol.  i.  p.  247, 
Malcolm,  History  of  Persia,  vol.  ii.  p.  207, 
etc.,  Asiatisches  Museum,  pp.  283,  661, 
Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol.  ii.  p.  497,  vol.  v. 
p.  249,  S.  Petersburg  Catalogue,  p.  295. 

The  MS.  numbered  468  in  the  Rich  col- 
lection, now  Add.  7860,  contains  a  Turkish 
version  of  the  original.  An  abridged  Turkish 
translation  by  Shem'i  is  preserved  in  Add. 
18,547 ;  see  Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  145, 
note. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah, 
four  Sahifahs  and  a  Khatimah,  as  follows : — 

Mukaddimah.  Origin  of  the  Kurdish  tribes, 
and  their  manners  and  customs,  fol.  7  a. 

Sahlfah  I.  History  of  the  Kurd  chiefs  who 
ruled  as  Sultans,  in  five  Fasls  :  1.  Rulers  of 
Jazirah  and  Diyarbakr,  fol.  11  a.  2.  Rulers 
of  Dinavar  and  Shahrazul,  fol.  11  b.  3.  The 
Fazlavaih  or  Lur  Buzurg,  fol.  13  a.  4.  The 
Lur  Kuchak,  fol.  17  a.  5.  The  Sultans  of 
Egypt  and  Syria,  or  Al  i  Ayyiib,  fol.  28  b. 

Sahlfah  II.  History  of  the  Kurd  chiefs, 
who,  although  not  styled  Sultans,  exercised 
at  times  sovereign  power,  in  five  Fasls : 
Rulers  of  Ardalan,  fol.  42  a,  Hakuri,  fol.  45  b, 
'Imadiyyah,  fol.  54  a,  Jazirah,  fol.  59  a, 
Hisnkifa,  fol.  75  b. 

Sahlfah  III.  History  of  the  other  Kurd 
chiefs,  in  three  Firkahs,  beginning  respec- 


tively on  foU.  82  a,  134  a,  159  a.  The  second 
of  these  Firkahs  is  stated  in  the  heading  to 
comprise  eleven  Fasls ;  but  the  seventh, 
eighth,  and  ninth  are  wanting  in  tliis  MS. 
as  well  as  in  the  other  known  copies. 

Sahlfah  IV.  History  of  the  rulers  of  Bidlis, 
ancestors  of  the  author,  in  a  Fiitihah,  four 
Satars,  and  an  appendix  (Zail),  fol.  164  b. 
The  appendix,  foil.  218  a — 223  a,  contains 
the  author's  life. 

Khatimah.  History  of  the  Sultans  of  the 
race  of  Osman,  and  of  the  contemporary 
kings  of  Iran  and  Turan,  fol.  223  b. 

Copyist :  J^j^^  j^  ^^  ^^  ^^^-^ 

Add.  27,246. 

Foil.  328 ;  10  in.  by  6 ;  18  lines,  3|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Naskhi ;  dated  Isfahan, 
Rabl'II.,  A.H.  1055  (A.D.  1645). 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

The  same  work. 

Some  leaves  are  missing  at  the  beginning 
and  in  various  places  in  the  body  of  the 
volume.  The  lacunes  thus  occasioned  cor- 
respond to  the  following  pages  of  the  printed 
text :  vol.  i.  pp.  2—5,  214—220,  228—233, 
265—267,  278—287,  302—314,  348—353, 
vol.  ii.  pp.  6 — 8. 

At  the  end  is  found  a  transcript  of  the 
author's  subscription,  in  which  he  calls  him- 
self ^jjJii)\  ^J^»■i}^  ji-!jJ^  (j-.^  ij>  uJ,-,  and 
states  that  he  completed  the  composition  and 
revision  of  the  work  at  the  end  of  Muharram, 
A.H.  1055  (  a  clerical  error  for  A.H.  1005). 

Copyist :   ^yj>,  alJl  i_fliaJ  ^^  jJj  <^s-> 


Add.  22,698. 

Foil.  279 ;  13  in.  by  8 ;  18  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Rabi' II., 
A.H.  1231  (A.D.  1816). 

[Sir  John  Campbell.] 


210 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


The  same  work.  There  is  in  the  middle 
of  fol.  116  h  a  considerable  gap,  without  any 
apparent  break  in  the  writing,  extending 
from  p.  302  to  p.  321  of  the  first  volume  of 
printed  text. 

Copyist :  JijM  J^si^  ^'^  <y*^  i^^^  'i^  (^^ 

On  the  first  page  is  a  Persian  note  stating 
that  this  volume  was  presented  by  'Abbas 
Mirza  (the  eldest  son  of  Path  'Ali  Shah)  to 
Amanat  Ullah  Khfm  B.  Khalil  of  Ardalan, 
governor  of  Kurdistan,  A.H.  1231. 

Add.  23,532. 

Foil.  250;  11^  in.  by  7i;  21  lines,  4| 
in.  long;  Avritten  in  cursive  Nestalik,  on 
European  paper,  bearing  the  date  1827  in  its 
water-mark.  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

The  same  work.  The  transcriber  has  left 
out  the  first  two  or  three  pages  of  the  preface, 
pp.  2 — 6  of  the  printed  edition.  The  last 
four  lines  have  been  added  by  another  hand, 
with  the  date  Safar  A.H.  1216  (A.D.  1830). 

Egerton  696. 

Foil.  297;  9^  in.  by  5^  ;  15  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Adam  Clarke.] 

History  of  the  Afghilns. 
Author  :  Khwajah  Ni'mat  Ullah  B.  Habib 
Ullah  ul-HaravT,  <»JJ1  •-:>*■*■  ij->  i^^  C*»«i  n^^y- 

Beg.  J^j^^-^  J  j^    ^.\Sj   ^^Jyc  i^  ^J^ 

We  learn  from  the  author,  in  the  intro- 
duction to  his  history  of  Jahanglr,  fol.  209  a, 
that  his  father  had  spent  the  last  thirty-five 
years  of  his  life  in  Akbar's  service,  in  the 
department  of  the  Khrdisah,  and  that  he  had 


himself  discharged  under  Jahanglr  the  office 
of  Vuki'ah-navis  and  other  functions  during 
eleven  years  ending  in  A.H.  1017,  when  he 
lost  his  post  and  entered  the  service  of 
Khanjahan. 

He  states,  in  the  preface,  that  he  accom- 
panied the  latter  in  his  Deccan  campaign,  in 
A.H.  1018.  On  that  occasion  he  became  in- 
timate with  Miyan  Haibat  Khan  B.  Sallm 
Khan  Kakar,  of  Samanah,  who  also  served 
under  Khanjahan,  and  by  whom  he  was  in- 
duced to  write  the  present  work.  He  adds  that 
he  commenced  it  in  Zulhijjah,  A.H.  1020, 
while  staying  in  MalkapCir,  Berar,  dedicated 
it  to  Khanjahan,  and  gave  it  the  above  title, 
derived  from  his  patron's  name. 

Pir  Muhammad,  son  of  Daulatkhan  Lodi, 
received  the  title  of  Khanjahan  from  Jahan- 
glr in  the  second  year  of  his  reign,  and  rose 
rapidly  to  the  highest  military  commands. 
He  died  A.H.  1040.  His  life  is  fully  told 
in  the  MaS§ir  ul-Umara,  Add.  6567,  fol.  175, 
and  in  Blochmann's  A'in  i  Akbari,  vol.  i. 
pp.  503—506. 

In  some  verses  at  the  end.  Add.  26,283, 
fol.  339  5,  the  author  states  that  he  com- 
pleted this  work  on  the  tenth  of  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  1021. 

The  above  preface  agrees  substantially 
with  that  of  another  recension  of  the  same 
work,  entitled  ^j\ii\  lojas*,  an  English  version 
of  which  was  published  by  Dr.  Dorn  under  the 
title  of  "  History  of  the  Afghans,  from  the 
Persian  of  Neamet  Ullah,"  London,  1829.  In 
the  preface  of  the  latter,  however,  there  occurs 
a  statement,  not  found  in  the  former,  that 
Haibat  Khan  "had  collected  and  arranged 
the  scattered  and  confused  genealogy  of  the 
Afghans,"  while  the  dedication  to  Khanjahan 
is  there  left  out.  See  Dorn's  translation, 
vol.  i.  pp.  1 — 4.  Other  differences  between 
the  two  recensions  are  fully  pointed  out  by 
Sir  H.  Elliot  and  Prof.  Dowson  in  the  His- 
tory of  India,  where  copious  extracts  are 
given,  vol.  v.  pp.  67 — 115.    Compare  Dorn's 


HISTORY  OF  THE  AFGHANS. 


211 


translation,  vol.  i.  p.  ix.,  and  vol.  ii.  p.  ii., 
Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  74,  and  Stewart's 
Catalogue,  p.  18. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah, 
seven  Babs,  and  a  Khatimah.  Their  contents 
are  stated  in  the  preface,  as  follows  : 

Mukaddimah.  History  of  Mihtar  Ya'kub 
Isra'il  Ullah  (Jacob),  his  children,  and  his 
genealogy,  fol.  6  h. 

Bab  I.  History  of  king  Tfdut  (Saul)  and 
the  Ark,  of  Talut's  appointment  as  king  over 
the  sons  of  Israel,  of  the  slaying  of  Jrdut 
by  Da'ud,  of  Sulaiman,  the  death  of  Taliit, 
his  descendants,  the  conquest  of  Jerusalem 
by  Bukht  Nassar,  the  expulsion  of  the  Is- 
raelites, the  migration  of  this  (the  Af- 
ghan) tribe  to  the  mountains  of  Ghur  and 
to  Kuh  i  Sulaiman  and  the  country  of  Rob, 
fol.  15  a. 

Bab  II.  History  of  Khalid  B.  Valid,  his 
conversion  to  Islamism,  his  campaigns  in 
Basrah,  Kufah,  Syria,  Asia  Minor  and  Irak, 
and  conflicting  traditions  respecting  his 
descent,  fol.  38  b ;  see  Dorn's  translation, 
vol.  i.  p.  5. 

Bab  III.  History  of  Sultan  BahKil  Lodi, 
who  first  raised  the  standard  of  sovereignty 
in  Hindustan,  and  his  successors,  down  to 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  Sultan  Ibrahim  B. 
Sikandar  B.  Bahlul  and  his  death,  in  three 
Fasls,  fol.  60  a.     (Translation,  p.  43.) 

Bab  IV.  History  of  the  reigns  of  Shir 
Shah  Sur  and  his  successors,  down  to  the 
end  of  the  reign  of  'Adli,  in  four  Fasls, 
fol.  160  a.     (Translation,  p.  80.) 

Bab  V.  History  of  Navvab  Khiinjahan  LodI, 
the  principal  subject  of  this  composition, 
with  an  account  of  his  ancestors,  fol.  176  a. 

Bab  VI.  Genealogy  of  the  Afghans,  in 
three  Fasls  :  1.  The  Sarbanis.  2.  The 
Batnis.  3.  The  Ghurghushtis.  (Translation, 
vol.  ii.  p.  40). 

Bab  VII.  History  of  the  reign  of  Jahangir. 

Khatimah.  Lives  of  Afghan  Shaikhs 
(Translation,  vol.  ii.  p.  1.) 


The  fifth  and  seventh  Biibs  do  not  appear 
in  the  shorter  recension. 

In  the  body  of  the  present  copy  the  latter 
three  sections  are  transposed  and  appear  in 
the  following  order:  History  of  Jahangir, 
fol.  208  b.  Lives  of  Afghan  Shaikhs,  fol. 
238  b  (imperfect  at  the  end).  Genealogy  of 
the  Afghans,  fol.  261  a.  The  last  wants 
about  two  leaves  at  the  end ;  it  breaks  off 
in  the  account  of  Bakhtiyar;  see  Dorn's 
translation,  vol.  ii.  p.  55. 

Add.  26,283. 

Foil.  243;  2^  in.  by  6;  15  lines,  3|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Rabi*  II., 
A.H.  1205  (AD.  1790).         [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  same  work. 

The  preface  is  wanting,  and  the  table  of 
chapters,  which  agrees  with  that  of  the  pre- 
ceding copy,  follows  immediately  the  doxo- 
logy.  Bab  V.,  the  histoiy  of  Khanjahan,  is 
also  omitted. 

Contents:  Mukaddimah,  fol.  3  a.  Bilb  I., 
fol.  10  a.  Bab  II.,  fol.  29  a.  Bab  III., 
fol.  46  a.  Bab  IV.,  fol.  81  a.  Bab  VI.,  ge- 
nealogy of  the  Afghans,  fol.  130  a.  Bab  VII., 
history  of  Jahangir,  fol.  158  a.  Khatimah, 
lives  of  Afghan  Shaikhs,  fol.  184  a.  Appen- 
dix by  Haibat  Khan,  B.  Salim  Khan  on  his 
own  genealogy,  fol.  240  a.  This  last  piece 
will  be  found  in  Dorn's  translation,  vol.  ii. 
pp.  iv. — viii. 

The  transcriber  ^^__i!^  jM  ^  states  that 

he  made  this  copy  for  'Abd  Ullah  Khan 
and  Sa'd  Ullah  Khan  in  the  space  of  twenty 
days  and  nights. 

Egerton  1014. 

Foil.  279;  9|  in.  by  6|; ;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  by  different  hands  in  cursive 
chai'acters,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

The  same  work. 

In  the  concluding  lines  the  work  is  desig- 
nated as  y^y^^Vi-  ^\i>3\  jjyie?  ^jU  . 
EE  2 


212 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


This  copy  wants  the  preface,  like  the  pre- 
ceding. The  contents  are  arranged  in  the 
normal  order,  as  in  the  table  of  chapters 
given  under  Egerton  696,  viz.  Mukaddimah, 
fol.  5  a.  Bab  I.,  fol.  12  a.  Bab  II.,  fol. 
36  a.  Bab  III.,  fol.  55  a.  Bab  IV.,  life  of 
Khiinjahan,  fol.  93  a.  Bab  V.,  genealogy  of 
the  Afghans,  foL  153  a.  Bab  VI.,  history 
of  Jahangir,  fol.  201  a.  Khatimah,  lives  of 
Afghan  Shaikhs,  fol.  222  a. 

Add.  21,911, 

Foil.  219;  9^  in.  by  5i;  3f  in.  long; 
written  partly  in  Nestalik,  partly  in  Shi- 
kastah-amiz ;  dated  (fol.  172  b)  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  1080  (A.D.  1670). 

A  shorter  recension  of  the  same  work, 
wanting  the  life  of  Khanjahan  and  the  his- 
tory of  Jahangir.  This  is  the  recension 
represented  by  Dr.  Dorn's  translation ;  but 
the  text  of  the  present  copy  is  in  many 
places  more  condensed  than  the  latter. 

This  recension  is  divided  into  three  Babs 
and  three  Daftars,  enumerated  in  the  pre- 
face, as  follows : — 

Bab  I.,  history  of  Mihtar  YaTvub,  etc., 
fol.  3  b.  Bab  II.,  history  of  king  TalQt  and 
of  the  migration  of  this  tribe  to  the  moun- 
tains of  Ghur,  etc.,  fol.  9  a.  Bab  III.,  his- 
tory of  Khalid  B.  Valid,  etc.,  fol.  23  a. 
Daftar  I.,  history  of  Sultun  Balilul,  Sultan 
Sikandar  Lodi,  and  Sultan  Ibrahim  Lodi, 
fol.  39  b.  Daftar  II.,  history  of  Shir  Shah, 
Islam  Shah,  and  some  Afghan  chiefs,  fol.  83  b. 
Daftar  III.,  account  of  the  Darvishes  of  this 
nation  and  their  miracles,  fol.  173  a.  Kha- 
timah (not  mentioned  in  the  preface),  gene- 
alogy of  the  Afghans,  fol.  205  b. 

At  the  end  of  Daftar  II.,  fol.  172  6,  are 
found  some  lines  in  which  a  certain  Ibrahim 
Batni  states  that  he  had  supplemented  the 


Tarikh  i  Shlrshahl  of  'Abbfis  SarvanI  with 
some  extracts  from  the  Tarikh  i  Nizami  and 
from  the  Makhzan  i  Afghani.  This  passage, 
the  presence  of  which  in  a  copy  of  the 
latter  work  can  only  be  the  result  of  a  strange 
inadvertence,  appears  also  in  Dorn's  transla- 
lation,  vol.  i.  p.  184,  but  is  not  found  in  any 
of  the  three  copies  of  the  Tarikh  i  Khan- 
jahani. 

Egerton   1104. 

Foil.  129  ;  8i  in.  by  4| ;  11  lines,  2f  in. 
long,  in  a  page.  Written  in  a  neat  Nestalik  ; 
dated  Lucnow,  Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1211  (A.H. 
1796).  [Adam  Clarke.] 

^f)^\J\    :>.    Ac.  &i.»JL.:^   l_;LJi'^\   eLo^ 

An  account  of  the  genealogy  of  the  Afghan 
tribes. 

Author  (fol.  13  a) :  Hafiz  Eahmat  B.  Shah 
'Alam  Kutah  Khail,  ^!lfr  jli»   ^^  C*^  kiU 

Beg.  jc   ^   6^  .  .  .  jjO'jJ^   ^->j   i^    jJA 

Hafiz  ul-Mulk  Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan,  the 
celebrated  Rohilah  chief,  born  in  Afghan- 
istan about  A.H.  1120,  settled  in  the  dis- 
trict of  Kuthair  in  the  time  of  Muhammad 
Shah,  became  its  ruler  in  A.H.  1161,  and 
played  a  conspicuous  part  in  the  Mahratta 
wars.  He  fell  in  battle  against  Shuja' 
ud-Daulah,  A.H.  1188.  His  life  has  been 
written  by  his  son,  Mustajab  Khan,  and 
translated  by  Charles  Elliott,  London,  1831. 
The  present  work  is  mentioned  there  in  the 
text,  Or.  198,  fol.  7  a;  but  in  the  English 
version,  p.  6,  it  is  ascribed,  by  an  error  of  the 
translator,  to  the  author's  great-grandfather, 
KutT  Baba.  The  Khulasat  ul-Ansab  has  been 
noticed  by  Sam.  Lee,  Travels  of  Ibn  Batuta, 
pp.  XV.  and  98,  and  by  Dr.  Dorn,  History  of 


HISTORY  OF  THE  AFGHANS. 


213 


I 


the  Afghans,  p.  xii. ;  see  also  Sir  Wm.  Ouse- 
ley's  Catalogue,  No.  352. 

The  author  remarks  in  his  preface  that 
the  whole  of  his  tribe,  the  Kiitah  Khail, 
having  emigrated  to  Hindustan,  his  own 
children,  as  well  as  other  India-born  Afghfins, 
were  growing  up  in  sad  ignorance  of  their 
pedigree  and  relationships.  An  acquaintance 
with  one's  genealogy  being  a  duty  imposed 
by  religion  and  carefully  observed  by  his 
nation,  he  felt  called  upon  to  write  the 
prtisent  work  for  their  benefit,  relying  partly 
on  his  own  knowledge  (acquired  during  his 
youth  in  Afghanistan),  partly  on  such  trust- 
worthy works  as  Tarikhi  Khanjahfini,  Tarikh 
i  Shlrshalu,  and  the  Tazkirah  of  Akhiind 
DarvTzah.  It  is  stated  in  some  verses  at  the 
end  that  the  work  was  completed  in  Rajab, 
A.H.  1184. 

Contents :  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Account  of 
Shaikh  Kutah,  the  ancestor  of  the  Kutah 
Khail  family,  fol.  19  b.  (His  name  was  Shihab 
ud-Din,  but  he  liked  to  call  himself  the  dog 
[Kutah]  of  the  Prophet.)  His  three  sons,  viz. 
Pae,  Mahmud,  surnamed  Mfitl  (the  author's 
grandfather),  and  Adam,  and  their  descen- 
dants, fol.  24  a.  Kais  'Abd  ur-Rashid,  the 
ancestor  of  the  Afghan  race,  his  three  sons, 
Sarahban,  Baitan,  and  Ghurghusht.  and  his 
descent  from  Trdut,  fol.  29  a.  Conversion  of 
the  Afghans  to  Islamism,  and  their  wars  with 
the  infidels  down  to  the  time  of  Ahmad  Shah 
Durrani,  fol.  46  a.  Genealogy  of  the  tribes 
issued  from  Sarahban,  fol.  54  ft,  Baitan,  fol. 
72  6,  Ghurghusht,  fol.  79  i,  Karlanl,  fol.  80  b, 
Savati  JV*,  fol.  85  a,  and  Farmuli,  fol.  87  a. 
Sayyids  of  Afghanistan,  fol.  87  b.  Limits 
of  Afghanistan,  fol.  90  b.  On  the  true  Sunni 
doctrine  and  the  heretical,  especially  the 
Shi'ah,  sects,  fol.  91  b. 

Afghan  verses  are  often  quoted,  and  in 
these,  as  well  as  in  proper  names,  the  looped 
letters  peculiar  to  tlie  Pashtu  language  are 
of  frequent  occurrence. 


On  the  first  page  is  written  "  Wm.  Franck- 
lin,  1796." 

Or.  196. 

Foil.  132 ;  Hi  by  6^ ;  19  lines,  35  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  18th  century.      [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  Ahmad  Shah  Durrani,  from 
his  rise  to  power  to  his  occupation  of  Dehli 
(A.H.  1171). 

Author:  Mahmud  nl-Muganna  (i.e.  Mah- 
mud B.  Mahmiid)   B.  Ibrahim  ul-IJusainl, 

•    Beg.  c*it>^\ut  V    iliiib  (_y.lJLj  (jSj^I::-*  j  (.^^^ 


bi-^ 


^ 


The  author  says  in  the  preface  that,  ever 
since  he  had  had  the  good  fortune  to  become 
one  of  the  state-secretaries  UJ^\  jb  j^^i~^  of 
Sultan  Ahmad  Shall  Durr  i  Durran,  he  had 
entertained  the  project  of  recording  His 
Majesty's  glorious  deeds,  and  that  he  had  in 
the  end  received  the  royal  commands  to 
carry  it  out  by  writing  the  present  work. 

Contents  :  Origin  and  rise  of  Ahmad  Shah, 
fol.  8  b.  Events  of  A.H.  1160,  fol.  15  b. 
Taking  of  Tun,  fol.  18  b.  March  to  Mash- 
had,  fol.  22  a.  Capture  of  Mir  'Alam  Khan, 
fol.  28  a.  Arrival  of  Shahrukh  Shah  at 
court,  fol.  30  b.  Enthronement  of  Shah- 
rukh and  march  of  Ahmad  Shah  to  Nisha- 
pur,  fol.  38  a.  Kevolt  of  Ismail  Khan, 
fol.  43  a.  March  to  Sabzavar  and  Herat, 
fol.  45  a.  Arrival  at  Farah  and  Kandahar, 
fol.  50  a.  Arrival  of  Prince  Timur  Mirza 
at  court,  fol.  54  a.  Building  of  the  fortress 
of  Ahmad-Shahi,  fol.  55  b.  Departure  for 
Hindustan,  fol.  62  b.  Arrival  of  an  envoy 
from  Hindustan,  fol.  63  a.  Jan  Khan  dis- 
patched against  the  Katghaniyyah,  fol.  64  a. 
The  Indian  envoy  Irich  Khan  dismissed, 
fol.  66  a.  Missive  of  Ghazi  ud-Din  Khan, 
fol.  69  b.  Solemnities  on  the  circumcision 
of  Prince  Sulaiman,  fol.  75  b.    March  to 


214. 


LOCAL  mSTOEIES  OP  IRAN. 


Kabul,  fol.  78  h.  March  to  Peshawur, 
fol.  83  a.  Arrival  of  the  Dehli  envoy,  Riza 
Kuli  Khan,  fol.  87  a.  Battle  of  Sonipat, 
and  capture  of  Dehli,  fol.  90  a.  Arrival  of 
'Alamgir  Shah  at  court,  fol.  96  h. 

The  narrative  closes  at  fol.  104,  the  last 
event  recorded  being  the  marriage  of  Prince 
Timiir  with  a  daughter  of  'Alamgir  (A.H. 
1171).  The  rest  of  the  volume  treats  of 
remarkable  traits  of  Ahmad  Shah,  of  his 
spiritual  gifts  and  of  some  extraordinary 
incidents  of  his  life.  There  are  gaps  after 
fol.  87  and  after  fol.  102 ;  two  blank  leaves 
have  been  left  in  each  place. 

The  title  ^li»  s^  f„Jo  is  written  on  the 
first  page.  A  table  of  contents  has  been 
prefixed  by  a  later  hand. 

Or.  201. 

Foil.  27 ;  11  in.  by  6^ ;  17  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik,  in  the 
19th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

An  account  of  the  Afghan  rising  at  Kabul, 
the  massacre  of  the  British  force,  and  the 
fall  of  Shuja'  ul-Mulk,  in  the  years  1841  and 
1842. 

Beg,  c^\^  ^Jiisfj}}^  ^\jj\j\^  j) 

The  author,  whose  name  does  not  appear, 
but  who  was  evidently  attached  to  the  court 
of  Shuja'  ul-Mulk,  states  in  his  preamble 
that,  although  some  Akhbar-navis  of  Hin- 
dustan had  written,  from  hearsay,  various 
accounts  of  the  Kabul  rising,  he  thought  it 
nevertheless  advisable  to  record,  for  the 
benefit  of  the  English  and  of  his  absent 
friends,  what  he  had  himself  seen  and  heard 
on  the  spot.  After  dwelling  at  some  length 
on  the  causes  of  the  disaffection  of  the 
Afghans  and  of  the  extreme  unpopularity  of 
the  rule  of  Shuja'  ul-Mulk,  he  proceeds  to  a 
detailed  narrative  of  the  complot  of  the 
Ghiljai  chiefs,  fol.  6  6,  of  their  first  attack 
on  Sir  Eobcit  Sale's  force  at  Khurd  Kabul 


(12th  Oct.  1841 ;  see  Kaye's  War  in  Afghan- 
istan, vol.  ii.  p.  156),  the  outbreak  of  the 
insurrection  in  Kabul,  the  storming  of  Sir 
Alex.  Burne's  house  on  the  16th  of  Ramazan, 
A.H.  1257  (2nd  Nov.  1841 ;  see  Kaye,  vol.  ii. 
p.  168),  and  the  subsequent  proceedings  of 
the  Afghans.  The  history  closes  with  the 
re-occupation  and  sacking  of  Kabul  by 
General  George  Pollock,  and  his  march  back 
to  India  (Sept.  and  Oct.  1842;  see  Kaye, 
vol.  iii.  p.  341). 

In  the  last  lines  the  author  refers  briefly  to 
the  children  of  Shuja  ul-Mulk,  and  their 
settling  in  Lodhianah,  with  allowances  from 
the  East  India  Company. 

The  following  title  is  written  on  the  fly- 
leaf, Jjli^tdJo*  J^j\  *-tf^ 

Add.  23,534. 

Eoll.  138  ;  8i  in.  by  6 ;  14  lines,  3J  in. 
long ;  written  in  Naskhi,  about  the  close  of 


the  18th  century. 


[Rob.  Taylok.] 


A  history  of  Shushtar,  from  the  earliest 
times  to  A.H.  1169,  with  notices  of  its  cele- 
brated men,  and  memoirs  of  the  author's  life. 

Author :   Eakir,  j^ 

Beg.  «/jJ\  i:ijj\  j-aj  .)\  ^^\Ji\  ^j  sU  d^^ 

The  author,  who  designates  himself  by  the 
Takhallus  of  Fakir,  was  called  Sayyid  'Abd 
UUah  B.  Nur  ud-Din  B.  Nimat  Ullah  ul- 
Husaini  ush-Shushtari.  He  belonged  to  the 
noble  family  of  the  Nurl  Sayyids,  the  founder 
of  which  was  his  grandsire,  Sayyid  Ni'mat 
Ullah.  Having  acquired  a  great  reputation 
for  scholarship  and  elegant  writing,  he  filled 
the  hio-hest  offices  of  the  law  in  his  native 
city,  where  he  died  in  A.H.  1173.  Notices  of 
his  life  are  found  in  Tuhfat  ul-'Alam,  written 


HISTORY  OF  SHUSHTAR. 


215 


by  his  nephew,  Add.  23,533,  foil.  35—40, 
and  in  Biza'at  i  Muzjat,  Add.  23,533, 
foil.  16—18. 

A.H.  116i  is  given,  foil.  76  a,  as  the  date 
of  composition  of  the  present  work  ;  but 
additions  were  made  to  it  during  the  subse- 
quent years,  down  to  A.n.  1169.  It  is 
divided  into  forty-seven  chapters  (Fasl), 
bearing  numbers  but  no  headings,  as  follows : 

1.  Poundation  of  Shushtar,  fol.  2  b.  2.  Ca- 
nals made  by  the  Kayanis  and  Sassanides, 
fol.  4  b.  3.  The  celebrated  dam  Shadurvan,* 
fol.  6  b.  4.  Climate,  fol.  8  b.  5.  Mosques, 
fol.  10  6.  6.  Tombs  of  saints,  fol.  13  a. 
7.  Holy  places  in  the  city,  fol.  15  a.  8.  Dis- 
tricts and  aqueducts,  fol.  18  a.  9.  Holy 
places  in  the  environs,  fol.  21  a.  10.  The 
viUage  of  'Akili  J^,  fol.  23  a.  11.  The 
Marashi   Sayyids  axLs-yt    obL.,  fol.  25  a. 

12.  Descendants  of  Mh*  Nur-ullah,  fol.  27  b. 

13.  Sayyids  of  Talghar  jUi  ObL.,  fol.  29  b. 

14.  Rule  of  Mahdi  Kuli  Khan  and  his  suc- 
cessors, from  A.H.  932  to  1042,  fol.  32  a. 
15.Wakhashtu  SultaUj^lU-jiii-lj ,  A.H.  1042, 
fol.  35  a.  16.  Haji  Muhammad  Sharif,  Vazir 
to  the  preceding,  fol.  38  a.  17.  Akhund 
Mulla  Hasan  'Ali,  fol.  40  a.  18.  Path  'Ali 
Khan,  son  of  Wakhashtu,  fol.  42  a.  19.  Public 
works  executed  under  the  latter,  fol.  46  a. 
20.  Reign  of  Shfih  Husain,  A.H.  1106,  fol. 
49  a.  21.  Government  of  Mihr  'All  Khan, 
A.H.  1129,  fol.  51  b.  22.  Foundation  of  the 
Mosque  and  College  of  Mir  Shikar,  fol.  54  a. 
23.  Isfandiyrir  Beg,  fol.  64  6.  24.  Tahmasp 
Kuli  Khan,  fol.  67  a.  25.  The  same  pro- 
claimed king  (Nadir  Shah),  A.H.  1148,  fol. 
70  a.  26.  'Abbas  Kuli  Khan,  from  A.H. 
1160  to  1164,  fol.  73  b.  27.  Dearth  under 
Nadir  Shah,  fol.  76  a.  28.  Old  documents 
that  came  to  light  at  that  time,  fol.  82  b. 


*  For  a  detailed  account  of  this  celebrated  dam  see 
Eawlinson,  Notes  on  a  March  in  Khuzistan,  Journal  of 
the  Geographical  Society  of  London,  vol.  is.,  part  i.,  p.  73. 


29.  Siege  of  Dizful,  A.H.  1164,  fol.  84  b. 

30.  Fall  of  the  Safaris,  fol.  80  b.  31.  The 
Poet  Mahmud  Hilml  Shushtar!,  fol.  88  h. 
32.  Disciples  of  Ni'mat-ullah,  the  founder  of 
the  NOri  family,  fol.  91  a.  33.  Disciples  of 
Nur  ud-Din,  his  son,  fol.  94  b.  34.  Disciples 
of  the  author,  fol.  98  a.  35.  The  Poet  Khwii- 
jah  'Abd  Muhammad  Za'ini  \j>}j  (who  died 
A.H.  1126),  fol.  101  b.  36.  Poetical  pieces 
by  the  author,  fol.  104  a.  37.  Events  of 
AH.  1165,  fol.  107  b.  38.  Shaikh  NSsir's 
stay  at  Shushtar,  fol.  110  a.  39.  Khwajah 
Abu  Turab  Nakkash  and  Mulla  Hadi  Kawils, 
two  literary  friends  of  the  author,  fol.  112  b. 
40.  Events  of  A.H.  1167,  fol.  114  b.  41. 
Poetical  contests  of  the  author  with  Mulla 
Hadi,  fol.  116  6.  42.  Events  of  A.H.  1169, 
fol.  118  a.     43.  Zul-fakar  Beg,  fol.  120  a. 

44.  Mulla  'Abd  ul-Karim  Zajjaji,  fol.  121  b. 

45,  46.  Poetical  pieces  by  the  author,  fol. 
124  a.  47.  Anecdote  of  the  Darvish  Saif 
'All,  fol.  128  a. 

Add.  23,535. 

Foil.  114;  84  in.  by  5  ;  17  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Naskhi ;  dated  A.H. 
1246  (A.D.  1830).  [Rob.  Taylor.] 

An  account  of  Shiishtar  and  its  water- 
works. 

Author  :  Sayyid  'Abd  ul-Husain  B.  'Aziz- 
uUah  ul-Miisavi,  id51  j>j&  ^^,   t:;i~^  "iJ*  >>s-^' 

Beg.  wUJj'^  \^.^r*  ^pt\  ^  ^Jii^  ^  ^ 
The  author  belonged,  like  the  preceding, 
to  the  family  of  the  Nurl  Sayyids,  being  the 
iifth  lineal  descendant  of  its  founder,  Ni  mat 
ITllah.  His  father,  'Aziz-ullah,  was  son  of 
Sayyid  Isma'il,  son  of  Sayyid  Murtaza,  son 
of  Sayyid  Nur  ud-Din,  son  of  Ni'mat-ullah 
(see  fol.  13  a).     He  states  in  the  preface 


216 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN, 


that,  when  Muhammad  Husain  Mirza*  en- 
camped in  Khuzistan,  in  the  month  of  Rajab, 
A.H.  1246,  he  went  from  his  native  town  of 
Shushtar  to  wait  upon  the  prince  in  Dizful, 
and  was  directed  by  him  to  write  an  account 
of  Shushtar,  of  its  monuments,  and  of  the 
Band  i  KhrikSni,  the  celebrated  dam  restored 
by  the  prince's  father.  The  author  objected 
that  the  same  subject  had  been  already  treated 
by  two  eminent  writers,  namely  the  Kazi 
Nur-ullah  ut-Tustarl  in  his  Majalis  ul-Mu- 
rainin,  and  his  own  relative,  Sayyid  'Abd- 
ullah B,  Nur-ud-Din,  in  his  Tazkirah  ush- 
Shiishtariyyah ;  but,  the  prince  insisting,  he 
had  to  comply  with  his  wish,  and  wrote 
the  present  work  as  an  oflfering  to  His 
Hirfmess. 

It  is  divided  into  an  Introduction  (Mukad- 
dimah),  three  Chapters  (Fasl)  and  a  Conclu- 
sion (Khfltimah),  as  follows : 

Mukaddimah.  General  account  of  Khuzis- 


tan, Shushtar,  Dizful,  and  Iluwaizah  (in- 
cluding a  sketch  of  the  family  of  the  Nuri 
Sayyids),  fol.  7  b. 

Fasl  I.  History  of  Shushtar,  and  of  the 
monuments  of  holy  men  in  and  around  it, 
fol.  20  b. 

Fasl  11.  Account  of  Dizful  and  its  sacred 
places  (containing  several  poems  in  praise 
of  the  Imams),  fol.  47  a. 

Fasl  III.  Account  of  the  celebrated  dam 
Shcldurvan,  and  of  the  new  dam  called  Band 
i  Khakani,  which  was  finished  in  A.H.  1232, 
fol.  70  a. 

Khatimah.  History  of  Muhammad  Husain 
Mirza,  from  his  appointment  as  governor  to 
the  time  of  composition,  fol.  103  a. 

A  great  portion  of  this  work  is  verbally 
transcribed  from  the  preceding.  Add.  23,534, 
and  from  Tuhfat  ul-'Alam,  Add.  23,583. 

This  copy  contains  many  marginal  ad- 
ditions. 


HISTORY    OP    TURKEY. 


Add.  7646  and  7647. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  containing  respec- 
tively foil.  293  and  245 ;  15  in.  by  8|  ; 
31  lines,  6  in.  long;  written  in  plain  Nes- 
talik,  with  frequent  omission  of  diacritical 
points;  dated  A.H.  988  (A.D.  1580). 

[CI.  J.  Rich.] 

A  history  of  the  first  eight  Sultans  of  the 
house  of  Osman. 


'  This  prince,  entitled  Hishmat  ud-Daulah,  the  eldest 
son  of  Muhammad  'Ali  Mirzil,  surnamed  Daulatshah, 
second   son  of  Fath  'Ali   Shall,  succeeded  his  father  as 


Author  :  Idris  B.  IJusam  ud-Din  ul-BidlisI, 

Beg.  j/  li*  js>j  cJJji  jj-^  ^JS^\  ciJjU:; 

Maulana  Hakim  ud-Din  Idris,  son  of  Mau- 
lana  Husam  ud-Din  'All,  of  Bidlis  in  Kur- 
distan, who  had  dedicated  a  Tafsir  to  Sultan 
Bayazid  (see  Add.  24,960,  fol.  183),  was  for 
a  time  state-secretary  to  the  Ak-kuyunlu 
prince,  Ya'kub  Beg  (A.H.  883—895)*  and 
wrote  in  his  name,  A.H.  890,  a  cougratula- 


governor  of  Kirmanshahiin,  at  the  age  of  21  years,  in 
A.H.  1239. 


HISTORY  OF  TURKEY. 


217 


tory  letter  to   Sultan  Bayazld,  which  was 
admired  for  the  elegance  of  its  style.    "When 
the  advance  of  Shah  Ismail  drove  him  to 
take  refuge  in  Turkey,  he  met  with  the 
most  honourable  reception  at  the  Sultan's 
court.     He  was  no  less  a  favourite  with  his 
successor,   Sultan  Salim,  whom  he  accom- 
panied in  his  Persian  and  Egyptian   cam- 
paigns, and  by  whom  the  settlement  of  his 
native  country,  Kurdistan,  was  entrusted  to 
him  in  A.H.  921.     See  Hammer,  Geschichte 
des  Osmanischen  Reiches,   vol.  ii.  pp.  290, 
433,   460.     He   did   not   survive   his   royal 
patron  more  than  a  few  months ;  for  he  died, 
according  to  his  son's  statement,  Add.  24,900, 
fol.  32,  in  Constantinople,  in  the  month  of 
Zulhijjah,  A.H.  926.     He  left,  besides  the 
present  work,  a  large  number  of  Persian  and 
Arabic  Kasldahs  and  of  treatises  on  religious 
subjects.     See  Shaka'ik,  Add.  9583,  fol.  Ill, 
and  Sharaf-Namah,  vol.  ii.  p.  155. 

The  Hasht  Bihisht  is  the  foundation  on 
which  all  later  Turkish  historians  have  built, 
and  the  first  of  these,  Sa'd  ud-Din,  passes 
upon  it  a  glowing  eulogy  ;  see  Hammer, 
Geschichte,  vol.  i.  p.  34,  vol.  ix.  p.  188; 
Journal  Asiatique,  vol.  iv.  p.  35.  Compare 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  110,  vol.  vi.  p.  500; 
Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  142,  Stewart's  Cata- 
logue, p.  10,  Krafft's  Catalogue,  p.  91,  Vienna 
Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  216,  Upsala  Catalogue, 
p.  191,  and  Wm.  Ouseley's  Collection,  No.  666. 

In  the  preface  the  author  says  that  the 
disturbed  state  of  his  country  compelled  him 
to  repair  for  safety  to  the  court  of  Sultan 
Bayazid  in  A.H.  907.  In  the  ensuing  year 
the  Sultan  desired  him  to  write  a  complete 
record  of  the  house  of  Osman  from  its  first 
rise  in  A.H.  710  to  the  then  current  year,  A.H. 
908,  and  proposed  to  him  as  models  of  com- 
position the  standard  histories  of  Vazir  'Ata 
Malik  Juvaini,  Maulanii  'Abd  Ullah  Vassaf, 
Mu'In  ud-Din  Yazdi  (the  author  of  the  his- 
tory of  the  Muzaff'aris,  see  p.  168),  and 
Shaiaf  ud  Din  Yazdi. 


The  work  was  completed  in  the  space  of 
two  years  and  six  months,  and  received,  be- 
sides the  above  Persian  title,  the  following 
in   Arabic:    j\^\   ^J   »J>\^\    o\i-a5\   u^li/ 

^  It  is  divided  into  eight  books,  called  Kati- 
bah  or  Daftar,  each  of  which  treats  of  a 
separate  reign.  Every  book  begins  with  a 
prologue  in  verse,  and  is  marked,  in  the 
present  copy,  by  an  illuminated  heading. 

Contents  :  Preface,  fol.  1  b.  Introduction 
(Tali'ah),  treating  in  two  sections  of  the 
science  of  history,  fol.  9  a,  and  of  the  pre- 
eminence of  the  house  of  Osman,  fol.  11  b. 

Katlbah  I.,  beginning,  fol.  15  b,  like  all 
the  following,  with  a  prologue  in  verse,  and 
subdivided  as  follows :  Tali'ah.  Origin  and 
genealogy  of  the  Osmanlis,  fol.  16  a.  Mu- 
kaddimah  I.  Their  early  wars  and  connection 
with  the  Saljukis,  fol.  21  b.  Mukaddimah  II. 
Account  of  Osman  Beg's  installation  on  the 
throne,  and  of  contemporary  sovereigns,  fol. 
29  .a.  Thirteen  Dastilns,  the  first  six  of  which 
relate  to  Osman  Beg's  wars  and  conquests 
before  his  accession,  fol.  33  a,  the  latter 
seven  to  those  which  followed  that  event, 
fol.  41  b.     Khatimah.  His  death,  fol.  55  a. 

Katlbah  II.,  fol.  57  b.  Taliah,  on  the 
reason  of  the  transfer  of  sovereignty,  fol.  58a. 
Mukaddimah  I.;  qualities  and  virtues  of 
Urkhan,  fol.  59  a.  Mukaddimah  II.;  account 
of  his  accession  and  of  contemporary  kings, 
fol.  60  a.  Eighteen  Dastans,  treating  of  his 
wars  and  conquests,  fol.  63  b. 

Katlbah  III.,  similarly  subdivided,  and 
treating  of  the  reign  of  Murad  L,  fol.  96  b. 

Katlbah  IV.  Reign  of  Bayazld  Yildirim, 
in  two  Mukaddimahs  and  sixteen  Dastans, 
fol.  144  6.  (The  fourteenth  Dastan,  which 
related  to  the  wars  of  A.H.  798—800,  is 
wanting). 

Katlbah  V.  Reign  of  Muhammad  I.,  in 
a  Mukaddimah  and  twenty-eight  Dastans, 
fol.  184  b. 

F  F 


218 


LOCAL  HISTORIES  OF  IRAN. 


Katibah  VI.  Reign  of  Murad  II.,  in  two 
Mukaddimahs  and  twenty-four  Dastans,  fol. 
234  6. 

Katibali  VII.,  Add.  7647,  fol.  1  b,  treating 
of  Muhammad  II.,  and  divided  as  follows  : 
Tall'ah  L ;  the  accession  of  Muhammad  II., 
fol.  1  b.  Tairah  II.;  account  of  contem- 
porary kings  and  men  of  learning,  fol.  8  a. 
Kalb,  fol.  13  b,  treating,  in  numerous  sub- 
divisions, of  Muhammad  II.'s  qualities,  of 
his  power  and  armies,  of  his  conquests  and 
territories,  of  his  constructions,  lastly,  in  two 
appendices  (Juniih),  of  his  children,  fol.  39  6, 
and  of  his  vazirs  and  generals,  fol.  41  a. 
The  history  proper,  beginning  fol.  45  a,  con- 
sists of  29  Dastans,  seven  of  which,  relating 
to  wars  with  Muslims,  are  said  to  belong  to 
the  right  wing  (Maimanah),  and  twenty-two, 
treating  of  wars  with  infidels,  form  the  left 
wing  (Maisarah). 

Katibah  VIII.,  fol.  124  b,  treating  of  Baya- 
zid  II.'s  reign,  and  containing :  Mukaddi- 
mah;  pre-eminence  of  Bayazid  II.'s  reign, 
and  account  of  contemporary  kings,  fol.  125  a. 
Tali'ah,  qualities  and  virtues  of  Bayazid  II.; 
his  pious  foundations,  fol.  129  b.  Kalb; 
his  accession,  fol.  146  b.  Ba's  I. ;  wars,  con- 
tjuests,  and  other  events  of  his  reign,  in 
eight  Dastans  of  the  right  wing,  and  ten  of 
the  left,  fol.  151  a.  The  last  Dastan  of  the 
left  wing,  fol.  204  b,  treats  of  the  repulse  of 
the  Erench  and  Venetian  attack  on  Mitylene, 
A.H.  907.  The  last  of  the  right  wing,  fol. 
206  a,  describes  the  festivities  of  the  circum- 
cision of  Prince  Mahmud's  children,  A.H. 
911.  Ba'§  II.,  in  two  sections  (Junah)  : 
1.  Children  of  Bayazid  II.,  fol.  210  a.  '  2. 
His  Vazirs,  Pashas,  Generals,  Kazis  and 
'Ulama,  fol.  217  a. 

The  last  section  closes  with  a  notice  of 
"Firiiz  Beg,  which  is  brought  down  to  the 
time  of  his  appointment  as  Governor  of 
Bosnia,  A.H.  912. 

The  Khatimah,  or  epilogue,  foU.  234  b — 
245  a,  is  a  later  addition.     It  is  written 


entirely  in  verse,  and  contains  an  account 
of  the  intestine  war  which  resulted  in  the 
deposition  of  Bayazid  and  the  accession  of 
Salim.  The  author  speaks  also  of  the  in- 
trigues by  which  he  was  deprived  of  Baya- 
zid's  promised  bounties  and  driven  away 
from  Court,  of  his  pilgrimage  to  Mecca, 
where  he  received  intelligence  of  the  new 
reign,  and  of  his  subsequent  recall  to  Court. 

Add.  23,579*. 

Foil.  280 ;  Hi  in.  by  6^ ;  22  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  and  neat  Naskhi ; 
dated  Ramazan,  A.H.  1069  (A.D.  1659); 
much  discoloured  by  damp  and  partly  torn. 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  containing 
the  reigns  of  Miirad  I.,  BayazTd  Yildirim, 
and  Muhammad  I.,  viz.,  Katibah  III.,  fol.  1  b ; 
Katibah  IV.,  fol.  100  b,  and  Katibah  V., 
fol.  183  a. 

The  14th  Dastan  of  Katibah  IV.,  fol.  164  b, 
is  wanting,  as  in  the  preceding  copy,  with 
the  exception  of  the  first  two  lines.  Kati- 
bah V.  is  imperfect  at  the  beginning,  wanting 
the  first  three  leaves  and  the  fifth  (see  Add. 
7646,  foil.  184  6—186  b). 

Add.  24,960. 

Foil.  183;  111  in.  by  7^;  25  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  in  Naskhi,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Lord  Aberdeen.] 

Salim  Namah,  a  history  of  Sultan  Salim  I., 
in  prose  and  verse. 

Author  (foil.  17  &,  41  c) :  Hakim  ud-DTn 
Idris  B.  Husam  ud-Din  'Ali  ul-Bidlisi,  ^^t^ 

Beg.    ijop^  ^jj^j  ''^j  Uij-^  ^jji\  aJJ  j-»J^ 
In  a  long  and  wordy  preface  the  author 


HISTOEY  OF  SHIRAZ. 


21*) 


refers  to  the  composition  of  his  previous 
work,  Hasht  Bihisht,  and  of  its  poetical 
appendix,  which,  he  says,  consisted  of  sixteen 
hundred  dystichs,  and  had  been  written  in 
Mecca.  He  tlien  states  that,  during  the 
reign  of  Salim,  while  following  the  Sultan 
in  his  campaigns,  he  had  collected  materials 
for  its  history,  and,  although  interrupted  in 
his  labours  by  long  and  dangerous  voyages, 
he  had  written  the  present  work,  undeterred 
by  the  fact  that  three  authors  of  note  were 
then  engaged  on  a  similar  task,  namely  'Abd 
ur-Rahim  'Abbasi,  who  wrote  in  mixed 
Arabic  prose  and  verse,  Kazl  'Abd  ul-Kabir 
Latifl,  who  wrote  in  Persian  prose,  and 
Maulana  Muhammad  Adii'i  Shirazi,  who 
wrote  in  Persian  verse  and  in  the  style  of 
Pirdausi's  Shahnamah.  (See  Haj.  Khal. 
vol.  iii.  p.  615.)  The  present  work  consists 
of  alternating  passages  in  prose  and  verse ; 
the  latter,  which  contain  only  a  versified 
summary  of  the  former,  may  be  read  sepa- 
rately as  a  continuous  work,  to  which  the 
title  Salim  Namah  more  properly  applies. 
It  is  stated  in  the  preface,  fol.  20,  to  consist 
of  two  Mukaddimahs  and  two  Books  (Kism), 
viz.  Kism  I.,  divided  into  four  discourses 
(Guftar),  treating  of  Salim's  early  life, 
his  moral  qualities,  his  literary  accomplish- 
ments and  his  religious  zeal,  and  Kism  II., 
containing  the  history  of  his  reign.  The 
two  Mukaddimahs  are  indeed  found  in  the 
body  of  the  work,  foil.  21—31.  But,  in- 
stead of  the  remaining  sections,  we  find  the 
following : 

1.  A  preface  by  the  author's  son,  Abul- 
Pazl  Muhammad  B.  Idris  ud-Daftari,  written 
in  the  beginning  of  Salim  II.'s  reign,  A.H. 
974,  fol.  32  b.  It  is  there  stated  that  the 
author,  Idris,  had  died  in  Constantinople,  in 
the  month  of  Zul-Hijjah,  A.H.  926,  a  few 


months  after  Salim  I.,  and  while  his  son 
was  detained  by  his  ofl&cial  duties  in  the  Aral) 
country,  and  that  the  manuscript  of  Salim's 
History,  which  had  been  left  unfinished  by 
the  author,  falling  into  strange  hands,  had 
been  scattered  and  partly  lost.  In  the  reign 
of  Sulaiman,  the  present  writer,  Abul-Fazl, 
who  then  held  the  office  of  Daftardar  in  the 
Vazlr's  Diviin,  was  ordered  by  the  Sultan  to 
collect  aU  the  fragments  of  that  work  that 
he  could  discover.  He  accordingly  began 
that  search,  but  did  not  conclude  it  until 
after  the  accession  of  Sulaimiin's  successor, 
Salim  II.,  when  he  put  together  all  such 
portions  as  he  had  found,  and  eked  them 
out,  when  required,  with  pieces  of  his  own 
composition. 

2.  The  history  itself,  consisting  of  a  short 
introduction  on  the  life  of  Salim  up  to  his 
accession,  and  of  a  full  account  of  the  events 
of  his  reign  narrated  year  by  year,  conclud- 
ing with  his  death,  and  the  accession  of 
Sulaiman,  fol.  48.  b.  In  a  versified  epilogue, 
Abul-Fazl,  who  there  assumes  the  poetical 
name  of  Fazll,  addresses  his  praises  and 
advice  to  the  reigning  Sultan,  Salim  H.,  and 
to  his  son  Prince  Murad. 

In  the  course  of  this  history,  foil.  167  a — 
170  a,  Abul-Fazl  states  that  he  was  dis- 
charging the  ofB.ce  of  Kazl  of  the  province 
of  Yanglshahr,  when  he  was  ordered,  in 
A.H.  924,  to  proceed  to  Syria  and  assume 
the  financial  administration  of  the  districts 
of  Tarabulus,  Ilims  and  5amah.  He  sub- 
sequently held  the  office  of  Daftardar,  and 
died,  according  to  Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  iii.  p.  110, 
A.H.  987.  Compare  Hammer,  Geschichto 
des  Osm.  Eeiches,  vol.  ii.  p.  525,  and,  for 
the  present  work,  the  Vienna  Catalogue, 
vol.  ii.  p.  219,  and  Pertsch,  Gotha  Cata- 
logue, p.  54. 


Ff  2 


(     220     ) 


GENERAL    HISTORY    OF    INDIA. 


Add.  6543. 

Foil.  473;  10  in.  by  6^;  21  lines,  3^  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  and  fair  Nestalik, 
with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled  margins,  appa- 
rently in  the  17th  century.     [James  Grant.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  Mo- 
hammedan conquest  to  the  author's  time. 

Author :  Nizam  ud-Din  Ahmad  B.  Mu- 
hammad Mukim  ul-HaravI,  s^  ^^_Si\  ^^ 

Beg.  liyM  \j  ^HjkHs-  ■  slii^b  (jdjLo)  o>i»J.  (^jJ^km 

The  author,  who  in  his  preface  claims 
descent  from  the  celebrated  saint  of  Herat, 
Khwajah  'Abd  TJllah  Ansari,  was  the  son  of 
Khwajah  Mukim  Haravi,  who  had  been  suc- 
cessively Divan  of  the  household  of  Babar, 
and  Vazir  of  Mirza  'Askari,  governor  of 
Gujrat.  He  held  high  military  commands 
under  Akbar,  having  been  first  appointed 
Bakhshi  of  Gujrat  in  the  29th  year  of  the 
reign,  and  afterwards  Bakhshi  of  the  empire 
in  the  37th  year.  He  died,  according  to 
'Abd  ul-Kadir  Bada'uni,  vol.  ii.  p.  397,  in 
the  23rd  of  Safar,  A.H.  1003,  at  the  age  of 
45  years.  A  full  notice  of  his  life  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Maagir  ul-Umara,  Add.  6567, 
fol.  162,  and,  translated  into  English,  in 
Sir  H.  Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  v. 
pp.  178 — 180.  See  also  Blochmann's  trans- 
lation of  the  A'in  i  Akbari,  vol.  1.  pp.  420, 
514. 

The  Tabakat  i  Akbarshahl,  also  called 
Tabakat  i  Akbari  and  Tarikh  i  Nizami,  is 
the  earliest  of  the  general  histories  of  India 
and  the  foundation  of  all  the  later  works  on 
the  same  subject.     A  detailed  account  of  its 


contents  will  be  found  in  Morley's  Catalogue, 
p.  158,  and  in  Elliot's  History  of  India, 
vol.  V.  pp.  177 — 476,  where  a  considerable  part 
of  the  work  is  given  in  English  translation. 
It  is  also  mentioned  in  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  11  ;  Uri,  p.  277  ;  Critical  Essay,  p.  38 ; 
Aumer's  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  83  ;  Nassau 
Lees,  Journal  of  the  Eoyal  Asiatic  Society, 
New  Series,  vol.  iii.  p.  451,  and  Copenhagen 
Catalogue,  p.  21. 

The  author  says  in  his  preface  that  from  his 
boyhood  upwards  he  had  applied  himself,  by 
his  father's  advice,  to  the  pursuit  of  history. 


Finding  that. 


although 


there   were   many 


works  treating  of  special  dynasties  or  periods, 
there  existed  no  general  record  of  Indian 
history,  he  determined  to  supply  that  de- 
ficiency by  the  present  work,  comprising 
the  annals  of  the  various  dynasties  of 
India,  from  the  first  appearance  of  Islamism 
in  the  time  of  Amir  Subuktagin,  A.H.  367, 
to  A.H.  1001,  the  37th  year  of  Akbar.  For  a 
more  detailed  account  of  the  latter  reign  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  Akbar  Naraah. 
The  author  then  proceeds  to  give  the  follow- 
ing list  of  his  sources,  some  of  which  are 
works  not  otherwise  known :  Tarikh  i  YaminT, 
Zain  ul-Akhbar,  Rauzat  us-Safii,  Taj  ul- 
Ma'a§ir,  Tabakat  iNasiri,  Khaza'in  ul-Futuh, 
Tughlak-Niimah,  Tarikh  i  Firiizshahi  by  Ziyfi  i 
Barani,  FutOhat  i  Firiizshahi,  Tarikh  i  Muba- 
rakshahi,  Futiih  us-Salatin,  Tarikh  i  Mahmiid- 
shahi  Hindu!  (read  Mandui),  Tarikh  i  Mah- 
miidshahi  Khurd  Hindu!  (read  Mandui), 
Tabakat  i  Mahmiidshahi  Gujrati,  Maasir  i 
Mahmiidshahi  Gujrati,  Tarikh  i  Muhammadi, 
Tarikh  i  Bahadurshahi,  Tarikh  i  Bahmani, 
Tarikh  i  Nasiri  u  MuzaA'arshahi,  Tarikh  i 
Mirza  Haidar,  Tarikh  i  Kashmiri,  Tarikh  i 
Sind,  Tarikh    i    Babari,    Vakiat    i    Babari, 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


221 


Tarikli  i  Ibriihlmshahl,  Vaki'at  i  Mushtakl, 
Vaki'at  i  Humayun  Padishah.  Compare  the 
list  of  Eirishtah's  authorities  given  by  Mohl, 
Journal  des  Savants,  1840,  pp.  220—224. 
Einally  the  author,  while  assigning  to  his 
work  the  above  title,  Tabakat  i  Akbarshahi, 
adds  that,  by  a  remarkable  coincidence,  the 
word  Nizami,  derived  from  his  own  name, 
Nizam  ud-Din,  forms  a  chronogram  express- 
ing the  date  of  its  composition,  A.H.  1001, 
In  the  body  of  the  work,  however,  the 
account  of  Akbar's  reign  is  brought  down 
to  the  end  of  the  38th  year,  corresponding 
to  A.H.  1002. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah, 
nine  Tabakahs  and  a  Khatimah,  as  follows  : 

Mukaddimah.  History  of  the  Ghaznavis, 
fol.  7  a. 

Tabakah  I.  History  of  the  Sultans  of 
Dehli,  from  Mu'izz  ud-DTn  Ghurl  to  Akbar, 
A.H.  574—1002,  fol.  19  b.  This  section 
concludes  with  biographical  notices  of  the 
celebrated  men  who  flourished  in  Akbar's 
reign,  namely  Amirs,  fol.  275  a,  'TJlama  and 
litterati,  fol.  281  a.  Shaikhs,  fol.  283  a,  and 
poets,  fol.  285  a. 

Tabakah  II.  History  of  the  kings  of  Dec- 
can,  from  A.H.  748  to  A.H.  1002,  fol.  292  a. 
This  section,  beginning  with  the  Bahmanis, 
includes  the  Nizam  ul-Mulkis,  fol.  315  a; 
the  'Adilkhanis,  fol.  318  b ;  and  the  Kutb 
ul-Mulkis,  fol.  319  b. 

Tabakah  III.  Kings  of  Gujrat,  from  A.H. 
793  to  980,  fol.  319  b.  Tabakah  IV.  Kings 
of  Malvah,  from  A.H.  809  to  977,  fol.  379  h. 
Tabakah  V.  Kings  of  Bengal,  from  A.H.  741 
to  984,  fol.  427  a.  Tabakah  VI.  Sharki 
kings  of  Jaunpiir,  from  A.H.  784  to  881, 
fol.  430  b.  Tabakah  VII.  Kings  of  Kash- 
mir, from  A.'h.  747  to  995,  fol.  435  a. 
Tabakah  VIII.  History  of  Sind  from  the 
Arab' conquest,  A.H.  86,  to  A.H.  1001,  fol. 
460  b.  Tabakah  IX.  History  of  Multan, 
from  A.H.  847  to  932,  fol.  465  b. 

The  Khatimah,  which,  according  to  the 


preface,  was  to  contain  a  topographical 
account  of  India,  does  not  appear  to  have 
been  written  in  full.  It  is  confined  in  all 
extant  copies  to  a  few  lines  on  the  area  of 
the  Indian  empire  and  the  number  of  its 
cities  and  villages.  The  present  copy  breaks 
off  after  the  third  line  of  the  Khatimah. 

A  table  of  contents,  in  the  same  hand- 
writing as  the  text,  occupies  two  pages, 
foil.  3  and  4,  at  the  beginning. 

On  fol.  5  a  are  several  'Arzdidahs  of  the 
reign  of  Aurangzib,  with  the  seals  of  Sa'd 
ud-Dln  Khan  and  others. 

Add.  26,208  and  26,209. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  containing  severally 
foil.  321  and  310 ;  15  in.  by  9^ ;  18  lines, 
6J  in.  long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik ;  dated 
Zu'1-hijjah,  A.H.  1049  (A.D.  1640). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  same  work. 

Contents  :  Ghaznavis,  Add.  26,208,  fol.  4  a. 
Dehli,  fol.  16  b.  Deccan,  Add.  26,209,  fol. 
70  b.  Gujrat,  fol.  107  b.  Mfilvah,  fol.  190  b. 
Bengal,  fol.  260  a.  Jaunpur,  fol.  265  a. 
Kashmir,  fol.  270  J.  Sind,  fol.  297  b.  Multan, 
fol.  302  a. 
Copyist :  ^/u^  ftSjjb  ^J\  Js-  ^j  ^j^^  ,^^ 

The  following  note  in  Wm.  Erskine's 
manuscript  list  of  his  collection  refers  to  the 
present  volume  :  "  This  copy  was  presented 
by  Mons.  Gentil  to  Col.  Camac  at  Chupi-ah, 
8  June,  1766.  It  is  unfortunately  very  in- 
correct and  seems  never  to  have  been  col- 
lated, passages  being  omitted  and  names  and 
words  mistaken." 

Add.  5615. 

Foil.  782;  9J  in.  by  6.^;  15  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  probably  in 
the  18th  century.  [N.  B.  Halued.] 

Another  copy  of  the  Tabakat  i  Akbarshahi, 


222 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


wanting   the  history  of    Multan  and    the 
Khatimah. 

Contents  :  Ghaznavis,  fol.  5  a.  Dehli,  fol. 
25  b.  Deccan,  fol.  502  b.  Gujrat  (wrongly- 
headed  Millvah),  fol.  553  a.  Bengal,  fol. 
656  a.  Jaunpur,  fol.  661  b.  Malvah  (wrongly 
headed  Hind),  fol.  669  a.  Kashmir,  fol. 
737  b.  Sind  (wrongly  headed  Multan),  fol. 
775  a. 

Scribe  :  *«i«  Cy^  >xi.  ijJj  ^J>_^\J^ 

On  the  first  page  is  a  short  notice  of  the 
work,  here  called  Toareekh  Akber  Nameh, 
in  the  handwriting  of  Halhed. 

Or.  161. 

EoU.  83 ;  13  in.  by  7  ;  27  lines,  4l  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  17th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

A  volume  entitled  ^Ja^  ^^%^  iTj^y 

It  contains  a  portion  of  the  Tabakat  i  Ak- 
barshahi,  viz.  the  history  of  the  Kings  of 
Dehli  from  the  accession  of  Ghiyiis  ud-Din 
Balban,  A.H.  664,  to  the  defeat  of  Ibrahim 
B.  Sikandar  Lodi  by  Babar,  A.H.  932,  (cor- 
responding to  Add.  6543,  foil.  36  a— 136  b). 
Prefixed  is  a  modern  table  of  contents,  fol.  1. 

It  appears  from  an  endorsement  in  Persian, 
fol.  2  a,  that  this  fragment  was  formerly 
bound  with  two  other  works,  viz.  Shajarat 
ul-Atrak  and  Lubb  ut-tawarikh ;  and  in  fact 
Col.  Hamilton's  copy  of  the  latter,  now  Or. 
140  (see  p.  104  a),  is  quite  uniform  with  the 
present  MS. 

Add.  26,302. 

Poll.  38 ;  91  in.  by  1^ ;  17  lines,  5|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Indian  Shikastah-Amiz,  on 
Enghsh  paper,  bearing  in  its  water-mark  the 
date  1802.  [Wm.  Erskinb.] 

An  extract  from  the  Tabakat  i  Akbarshrdii, 


containing  the  history  of  Babar  and  Huma- 
yun,  and  corresponding  to  Add.  6543,  foil. 
132—176. 

Add.  6581. 

Poll.  304;  Hi  in.  by  8^;  23  lines,  5  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
18th  century.  [James  Grant.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  Mo- 
hammedan conquest  to  the  40th  year  of 
Akbar's  reign,  A.H.  1004. 

Author :    Abd   ul-Kadir    B.    MulQkshah 

Bada'ani,  ^j\ij  sU/^  i^.  j^^\  <^ 

Beg.  ^jj  y  j.\Jj  \^\j  j-jb  ^J\ 

'Abd  ul-Kiidir  Bada'Qni,  with  the  poetical 
surname  of  Kiidiri,  was  born  at  Bada'un 
about  A.H.  948.  He  lost  his  father,  Shaikh 
Mulukshah,  in  A.H.  969,  and  became  a 
pupil  of  Shaikh  Mubarak  Naguri,  with 
whose  two  celebrated  sons,  Paizi  and  Abul- 
Pazl,  he  entertained  the  most  intimate 
intercourse,  although  he  was  impelled  by 
his  Muslim  bigotry  to  denounce  both  after 
their  death  as  arrant  infidels.  In  A.H.  981 
he  was  presented  to  Akbar  and  enrolled  in 
the  number  of  the  learned  men  who  attended 
his  court.  He  has  been  mentioned  above 
as  translator  of  the  Mahiibharata  and  Rama- 
yana,  pp.  56  a,  57  b,  and  as  one  of  those  to 
whom  the  compilation  of  the  Tarlkh  i  Alf  i 
had  first  been  entrusted,  p.  117  b.  An 
abridgment  of  the  history  of  Kashmir, 
which  he  wrote  by  order  of  Akbar,  and 
completed  in  A.H.  999,  is  mentioned  by  him 
at  the  beginning  of  the  Muntakhab. 

He  commenced  the  present  work,  as  stated 
in  the  preface,  shortly  after  the  death  of  his 
friend  Nizam  ud-Din  Ahmad,  the  author  of 
the  preceding  history,  which  took  place  in 
Safar,  A.H.  1003,  and  finished  it,  as  re- 
corded in  tlie  concluding  lines,  on  the  23rd 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


228 


r 


of  Jumadii  II.,  A.H.  1004.  Although  pro- 
fessedly based  upon  the  Tarikh  i  Mubarak- 
shahi  and  the  Nizam  ut-Tavarikh  i  Nizami 
(another  name  for  the  Tabakat  i  Akbar- 
shahi),  it  contains  much  original  matter, 
and  is  interesting  on  account  of  the  out- 
spoken and  often  virulent  tone  in  which  the 
author  inveighs  against  Akbar  himself,  and 
all  those  who  departed  from  his  own  rigid 
standard  of  orthodoxy.  It  appears  from  the 
conclusion  that  it  was  only  intended  for 
posterity,  and  was  to  be  kept  strictly  private 
during  the  author's  time. 

The  Muntakhab  ut-Tavarikh  has  been 
edited  in  the  Bibliotheca  Indica  by  Maulavi 
Ahmad  'Ali,  3  voU.,  Calcutta,  1868-9.  A 
notice  of  the  author's  life,  consisting  of  all 
the  passages  relating  to  himself  which  occur 
in  the  text,  and  of  an  extract  from  the 
Mirat  ul-'Alam  (see  Add.  7657,  fol.  452  a), 
has  been  prefixed  to  the  first  volume.  An 
account  of  Bada'uni  will  also  be  found  in 
Blochmann's  translation  of  the  Ain  i  Akbari, 
vol.  I.,  p.  104,  notes.  The  work  has  been 
fully  described,  and  copious  extracts  from  it 
given,  by  Sir  H,  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index, 
pp.  219—258,  and  History  of  India,  vol.  V., 
pp.  477 — 549.  See  also  Lees,  Journal  of 
the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  New  Series,  vol. 
III.,  p.  455.  Some  interesting  extracts 
relating  to  Akbar's  religious  innovations 
have  been  given  by  H.  H.  Wilson,  Works, 
vol.  II.,  pp.  379 — 400.  A  condensed  trans- 
lation of  the  whole  work  by  Wm.  Erskine  is 
preserved  in  MS.,  Add.  26,609,  and  some 
portions  relating  to  Akbar's  reign  and  trans- 
lated by  Dr.  John  Leyden,  will  be  found  in 
Add.  26,601. 

The  text  is  only  divided  by  the  rubrics  of 
the  various  reigns,  a  table  of  which  is  pre- 
fixed. The  contents  are  fully  stated  in  the 
tables  of  the  printed  edition. 

Or.  160. 

FoU.  339;  ll^  in.  by  7f ;  39  lines,  4^  in. 


long;   written  in  Nestalik  and   Shikastah- 
amiz,  apparently  in  the  18th  century. 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamiltox.] 

The  same  work,  with  a  full  table  of  con- 
tents, foil.  1 — 5. 

Add.  26,210. 

Foil.  112;  9  in.  by  5;  16  lines,  3J  in. 
long;  written  in  Shikastah-amiz ;  dated 
Jhalahdar,  province  of  Gujrat,  Sha'ban, 
A.H.  1136  (A.D.  1724).  [Wm.  Ebskine.J 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  time 
of  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Sam  to  the 
■reign  of  Akbar. 


Author :  'Abd  ul-Hakk  Hakki 


J^ 


J^' 


JjlP 


Beg.  ^113  ^^  ^\^\  Jy  i>)U^  ^U  ^\ 

The  author,  who  designates  himself  in  the 
preface  by  his  Takhallus  Hakki,  is  the  cele- 
brated saint,  'Abd  ul-Hakk  B.  Saif  ud-Din 
Dihlavi,  who  has  been  mentioned  above, 
p.  14  a,  and  whose  life  is  recorded  by  his 
contemporary  and  friend  'Abd  ul-Kadir 
Bada'Qni,  vol.  III.,  p.  113,  and  by  the  author 
of  the  Mirat  ul-*Alam,  Add.  7657,  fol.  454  b. 
He  gave  no  title  to  the  present  work,  which 
is  commonly  called,  from  the  author's  sur- 
name, Tarikh  i  Hakki. 

It  is  founded,  as  stated  in  the  preface, 
upon  the  Tabakat  i  Nasiri,  the  Tarikh  i 
Firuzshahl  (of  Ziyai  Barani),  and  the  Tarikh 
i  Bahjidurshahi,  a  history  dedicated  to  Sultan 
Bahadur  of  Gujrat.  But,  for  the  latter 
period,  extending  from  the  reign  of  Shah 
Bahlul  Lodi  to  that  of  Akbar,  the  author 
depended  on  oral  tradition  and  his  own 
observation. 

In  a  conclusion  found  in  another  copy, 
Add.  16,701,  I.,  the  author  states  that,  from 
a  want  of  sufficient  sources  of  information, 
he  had  not  brought  down  the  history  of 
Deccan  further  than  A.H.  937,  and  had 
given  but  a  scanty  account  of  the  rulers  of 


224 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OP  INDIA. 


Sind  and  Kashmir.  He  adds  the  date  of 
composition,  A.H.  1005,  fixed  by  the  follow- 
ing chronogram : 

i.  e.  >J}^<  /i  1016  —  11  =  1005. 

Compared  with  the  last-mentioned  MS.  the 
present  copy  exhibits  a  later  and  enlarged  re- 
cension, in  which  the  deficiencies  above  stated 
have  been  supplied.  As  it  contains  a  men- 
tion of  the  taking  of  Ahmadnagar  by  Khfin- 
khanan,  fol.  76  a,  and  of  the  death  of  Mirza 
JanI  Beg,  fol.  100  6,  both  events  of  A.H. 
.1008,  it  could  not  have  been  completed  before 
that  date.  ' 

It  differs  also  from  the  earlier  edition  in 
the  arrangement  of  the  contents,  which  is 
as  follows :  Sultans  of  Dehli,  from  the  time 
of  Mu  izz  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Sam  to  the 
accession  of  Akbar,  fol.  3  6.  Sultans  of 
Bengal,  fol.  48  b,  of  Jaunpur,  fol.  59  a,  of 
Deccan  (Bahmanis),  fol.  60  a;  Nizam  ul- 
Mulkis,  fol.  71a;  'Adilkhanis,  fol.  76  a; 
Kutb  ul-Mulkis,  fol.  77  6.  Sultans  of 
Mandu,  fol.  77  b,  Gujrat,  fol.  84  a,  Tattah, 
fol.  96  b,  Kashmir,  fol.  100  6,  and  Multan, 
fol.  Ill  b. 

The  earlier  recension.  Add.  16,701,  does 
not  contain  any  account  of  the  local  dynas- 
ties of  Deccan,  and  follows  this  order: 
Dehli,  fol.  3  b.  Bengal,  fol.  57  a.  Jaun- 
pur, fol.  70  a.  Mandu,  fol.  70  b.  Gujrat, 
fol.  79  b.  Deccan,  fol.  84  a.  Multan, 
fol.  88  b.  Kashmir,  fol.  89  b.  Sind,  fol.  90  a. 
Another  copy.  Add.  25,792,  is  similarly 
arranged,  with  the  exception  of  the  last  two 
chapters,  which  are  transposed. 

In  the  present  copy  the  work  is  called 
^c^l  lOlajij  L-'U^,  both  in  the  subscription 
and  in  the  endorsement. 

Compare  Morley's  Catalogue,  p.  62,  and 
Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index,  pp.  273—280, 
History  of  India,  vol.  vi.  pp.  175 — 181. 

Transcriber  :  *\jsj>-\j  di^  c]j^ 


Add.  10,580. 

Foil.  376  ;  9^  in.  by  5^ ;  15  lines,  3  in. 
long;  written  partly  in  Nestalik,  partly  in 
Shikastah-amiz,  apparently  in  the  17th 
century.  [Robert  Watherston.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  time 
of  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Sam  to  the 
accession  of  Jaliangir. 

Author:  Nur  ul-Hakk  ul-MashrikI  ud- 
Dihlavi  ul-Bukhari,    ^j^^\    Jj^^  J*^  ji> 

Beg.  4S)-»   jjbllifcli.  JCi   J^j  '^j^  ^iulai- 

The  author,  a  son  of  the  preceding  writer, 
'Abd  ul-Qakk  Dililavi,  succeeded  him  as  a 
religious  teacher  in  Dehli,  where  he  died 
in  A.H.  1073  at  the  age  of  ninety.  See 
Miriit  ul-'Alam,  Add.  7657,  fol.  455  a,  and 
'Amal  i  Salih,  Add.  26,221,  fol.  692  b. 

The  Zubdat  ut-Tavarikh  is  a  much  en- 
larged edition  and  continuation  of  the  Tarikh 
i  Hakki.  The  author  says  in  the  preface  that 
his  father  had  been  asked  by  Shaikh  Earid 
B.  Sayyid  Ahmad  ul-Husaini  ul-Bukhari  (one 
of  Akbar's  generals,  who  received,  after  the 
accession  of  Jahanglr,  the  title  of  Murtaza 
Khan,  and  died  A.H.  1025 ;  see  Maagir  ul- 
Umara,  Add.  6568,  fol.  347,  and  Bloch- 
mann's  translation  of  the  Ain  i  Akbari,  vol.  i. 
p.  413)  to  prepare  an  extended  edition  of  his 
history,  and  that  the  former,  whose  mind  was 
engrossed  by  loftier  thoughts,  had  called 
upon  his  son  to  comply  with  the  Amir's 
request.  In  carrying  out  that  task  Nu.r  ul- 
Hakk  added  some  reigns  that  had  been 
omitted,  expanded  the  too  concise  portions 
of  the  original,  supplied  a  record  of  Akbar's 
reio"n,  extracted  from  the  Akbar-namah  and 
other  works,  and  in  which  the  services  of 
Shaikh  Earid  are  fully  set  forth,  and  generally 
supplemented  the  narrative  with  many 
notable  facts  from  his  own  knowledge. 

The  above  preface  was  evidently  written 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


225 


in  the  time  of  Akbar,  who  is  there  spoken  of 
as  the  reigning  sovereign ;  but  in  the  body 
of  the  Avork  the  histoiy  has  been  brought 
down  to  the  accession  of  Jahiinglr,  A.H.  1014. 

Contents  :  Introduction  on  the  meaning 
of  Padishah  and  the  utility  of  history,  fol.  5  a. 
Kings  of  Dehli,  fol.  6  b.  Bubar,  fol.  80  b. 
Humayun,  fol.  90  a.  Shirslmh  and  his  suc- 
cessors, fol.  108  b.  Akbar,  fol.  128  a.  Kings 
of  Mfilvab,  fol.  251  a,  Gujrat,  fol.  287  b, 
Tattali  and  Sind,  fol.  317  «,  Deccan  (in- 
cluding the  Nizam  ul-Mulkis,  'Adilkhanis, 
and  Kutb  ul-Mulkis)  fol.  322  b,  Kashmir, 
fol.  842  a,  Bengal,  fol.  357  b,  Jaunpur, 
fol.  372  a,  and  Multan,  fol.  375  b. 

Compare  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index, 
pp.  281 — 297,  and  History  of  India,  vol.  vi. 
pp.  182—194. 

Add.  6569-6571. 

Three  uniform  volumes,  containing  re- 
spectively foil.  304,  292,  and  260 ;  23  lines, 
4f  in.  long  ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.  [James  Gbaxt.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  earliest 
times  to  A.H.  1015,  with  some  later  additions. 

Author:  Muhammad  Kasim  Hindushfdi 
Astarabadi,  commonly  called  Firishtah,  j^ 

Beg.    «-»*   t/Vi)    (jt-o.   ^J^^>}   «-^  iiy>-}   (JLj 

...lijjob 
ty        ••  V 

Firishtah,  bom  in  Astarabad  about  A.H. 

960.  was  taken  at  an  early  age  to  India  by 

his  father,  Maulana  Ghuliim  'All  Hindushah, 

who   finally   settled    in    Ahmadnagar,   the 

residence  of  Murtaza  Niziim  Shah  (A.H.  972  — 

996),  and  was  appointed  tutor  to  that  king's 

son,  Miran  Husain.     Firishtah  grew  up  at 

the   court   of  Murtazil,  and   held  the  post 

of  captain  of  the   royal   guard,  when  the 

latter  was  deposed  and  put  to  death.     He 

states  in  his  preface  that  in  A.H.  998  he  left 


Ahmadnagar  to  repair  to  the  court  of  Bijfipur, 
and  that  he  was  subsequently  called  upon  by 
Ibrahim  'Adil  Shfdi  (A.H.  988—1037)  to 
write  the  present  history,  which  he  presented 
to  his  Majesty  in  A.H.  1015.  In  the  same 
year  he  was  sent  by  'Adil  Shah  on  an  em- 
bassy to  Jahangir,  then  holding  his  court  in 
Lahore.  He  attained  an  advanced  age,  and 
added  to  his  work  several  notices,  the  latest 
of  which  relates  to  the  death  of  Bahfidur 
Khan  Farfiki  in  A.H.  1033.  See  Bombay 
edition,  vol.  ii.  p.  568,  Add.  6572,  fol.  598  b, 
Add.  5598,  fol.  681  a.  The  date  of  Firish- 
tah's  death  is  not  known.  He  left,  besides 
his  history  of  India,  a  medical  work  entitled 
\j\o':i\  jy-»^  ;  see  Mehren,  Copenhagen  Cata- 
logue, p.  11. 

The   present  work,  which    is    generally 
called  after  the  author  Tarikh  i  Firishtah, 
deservedly  holds  the  first  rank  among  the 
general  histories  of  India,  and  is  the  main 
source  of  all  the  later  woi'ks  of  that  class. 
It  has  been   lithographed  at   Bombay  and 
Poona  in  1832,  under  the  supervision  of  Mir 
Khairat  'All  Khan  Mushtak  of  Agra,  from  a 
text  prepared  by  Major-General  John  Briggs. 
A  second  edition,  lithographed  in  the  press 
of  Munshi    Naval  Kishor,   Lucknow,   A.H. 
1281,    is   a   reprint   of    the   first.      Former 
translations  of    separate  portions,   viz.  the 
history  of  Hindustan,  by  Alexander  Dow, 
London,  1768,  the  history  of  Deccan,  by 
Jonathan  Scott,  Shrewsbury,  1794,  and  the 
account  of  Malabar,  by  Anderson,  Asiatic 
Miscellany,  1786,  have  Ijcen  entirely  super- 
seded by  a  version  of  the  entire  work,  with 
the    exception    of  the   account  of    Indian 
saints,  which  General  J.  Briggs  published 
under  the  title  of  "Histoiy  of  tiie  rise  of 
the  Mahomedan  power  in  India,"  4   vols., 
London,  1829.    It  is  much  to  be  regretted 
that  the  incontestable  usefulness  of  General 
Briggs'  valuable  work  should  have  been  iu 
some  measure  impaired  by  a  general  loose- 
ness of  translation,  occasional  inaccuracy  ia 

G  G 


226 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OP  INDIA. 


the  writing  of  proper  names,  and,  above  all , 
by  frequent  and  arbitraiy  omissions.  The 
Mukaddimah,  or  Introduction,  which  treats 
of  Hindu  tenets  and  early  history,  has  been 
ably  translated  by  Prof.  Dowson,  in  Elliot's 
History  of  India,  vol.  vi.  pp.  532 — 569. 

An  excellent  account  of  the  work  and  of 
Firishtah's  life,  by  J.  Mohl,  will  be  found  in 
the  Journal  des  Savants,  1840,  pp.  212 — 226, 
354-372,  and  392—103.  Compare  the 
preface  and  the  life  of  the  author  in  vol.  i. 
of  Briggs'  version,  Morley's  Catalogue,  pp. 
63—68,  Sir  H.  Elliot,  Bibliographical  Index, 
pp.  310 — 339,  History  of  India,  vol.  vi.  pp. 
207—230,  Stewart's  Catalogue,  p.  12,  etc. 

The  author  gave  successively  two  different 
titles  to  this  history,  first  that  of  Gulshan  i 
Ibrahimi,  which  is  found  in  those  copies  in 
which  the  dedication  to  Ibrahim  *Adil  Shah 
is  dated  A.H.  1015  (Add.  6569, 18,875,  and 
Egerton  1000),  and  afterwards  that  of  Tarikh 
i  Nauras-Namah ;  the  latter  occurs  in  the 
later  recension,  the  preface  of  which  is  dated 
A.H.  1018  (Add.  4940,  5598,  6572.)  It  may 
be  noticed  that  the  latest  additions  are  only 
to  be  found  in  copies  of  the  latter  class. 
The  preface  of  A.H.  1015  contains  at  the 
end  a  table  of  chapters  which  does  not 
appear  in  the  later  preface. 

Another  distinction  between  the  two  re- 
censions is  this,  that  the  first  is  divided  into 
two  volumes  (jild),  the  second  of  which, 
commencing  with  the  'Adilshahis,  has  a  short 
preamble  of  its  own,  beginning  :  UJ  j  j.^*- 
klfl5^  ^jij\  i/^jJli* .  (See  Add.  6570,  fol.  121, 
18,877,  fol.  1,  Egerton  1000,  fol.  299),  while 
in  the  later  recension  this  division  is  not 
observed,  and  the  preamble  is  suppressed. 
There  are  also  some  discrepancies  in  the 
headings  of  the  chapters. 

The  work  is  divided  into  a  Mukaddimah, 
twelve  Makrdahs  and  a  Khatimah,  as  follows  : 

Mukaddimah.  Tenets  of  the  Hindus,  their 
early  Rajahs,  and  the  first  appearance  of 
Islamism  in  India,  Add.  6569,  fol.  4  a. 


Makalah  I.  Sultans  of  Lahore,  styled 
Ghaznavis,  fol.  18  b. 

Makalah  II.  Sultans  of  Dehli,  fol.  58  a. 

Makrdah  III.  Sultans  of  Deccan,  in  six 
Rauzahs:  1.  Kings  of  Gulbargah,  or  Bah- 
manis.  Add.  6570,  fol.  1  a.  2.  Kings  of 
Bijapur,  or  'Adilshahis,  fol.  121  a.  3.  Kings 
of  Ahmadnagar,  or  Nizamshahis,  fol.  198  a. 

4.  Kings  of  Tiling,  or  Kutubshahis,  fol.  278  h. 

5.  Kings  of  Berar,  or  'Imadshahis,  fol.  287  h. 

6.  Kings  of  Bedar,  or  Baridis,  fol.  290  a. 
Makalah  IV.    Sultans    of   Gujrat,   Add. 

6571,  fol.  1  a. 

Makalah  V.  Rulers  of  Malvah  and  Mandu, 
fol.  69  a. 

Makalah  VI.  The  Earuki  Sultans  of  Bur- 
hanpur,  fol.  116  a. 

Makalah  VII.  Sultans  of  Bengal  (includ- 
ing the  Sharkis  of  Jaunpur),  fol.  131  b. 

Makrdah  VIII.  Rulers  of  "Sind,  Tattah, 
and  Multan  (Briggs'  translation,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  401—421),  fol.  145  a. 

Makalah  IX.  The  Samagan,  or  Zamindars 
of  Sind,  fol.  151  b.  This  section  includes 
the  Jam  and  Arghun  dynasties  (Briggs' 
translation,  vol.  iv.  pp.  422 — 443),  and  the 
Sultans  of  Multan  {ib.  pp.  379—400). 

Makrdah  X.  Kings  of  Kashmir,  fol.  166  a. 

Makalah  XI.  Account  of  Malabar,  fol. 
201  b. 

Makrdah  XII.  Saints  of  India,  fol.  207  b. 

Kliatimah.  Description  of  India  and  enu- 
meration of  the  local  Rajahs,  fol.  258  a. 

A  full  table  of  contents  in  Persian  is 
prefixed  to  each  volume.  The  MS.  appears 
to  have  been  carefully  perused  by  an  English 
reader,  probably.  Mr.  James  Grant,  who 
wrote  short  abstracts  in  the  margins,  and 
the  following  date  at  the  end  of  the  last 
volume:  "Einis.    July  3rd,  1781." 

Add.  18,875. 

Foil.  465 ;  11^  in.  by  6| ;  20  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


227 


and  gold-ruled  margins;    dated  Zulhijjali, 
A.H.  1048  (A.D.  1639).       [Adam  Clarke.] 

The  first  half  of  the  same  work,  Gulshan 
i  Ibrahiml,  ending  with  the  first  Rauzah  of 
Makalah  III.  It  agrees  with  the  correspond- 
ing portion  of  the  preceding  copy,  but  is 
much  more  correctly  written. 

Add.  18,877. 

Foil.  357;  perfectly  uniform  with  the 
preceding,  and  written  by  the  same  hand ; 
with  TJnvan  and  gold-ruled  margins. 

[Adam  Clarke.] 

The  second  half  of  the  Gulslian  i  Ibrfdilmi. 
It  begins  with  the  preamble  above  noticed, 
followed  by  the  Second  Rauzah  of  Maka- 
lah II.  It  is  imperfect  at  the  end,  breaking 
off"  in  the  beginning  of  the  account  of  Mala- 
bar, fol.  355.  The  last  two  leaves  contain 
detached  portions  of  the  Khatimah. 

Egerton   1000. 

Foil.  524 ;  12|  in.  by  8^  ;  21  lines,  5^  in. 
Ions ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Ramazan,  the 
37th  year  of  Shah  'Alam  (A.H.  1209,  A.D. 
1795). 

The  same  work.  This  MS.  bears  the  same 
title  and  date  of  dedication,  A.H.  1015,  as 
the  preceding  copies,  with  which  it  agrees 
also  in  the  headings  of  the  chapters. 

Add.  6572. 

Foil.  691 ;  12  in.  by  8^ ;  21  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  ruled  margins,  probably  about  the  close 
of  the  17th  century.  [James  Grant.] 

The  same  work,  with  the  later  preface. 
Contents  :   Mukaddimah,  fol.  10  a.    Ma- 
kalah I.  Sultans  of  Lahore  or  Ghaznavis, 


fol.  16  a.  II.  Sultans  of  Dchli,  fol.  53  h. 
III.  Sultans  of  Deccan,  in  six  Rauzahs,  fol. 
263  a.     IV.  Sultans   of  Gujriit,   fol.  501  a. 

V.  Rulers  of  Malvah  and  Mandu,  fol.  551  b. 

VI.  Rulers  of  Khandes,  Asir,  and  Burhanpur, 
called  FarQkis,  fol.  587  a.  VII.  Sultans  of 
Bengal,  fol.  598  b.  VIII.  Rulers  of  Sind, 
Tattah  and  Multan,  fol.  608  a.  IX.  The 
Samagan,  or  Zamindars  of  Sind,  fol.  612  b. 
(The  words  -^  ei\sj»  in  the  heading  have  been 
obliterated.)  IX.  {bis)  Sultans  of  Multan, 
fol.  616  b.  (The  number  ^,  which  is  here 
repeated,  has  been  altered  by  a  later  liand 
to  ^ii).  X.  Kings  of  Kashmir,  fol.  621  b. 
XI.  Rulers  of  Malabar,  fol.  646  b.  XII. 
Saints  of  India  (without  heading),  fol.  650  b. 
Khatimah,  fol.  690  a. 

A  full  table  of  contents  in  a  later  hand  is 
prefixed,  foil.  1 — 6. 

Add.  5598. 

Foil.  811;  13  in.  by  8^;  21  lines,  |  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Hoogli, 
August,  1779.      [Nath.  Brassey  Halhbd.] 

The  same  work,  with  the  title  of  Tiirikh  i 
Nauras-Namah  and  the  date  of  A.H.  1018 
in  the  preface. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  this 
copy  was  made  for  Mr.  Halhed  by  order  of 
Mr.  Wilkins,  and  that  it  was  WTitten  by  three 
transcribers  in  the  space  of  seven  months. 

A  full  table  of  contents  occupies  foil.  1 — 7. 

Add.  4940  -  4942. 

Three  uniform  volumes,  which  originally 
formed  one,  and  contain  respectively  foil.  193, . 
195  and  170 ;  23  lines,  5|  in.  long ;  written 
in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the  17th  cen- 
tury. [Claud  Russell.] 

The  same  work,  Tarikh  i  Nauras-Namah. 
Three  considerable  lacunes  occur  in  the  third 
volume,  after  foil.  73,  96  and  137.  The  first 
extends  from  the  reign  of  Murtazil  Nizam- 

aG2 


228 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


shah  to  that  of  Mahmud  Shah  I.  of  Gujrat 
(Translation,  vol.  iii.  p.  265 — vol.  iv.  p.  G3), 
the  second  from  the  reign  of  Mahmud 
Shah  III.  to  that  of  Muzaffar  Shah  III.' (vol. 
iv,  pp.  148 — 157),  and  the  third  from  the 
reign  of  NasIrKhan  Faruld  to  that  of  Ghazl 
Shrih  of  Kashmir  (vol.  iv.  pp.  292—514). 
There  are  also  a  few  leaves  wanting  at  the 
beginning  of  the  account  of  Indian  Saints. 

The  first  three  folios  of  vol.  i.  and  the 
last  folio  of  vol.  iii.  have  been  supplied  by  a 
later  hand. 

This  MS.  bears  the  Persian  seals  of  David 
Anderson  and  Claud  Russell,  with  this  note 
on  the  fly-leaf  :  "  Presented  by  Claud  Russell, 
Esq.,  October  5,  1781." 

Add.  18,876. 

Poll.  350;  15  in.  by  9;  22  lines,  of  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  silver-ruled 
margins,  apparently  in  the  18tb  century. 

[Adam  Clarke.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work,  beginning 
with  the  reign  of  Akbar,  and  ending  abruptly 
after  the  first  lines  of  the  sixth  Rauzali  of 
Makalah  III.  (Bombay  edition,  vol.  i.  p.  461 
— vol.  ii.  p.  347,  Briggs'  translation,  vol.  ii. 
p.  182— vol.  iii.  p.  496). 

Add.  23,529. 

Poll.  155  ;  llf  in.  by  8;  32  lines;  51  in. 
long ;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  on  European 
paper,  apparently  in  the  19th  century. 

[Rob.  Taylor.] 

A  portion  of  tbe  same  work,  viz.  the  six 
Rauzahs  of  Makalah  III.,  or  the  history  of 
the  Deccan  dynasties. 

Add.  26,251. 

Poll.  210 ;  lOi  in.  by  6^ ;  15  lines ;  4  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  apparently 
about  the  close  of  the  17th  century. 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 


A  general  history  of  India  from  the  time 
of  Sultan  Shihab  ud-Din  GhQri  to  A.H.  1101. 

Author  :  Rae  Bindraban,  son  of  Rae  Bha- 
ramal,  J^^jl^  J^j  cy>j  (^j^ajo  i_^\j 

Beg.  «3iU  J»-  c^^\j  ^lj^_/o  J^jji-?  J'^'^^i 

The  author's  father,  who  had  received  the 
title  of  Rae  in  the  20th  year  of  Shahjahan 
and  had  been  appointed  Divan  to  Dara-Shi- 
kuh,  died  in  the  26th  year  of  the  same  reign 
(Tazkirat  ul-Umara,  Add.  16,703,  fol.  134). 
Bindraban  states  that  he  received  the  same 
title  from  Aurangzib.  We  are  informed  by 
Khalil  Ullah,  former  owner  of  one  of  the 
copies  of  the  present  work.  Add.  25,786, 
in  a  note  dated  A.H.  1149,  that  the  author 
had  been  Divan  to  Bahadur  Shah  Alam, 
before  the  latter' s  accession. 

lOiafi  Khan,  who  calls  him  Bindraban 
Das  Bahadurshahl,  makes  the  same  state- 
ment, vol.  ii.  p.  211,  and  adds  that,  after  a 
diligent  search  for  his  work,  he  was  dis- 
appointed to  find  that  it  did  not  contain  half 
the  facts  recorded  by  himself. 

Bindraban  says  in  the  preface  that  in  A.H. 
1101,  large  territories  having  been  added  to 
the  empire  by  the  arms  of  Aurangzib,  he  con- 
ceived the  project  of  writing  a  concise  history 
of  India,  with  the  main  object  of  recording 
the  accession  and  conquests  of  that  sove- 
reign, and  finding  that  Abul-Kasim  {sic), 
surnamed  Pirishtah,  had  made  an  excellent 
compilation  of  earlier  works  for  the  period 
extending  from  A-H.  572  to  1000,  he  abridged 
the  same,  made  to  it  some  additions  from 
other  sources,  brought  it  down  to  a  cen- 
tury later,  and  gave  to  his  work  the 
title  of  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh  (Add.  26,251,  5618 
and  6596),  or,  according  to  other  copies  (Add. 
25,786,  26,252)  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh  i  Hind. 
In  the  concluding  lines  the  date  of  composi- 
tion   is    approximatively   conveyed   by  the 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


229 


clirono^ram  ,.,li-»JJJ6  i^JjJ^  O^la-  =  A.H.llOO, 
which  however  in  two  other  copies  (Add. 
5618,  6596)  is  written  ^iL-j^  uliU  O^JU 
i.  e.  A.H.  1106. 

See  Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  vii., 
p.  168—173,  Mackenzie  Collection,  vol.  ii. 
p.  120,  and  Copenhagen  Catalogue,  p.  18. 
J.  Scott  has  made  use  of  the  Lubb  ut- 
Tavarlkh  in  his  history  of  Dekkan  ;  see  vol. 
i.  pp.  vii.  and  338. 

The  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh  is  divided  into  ten 
iPash,  as  follows  :  I.  Kings  of  Dehli,  fol.  1  b. 
This  chapter,  nearly  two-thirds  of  the  whole 
work,  comprises,  in  continuation  of  Eirish- 
tah,  the  reigns  of  Jahangir,  fol.  76  a  ;  Shah- 
jahan,  fol.  78  « ;  and  Aurangzlb,  fol.  96  a. 
The  account  of  the  last  is  brought  down  to 
the  12th  of  Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1101. 

II.  Kings  of  Deccan,  in  six  Shu'bahs : 
1.  The  Bahmanis,  fol.  131  b.  2.  The  Sultans 
of  Bijapur,  styled  'Adilshahis,  to  A.H.  1097, 
fol.  142  a.  3.  The  Sultans  of  Ahmadnagar 
and  Daulatabad,  called  Nizamshahis,  to  A.H. 
1045,  fol.  150  a.  4.  The  rulers  of  Tiling, 
known  as  Kutubshilhis,  to  A.H.  1098,  fol. 
162  b.     5.  The   'Imadshahis   of   Berar,   fol. 

166  a.      6.   The    Barldis    of    Bedar,    fol. 

167  «. 

III.  Sultans  of  Gujrat,  fol.  169  a.  IV. 
Rulers  of  Miilvah  and  Mandu,  fol.  180 «. 
Y.  The  Earukis  of  Burhanpur  and  Aslr,  fol. 
190  6.     VI.    Sultans  of  Bengal,   fol.    196  6. 

VII.  The   Sharkis   of  JaunpQr,   fol.    203  a. 

VIII.  Rulers  of  Sind,  fol.  205  b.  IX.  Rulers 
of  Multan,  fol.  208  a.  X.  Kings  of  Kashmir, 
fol.  208  b. 

The  first  page  bears  the  stamp  of  'All  Naki 
Khan  "Alamgiri  (an  Amir,  who,  according  to 
the  Tazkirat  ul-Umara,  was  Divan  of  Auran- 
gabad  at  the  close  of  Aurangzlb's  reign)  with 
the  date  38,  i.  e.  the  38th  year  of  Aurangzlb, 
or  A.H.  1005.  On  the  fly-leaf  is  written  : 
"  To  Wm.  Erskine,  Esq.,  from  Hetiry  Russell, 
Esq.,  Oct.  1811." 


Add.  6596. 

Foil.  268;  10  in.  by  6^;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Haidarfibad, 
Jumada  I.,  in  the  first  year  of  Shah  'Alara, 
or  A.H.  1119  (A.D.  1707).     [James  Grant.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  25,786. 

Foil.  172 ;  9J  in.  by  6^ ;  20  lines,  S-i  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  A.H. 
1149  (A.D.  1737).  [Wm.  Cuueton.] 

The  same  work. 

The  original  owner  of  this  MS.,  Khalil 
TJllaii  Ghulam  Shaikhau  Ahmad,  states  on 
the  first  page  that  it  was  written  at  the 
close  of  A.H.  1149,  in  Slkakul,  Subah  of 
Haidarabad,  where  he  held  the  office  of 
Vaka'i'-Navis,  by  'All  Beg,  and  he  adds  at 
the  end  that  its  collation  was  completed  in 
Rabl'  II.,  A.H.  1150, 

Add.  5618. 

Foil.  231;  10  in.  by  6^;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  18th  century. 

[N.  B.  Halhed.] 

The  same  work. 

Add.  26,252. 

Foil.  231 ;  8  in.  by  4  ;  14  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  about  the  begin- 
ning of  the  19th  century. 

[Wm.  Erskixe.] 

The  same  work. 

Mr.  Erskine  has  written  on  the  fly-leaf: 
"From  Brigadier-Gen.  Malcolm,  Nov.,  1811, 
Bombay." 

Add.  5559. 

Foil.  422;  11  in.  by  6|;  16  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  m-itten  in  Nestalik,  with  a  rude  'Un- 
vtin  and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Rajab, 
A.H.  1188  (A.D.  1774). 

[Robert  Wathrrstox.] 


230 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


A  general  history  of  India  from  the  earliest 
times  to  the  accession  of  'Alamgir. 

Beg.   sljTJl^  jyo^  J   c^Uo.^/  &iU.j\5^J   ^JiXsi^i 

The  author,  who  does  not  give  his  name, 
either  in  the  present  copy,  or  in  any  of  the 
following,  was  evidently  a  Hindu,  and  had 
been,  as  he  states  in  the  preface,  from  his 
youth  upwards  acting  as  Munshi  in  the 
employ  of  some  high  officials.  He  is  desig- 
nated in  the  subscription  as  follows :    ^^^ 

tl^.i»b  jliL*»;>  0;C»fiMj  ij^j^  J  c?j'^>  from 
which  he  would  appear  to  have  lived  in 
Patialah.  His  name  has  been  variously 
read;  Sanjan  by  Morley  and  Sprenger,  Subhan 
by  Lees  and  Elliot,  and  Sujan  by  Garcin  de 
Tassy.  The  last  reading  is  probably  correct, 
for  Sujan  is  a  HindQ  name  of  frequent 
occurrence;  no  less  than  three  Sujan  Singlis 
are  mentioned  in  the  Tazkirat  ul-Umara. 

After  discoursing  on  the  plurality  of  re- 
ligions, to  all  of  which  he  assigns  a  divine 
origin,  and  on  the  usefulness  of  history,  he 
enumerates  the  following  works  as  the 
sources  of  the  present  compilation  : — 

The  Persian  translations  of  the  Maha- 
bharata,  Ramayana,  and  Harivansa,  made  by 
order  of  Akbar.  The  Bhagavata  and  Yoga- 
vasishta,  translated  by  Shaikh  Ahmad  and 
others  for  Dara-Shikuh.  Gulafshan,  a  trans- 
lation of  the  Singhasan-battlsl.  Padmavat, 
a  history  of  Ratansen  of  Chitaur.  Rajavali, 
by  Bidhadhar,  translated  into  Persian  by 
Nibahuram.  Rajatarangini,  by  Pandit  Ra- 
ghunath,  translated  from  the  Sanscrit  by 
Maulana  'Imad  ud-Din.  Tarikh  i  Mahmud 
Ghaznavi  by  Maulana  'Unsuri.  Tarikh  i 
Sultan  Shihab  ud-Din  Ghiiri.  Tarikh  i  Sultan 
*Ala  ud-Din  KhiljI.  Tarikh  i  EirOzshahi  by 
Maulana  A'azz  ud-Din  Khalidkhani.  Tarikh  i 
Afaghinah  by  Ilusain  Khfm  Afghan.    Zafar- 


Namah  by  Sharaf  ud-Din  Yazdi.  Timur 
Namah  by  Hatifi.  Tavfirikh  i  Babari,  trans- 
lated from  the  Turki  by  Mirza  'Abd  ur- 
Raliim.  Akbar-Namah  by  Abul-Fazl.  Tarikh 
i  Akbarshahi  by  'Ata  Beg  Kazvini.  Akbar- 
Namah  by  Shaikh  Ilahdad  Munshi  Murtaza- 
khani.  Tabakat  i  Akbari  by  Nizam  ud-Din 
Ahmad  Bakhshi.  Ikbrd-Namah.  Jahangir- 
Namah.  Tarikh  i  Shabjahan  by  Varig  Khan, 
corrected  by  Sa'd  Ullah  Khan.  Tarikh  i 
'Alamglri  by  Mir  Muhammad  Kazim.  History 
of  Kashmir,  translated  from  the  Kashmirian 
language  by  Maulana  Shah  Muhammad 
Shahabadl.  Tarikh  i  Bahadur- Shahl  of  Guj- 
rat  and  other  local  histories  not  specified. 

The  author  states  that  he  compiled  the 
work  in  the  space  of  two  years,  and  com- 
pleted it  in  the  40th  year  of  the  reign  of 
'Alamglr,  corresponding  to  A.H.  1107.  The 
history,  however,  closes  with  the  accession 
of  'Alamglr  and  the  issue  of  his  contest  with 
Drira-Shikuh.  A  brief  notice  of  the  former's 
death,  which  is  found  at  the  end  of  most 
copies,  must  be  a  subsequent  addition. 

Contents :  Account  of  the  Hindu  tra- 
ditions, creeds  and  castes,  fol.  10  a.  Descrip- 
tion of  the  Subahs  of  Hindustan,  fol.  22  b. 
History  of  the  Rajahs  from  Judhishtir  to  the 
Muhammedan  conquest,  fol.  73  a.  Muham- 
medan  Sultans  from  Subuktigin  to  Bahlul 
Lodi,  fol.  128  b.  The  Timurides  from  Babar 
to  the  death  of  Dara-Shikiih,  fol.  217  5. 
Accounts  of  some  local  dynasties  are  given 
in  the  course  of  the  last  section,  on  the 
occasion  of  their  annexation  to  the  Moghul 
empire. 

The  contents  of  the  Khulasat-ut-Tavarikh 
have  been  more  fully  stated  by  Morley, 
Descriptive  Catalogue,  p.  69,  and  by  Sir  H. 
Elliot,  History  of  India,  vol.  viii.  pp.  5 — 12. 
Compare  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the  Roy.  As. 
Soc.,  New  Series,  vol.  iii.  p.  423,  Garcin  de 
Tassy,  Journal  Asiatique,  5®  Serie,  vol.  iii. 
p.  366,  and  Hist,  de  la  Litt.  Hind.,  vol.  i. 
p.  31,  Munich  Catalogue,  p.  84,  Mackenzie 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


231 


Collection,   vol.   ii.  p.    121,   and    Biblioth. 
Sprenger.,  No.  221. 

It  has  been  shown  by  Capt.  N.  Lees  that 
the  first  volume  of  the  Siyar  ul-Mutaakh- 
khirln  consisted  of  little  more  than  a  verbal 
transcript  of  the  Khulasat  ut-Tavarikh.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  author  of  the  latter  has 
been  charged  by  Sir  Ilenry  Elliot  with  ap- 
propriating, without  any  acknowledgment, 
the  contents  of  an  earlier  work  designated 
as  Mukhtasar.  It  appears,  however,  that  the 
last-mentioned  work,  which  is  represented  by 
a  single  imperfect  copy,  contains  neither 
author's  name  nor  date  of  composition,  and 
the  most  natural  explanation  of  its  verbal 
coincidences  with  the  Khulasat  would  seem* 
to  be  that  both  have  proceeded  from  one 
and  the  same  pen. 

The  Khulasat  ut-Tavarikh  has  been  trans- 
lated into  Urdu  by  Mir  Shir  'Ali  AfsQs,  under 
the  title  of  Ara'ish  i  Mahfil. 

Copyist:   ^^U^U.  sjo.l^^jj  jj>»^  Jj  J«Jy* 

Add.  16,680. 

EoU.  484;  8J  in.  by  4|;  13  lines,  2f  in. 
long  ;  written  in  a  cursive  Indian  hand ; 
dated  Shahjahanabad,  Sha'ban,  the  4th  year 
of  Ahmad  Shah  (A.H.  1164,  A.D.  1751). 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

Copyist:  J-./^),  Jlai^ 

Add.  18,407. 

Foil.  421;  9|  in.  by  5^;  18  lines,  3  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Kestalik ;  dated  the  8th 
year  of  Shah  'Alam,  Samvat,  1824  (A.D. 
1767).  [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

Copyist :   ^\j^ Jic  J^oJJ  c^^  JiJ^ 

On  the  first  page  is  a  note,  written  appa- 
rently by  the  transcriber,  in  which  the  work 
is  ascribed  to  Muashi  Dhirdhar^^j 


Add.  6567. 

Foil.  490  ;  Hi  in.  by  7^  ;  17  lines  (5|  in. 
long)  in  a  page,  written  in  Nestalik,  about 
the  close  of  tlie  18th  century.  [J.  F.  Hdll.J 

The  same  work. 

The  latter  part  of  the  volume,  foil.  339  a — 
490  b,  is  occupied  by  a  continuation  of  the 
Khulasat,  without  either  a  distinct  title  or 
author's  name.  It  begins  with  the  death  of 
Aurangzib  and  the  ensuing  contest  for  the 
empire,  and  concludes  with  the  reign  of 
Shah  'Alam,  the  account  of  which  is  brought 
down  to  A.H.  1198.  The  last  events  re- 
corded are  the  flight  of  prince  Jahandarsliah 
to  Laknau,  the  arrest  of  Majd  ud-daulah, 
and  the  arrival  at  Court  of  Major  Brown, 
sent  by  the  Governor-General. 

The  work  ends  with  a  short  account  of  the 
progress  of  the  English  rule,  and  a  sketch  of 
the  Sikhs,  the  latter  being  left  unfinished. 

Prefixed  is  a  table  of  the  contents  of  the 
whole  volume,  foil.  1 — 8. 

Add.  26,253. 

Foil.  100 ;  9^  in.  by  5 ;  12  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  1257  (A.D.  1842). 

A  compendium  of  Indian  history. 
Author  :  Jagajjivan-das,  son  of  Maaohar- 

das,  Gujriiti,  ji\jJ  ,^d  jty>*  Jj  ,jjb  ^^ji^r^ 

The  author  states  in  his  preface  that  he 
wrote  this  work  in  A.H.  1120,  in  the  reign  of 
Muhammad  Mu'azzam  Shah  Bahadur  Padi- 
shah. The  want  of  a  short  history,  embracing 
all  the  dynasties  of  India,  induced  him  to 
compile  it  from  trustworthy  sources.  Re- 
garding the  author's  life  we  learn  from  other 
passages,  fol.  36  6,  41  a,  that  he  had  entered 
the  imperial  service,  as  Harkarah,  in  A.H. 
1105,  and  had,  from  that  time,  kept  a  record 


232 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


of  passing  events  ;  further,  that  in  A.H. 
1119  he  was  admitted  to  the  presence  of  Ba- 
hadur Shah  in  Lahore,  where  he  had  been  for 
two  years  engaged  in  the  intelligence  depart- 
ment, and  received  from  him  a  robe  of  honour. 

Contents  : — Sultans  of  Hindustan,  from 
Mu'izz  ud-Din  Ghuri  to  Aurangzib,  fol.  4  a. 
History  of  Muhammad  Mu'azzam,  afterwards 
Bahadur  Shah,  from  his  release  from  cap- 
tiA'ity,  A.H.  1105,  to  his  victory  over  Kam- 
bakhsh,  and  subsequent  return  from  Haidara- 
bad  to  Hindustan,  in  Zulka'dah,  the  2nd 
year  of  his  reign,  fol.  34  h.  Tables  of  the 
revenue  of  the  Subahs,  as  drawn  up  by  order 
of  Bahadur  Shah,  fol.  51  h.  Local  dynasties 
from  Deccau  to  Kashmir,  as  in  Firishtah, 
fol.  58  a. 

With  the  exception  of  the  chapter  relating 
to  Bahadur  Shah,  the  Muntakhab  ut-Tava- 
rikh  appears  to  have  been  transcribed,  with 
slight  alterations,  from  the  Lubb  ut-Tavarikh 
of  Rae  Bindraban. 

Add.  7658. 

Foil.  63;  8i  in.  by  4^  ;  about  17  lines,  3^ 
in.  long ;  written  partly  in  Nestalik,  partly 
in  Shikastah-amiz ;  dated  Safar,  the  14th 
year  of  Muhammad  Shah  (A.H.  1144,  A.D. 
1731).  '  [CI.  J.  Rich.] 

The  same  work. 

This  copy  does  not  give  either  the  title  of 
the  work  or  the  author's  name;  it  wants 
also  the  tables  of  the  Subahs. 

Copyist :  ^/  ^.y  J'^  o-^-^j4^ 
The  fly-leaf  bears   the   Persian    seal    of 
General  Carnac,  with  the  titles  of  Mansur  ul- 
Mulk  llukn  ud-daulah  Bahadur  Jang,  and 
the  date  1178  (A.H.). 

Add.  6573-6575. 

Three  volumes,  the  first  and  the  third 
uniform,  foil.  271  and  IGl ;  20  lines,  4|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  dated  Haidara- 


bad,  Ramazan,  A.H.  1196  (A.D.  1782)  :  the 
second,  foil.  220,  same  size,  23  lines,  4|  in. 
long;  written  by  another  hand,  about  the 
same  time.  [James  Grant.] 


A  general  history  of  India  from  the  Mu- 
hammedan  conquest  to  the  reign  of  Muham- 
mad Shfih. 

Author :  Muhammad  Hashim,  entitled 
Hashim  'Ali  Khan,  afterwards  Khafi  Khan 
Nizamulmulki. 

Beg.  o-^'j^  uJ?'  O-V  j/^  ^cr  ^ 

Muhammad  Hashim,  son  of  Khwajah  Mir 
Khwafi,  was  brought  up  in  the  service  of 
Aurangzib,  who  employed  him  in  some 
political  and  military  situations.  In  the 
reign  of  Farrukh-Siyar  he  was  appointed 
Divan  by  Nizam  ul-Mulk,  and  he  subse- 
quently received  from  Muhammad  Shah  the 
title  of  Khafi  Khan ;  see  Elliot's  History  of 
India,  vol.  vii.  p.  207.  The  Arabic  meaning 
of  this  title  being  "hidden,"  it  has  been 
supposed  by  Morley  and  others  to  contain 
an  allusion  to  the  presumed  fact  that  the 
author  had  kept  his  history  secret  during 
the  reign  of  Aurangzib  ;  but  the  truth  is  that 
he  did  not  enter  upon  its  composition  until 
after  that  sovereign's  death.  The  title  is  ob- 
viously taken  from  the  author's  Nisbah 
Khafi,  derived  from  Khaf  or  Khwaf,  a  canton 
in  Khorasan  ;  see  Blochmann,  Ain  i  Akbari, 
vol.  i.  p.  445.  In  the  Maagir  ul-Umara, 
Add.  6567,  fol.  2,  the  work  is  called  ^UJ  ^ 

and  the  author  (^li*:'^j»- . 

It  will  be  seen  below  that  Khafi  Khan 
brought  down  his  history  to  A.H.  1143  or 
1144,  It  is  stated,  in  a  Persian  note  at  the 
end  of  Add.  26,224,  that  the  author  had 
written  four  or  five  leaves  further  when  he 
was  overtaken  by  death.  See  Morley's  Cata- 
logue, p.  100 ;  G.  Duff,  history  of  the  Mah- 
rattas,  vol.  i.  p.  97 ;  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


Roy.  As.  Soc,  new  Series,  vol.  iii.  p   465  • 
Stewart's  Catal.,  p.  13;  Mackenzie  Collection' 
vol.  u.  p.  121 ;  Bibl.  Sprenger.,  No.  227,  etc. 
The  first  volume,  J,l  ^U,  of  the  Lubab, 
which  appears  to  be  very  scarce,  contains  a 
history  of  the  Sultans  of  Hindustan  from  the 
Muhammadan  conquest  to  the  extinction  of 
the  Lodi  dynasty.     A  portion  of  it  is  extant 
m  Add.   26,227.     It  is   referred  to   in  the 
printed  edition,  vol.  ii.  p.   550,  and  in  the 
preamble  of  Or.  176  (see  p.  234  b). 

The  second  volume,  Ji  ^,    comprises 
a  full  account  of  the  Timurides  of  India,  from, 
the  conquest  of  Babar,  A.H.  932,  to  the'reio-n 
of  Muhammad  Shah.     It  is  the  best  known 
part  of  the  work,  and  undoubtedly  the  most 
valuable;  for  it  includes  in  its  latter  portion 
a  minute  record  of  events  witnessed  by  the 
author,  and  the  only  complete  and  connected 
account  extant  of  the  reign  of  Aurangzib 
It  has  been  printed  in  the  Bibliotheca  Indica 
Calcutta,    1868-1874.      Copious    extracts,' 
translated   by  Professor   Dowson,  are  to  be 
found  in  Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  vii. 
pp.  211—533.     An  English  extract  by  Wm 
Erskine,  dated  1811,  Dec.  19,  Bykula,  and 
extending  from  the  accession  of  Shahjahan 
to  A.H.  1067,  is  preserved  in  the  Add.  MSS 
26,613-14.     A  transcript  of  the  same,  witli 
another    extract    comprising   A.H.    1070— 
1130,  will  be  found  in  Add.  26,615-16     A 
■    translation  by  Capt.  A.  Gordon  of  the  earlier 
part  of  the  2nd  volume,  extending  from  its 
begmning  to  the   capture   of  Jahangir   bv 
Mahabat  Eihan,  and  dated  Nagpour,  1821,  is 
extant    in  two    copies.    Add.    26,617    and 
26,618-19. 

Of  the  third  volume,  treating  of  the  local 
dynasties  of  India,  only  a  portion  has  come 

235  T   "''''    ''°*'''^'    '""^    ^^^-    ^^'^^^'    P- 

The  present  set  of  MSS.  contains  the 
second  volume  of  the  work.  The  author 
states  m  the  beginning  that  he  had  brought 


233 

it  down  to  the  time  of  composition,  viz.  to 
A.H.  1133  (not  1130,  as  in  the  printed  text). 
-But  it  IS  found  to  have  been  continued  to  a 
later  period.     Tlie  full  and  connected  narra- 
tive closes  with  the  defeat  of  Mubariz  Khan 
by  Nizam  ul-Mulk,  which  took  place  on  the 
23rd  of  Muharram,  A.H.  1137  (the  date  1135 
IS  an  error  of  the  Calcutta  edition),  and  the 
subsequent    occupation   of    Haidanlbad   by 
he   latter.     The    last    chapter   contains    a 
brief  account  of  some  events  which  happened 
from  the   eighth   to   the   thirteenth    (four- 
teenth in  the  Calc.  ed.)  year  of  the  reign  of 
Muhammad  SluUi  (A.H.  1138-1143),  espe- 
cially m  Persia  ;  it  concludes  with  the  two 
crushing  defeats  of  Ashraf  and  the  restora- 
tion  of  Tahmasp  in  Ispahan  (A.H.  1142) 

Contents:    Origin    of    the    Turks,  ^Add 
fl  Vff;     ^^'^'^^r'  f«l-  9«-     Humayun,' 
5«7       t.    ,^^^^^'^«1-   58-     Jahangir,  fol. 
98  6.      Shahjahan,   fol.    150  i.      Contest   of 
Aurangzib  with  his  brothers,  and  his  rei-n 
Add   6574,  foil.  4^219.     Saints  of  the  time' 
of  Aurangzib,  Add.  6575,  fol.   4 «.     A'zam 
^bah,    fol.    9«.     Bahadur   Shah,   fol.    22  6 
I  Jahandar   Shah,    fol.    57  a.     Farrukh-Siyar," 
lol.  64  a.     Muhammad  Shah,  fol.  112  b. 

A  Persian  note  written  on  the  fly-leaf  of 
Add.  6573   states  that  the  MS.  was  tran 
scribed  for  Mr.  James  Grant,  from  a  copy  in 
tlie  library  of  Samsam  ul-Mulk  Shahnavaz 
Khan,  the  late  minister  of  Nizam  ul-Mulk 
m  Haidarabad.     A  similar  note,  dated  A  h' 
1196,  is  found  on  the  fly-leaf  of  Add.  6575* 
Full  tables  of  chapters  are  prefixed  to  Add 
6573  and  6574,  and  appended  to  Add.  6575. 
Transcriber's  name  at  the  end  of  Add.  6573: 


Add.  26,223  and  2Q^224:. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  forming  a  con- 
tinuous text;  foil.  654  and  849;  11  in. 
by   7 ;    12  lines,  4|  in.  long  ;    written  in 

HH 


234 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


Nestalik  ;     dated     August,     1821,     A.H. 
1236.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  second  volume  of  the  same  work. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  the 
MS.  was  written  by  order  of  Mr.  Grant, 
Resident  at  Sattarah,  by  Munshi  Hulas  Rai 
and  Haj!  Mirza  Fazl-'Ali.  The  first  page  of 
each  volume  bears  the  signature  of  James 
Grant, 

Add.  26,226. 

Foil.  377  •;  IQi  in.  by  6  ;  21  lines,  3|  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik  apparently  in  the 
18th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  first  half  of  the  same  volume  (Calcutta 
edition,  vol.  i.  p.  1 — vol.  ii.  p.  177). 

Add.  26,225. 

Foil.  519 ;  10^  in.  by  7| ;  15  lines,  4  in. 
long  ;  written  in  Nestalik  apparently  in  the 
18th  century.  [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  first  portion  of  the  same  volume,  want- 
ing a  page  at  the  beginning  (Calcutta  edi- 
tion, vol.  i.  p.  2 — vol.  ii.  p.  127). 

Add.  26,228. 

Foil.  128;  18  in.  by  10;  25  lines,  7  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik ;  dated 
Muharram,  A.H.  1224  (A.D.  1809). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  latter  part  of  the  same  volume,  cor- 
responding to  vol.  ii.  pp.  492 — 978  of  the 
printed  edition. 

It  Avas  written,  as  stated  in  the  subscrip- 
tion, for  Mac  Murdo  Sahib. 

Copyist :   'i^^,  f^  -y  «4l«V,L* 

Or.  176. 

Foil.  362 ;  12^  in.  by  8| ;  from  16  to  18 


lines,  6  in.  long ;  written  in  cursive  Nes- 
talik; dated  Fasli  1232,  January,  A.D.  1823. 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

The  latter  part  of  the  same  volume,  con- 
taining the  history  of  Aurangzib  and  his 
successors,  and  corresponding  to  vol.  ii.  of 
the  printed  edition. 

It  begins  with  a  preamble,  not  found  in 
the  printed  text,  in  which  the  author  states 
that  he  had  spent  from  sixteen  to  seventeen 
years  of  his  life  on  the  composition  of  this 
work,  especially  on  the  last  forty  years  of 
Aurangzlb's  reign.  Of  this  period,  on  account 
of  that  sovereign's  prohibition,  he  had  found 
no  previous  record,  with  the  exception  of 
the  account  of  the  Deccan  conquests  by 
Musta'idd  Khan.  He  had  therefore  en- 
deavoured to  compile  a  truthful  and  impartial 
history,  derived  from  the  court  chronicle 
^yi;>-  J^  jj.\Sj  Jiii ,  from  the  reports  of  trust- 
worthy persons,  and  lastly  from  his  personal 
experiences,  inasmuch  as  he  had  been  suc- 
cessively attached  to  the  train  of  three  or 
four  sovereigns.  He  adds  that  a  first  volume, 
containing  the  history  of  the  early  rulers  of 
India,  from  the  Muslim  conquest  to  the 
Lodi  dynasty,  had  been  completed  in  the 
rough,  but  that  he  had  not  yet  found  time 
to  prepare  a  fair  copy  of  it. 

This  preamble  is  followed  by  a  very  full 
table  of  the  contents  of  the  volume,  foil.  2  b 
—9  6. 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  the 
MS.  was  written  for  Mr.  Thomas  Wilkins, 
Superintendent  of  the  district  of  Ven  Ganga, 
province  of  Nagpur. 

Add.  26,227. 

Foil.  374;  8i  in.  by  5;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  a  cursive  and  ill-shaped 
Shikastah-amiz,  probably  in  the  18th  century. 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  same  work. 


GENERAL  HISTOllY  OF  INDIA. 


235 


This  MS.  is  remarkable  as  containing  a 
portion  of  the  very  scarce  first  volume  before 
mentioned.  It  is  the  concluding  part, 
consisting  of  an  account  of  the  Lodi 
dynasty,  prefaced  by  some  remarks  on  the 
origin  of  the  Afghans.  It  is  immediately 
followed  by  the  history  of  Babar  and  his 
successors,  which  belongs  to  the  second 
volume.  But  the  preface  and  preliminary 
chapters  on  the  Turks  and  Timiir,  usually 
prefixed  to  that  part  of  the  work  (Calc.  ed., 
vol.  i.  pp.  1 — 20),  are  here  wanting,  nor  is 
there  any  trace  of  a  division  of  the  work 
into  volumes. 

The  MS.  is  defective.  The  original  folio- 
ing  shows  that  it  has  lost  364  leaves  at  the 
beginning,  so  that  it  may  be  presumed  to 
have  once  contained  the  whole  of  the  first 
volume. 

The  text  is  shorter  than  that  of  the 
printed  edition,  owing  chiefly  to  the  absence 
of  redundant  phrases  and  rhetorical  flourishes, 
an  omission  however  which  is  frequently 
supplied  by  marginal  additions. 

Beg.   iZ^\^ff-  i_)^\jj^  ja.  »U.jb  i:i*ilaL*  ^i 

Contents :  Bahliil  Lodi,  fol.  1  a.  Sikandar 
B.  Sultan  Bahliil,  fol.  9  a.  Ibrahim  B.  Si- 
kandar, fol.  12  a. 

Babar,  fol.  15  a.  Humayiin,  fol.  34  b. 
Akbar,  fol.  56  b — 82  b.  These  three  sec- 
tions correspond  to  vol.  i.  pp.  21 — 232  of 
the  Calcutta  edition.  The  latter  portion  of 
the  account  of  Akbar,  and  the  whole  of 
JahangTr's  reign  (ib.  pp.  232 — 394),  are  want- 
ing. The  first  omission  is  intentional,  for 
the  death  of  Akbar  is  briefly  recorded  on 
fol.  82  b.  The  latter  is  due  to  the  loss  of 
41  leaves.  Shahjahan  (Calc.  ed.  vol.  i.  pp. 
395—756),  fol.  83.  Aurangzib  ;  the  first  ten 
years  of  the  reign  (Calcutta  edit.  vol.  ii. 
pp.  1—211),  fol.  266  a— 374  b. 


Add.  26,265. 

Poll.  442 ;  Hi  in.  by  6| ;  12  lines,  4J  in. 
long ;  written  in  large  Nestalik  ;  dated  Sha'- 
ban ;  A.H.  1237  (A.D.  1822). 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 
The  third  volume,  ^1*315  ji* ,  of  the  same 
work. 

Beg.  ci*M\j\j\yM  ^^j6U..i\j  sj3  "i  t/'^  j  s^-  ^^>. 
The  author,  who  calls  himself  here  Mu- 
hammad Hashim  Khwafi,  entitled  Khafi- 
Khan  Nizam-ul-mulkl,  states  that  this  third 
volume  is  devoted  to  the  kinsrs  of  the  various 
Subahs  of  India,  with  the  exception  of  those 
of  Dehli  and  Akbarabad,  the  rulers  of  which 
had  been  recorded  in  the  first  volume.  His 
account  is  abridged  from  the  work  of  Mu- 
hammad Kasim  Firishtah,  with  some  addi- 
tions from  those  of  Shaikh  Nur  ul-Hakk 
Dihlavi  and  other  writers.  He  prides  him- 
self on  eschewing  the  adulatory  strain  of 
court  chroniclers,  and  on  striving  after  truth- 
fulness to  the  utmost  of  his  power. 

The  present  MS.  contains  only  the  first 
portion  of  the  third  volume,  namely  the 
account  of  the  Deccan  dynasties,  as  follows : 
Sketch  of  the  early  Arab  settlements  in 
Deccan,  and  of  the  invasions  of  'Alii  ud-Din 
in  A.H.  691  and  Tughluk  in  A.H.  719,  fol. 
3  b.  The  Bahmanis,  from  their  origin  to 
A.H.  934,  fol.  7  b.  The  Nizamshahis,  down 
to  the  capture  of  Daulatabad  by  Shahjahan, 
fol.  116  b.  The  'Adilshakis,  down  to  the 
conquest  of  Bijapur  by  Aurangzib,  fol.  234  a. 
The  Farukis  of  Khandes,  down  to  their  ab- 
sorption in  A.H.  1008,  fol.  333  a.  The 
Kutubshahis,  down  to  their  extinction  in 
A.H.  1097,  fol.  376  b.  The  'Iraad  ul-Mulkis, 
fol.  431  b.     The  Barldis,  fol.  435  b. 

The  last  five  leaves,  foil.  438 — 442,  are 
no  part  of  Khiif  I  Khan's  work ;  they  con- 
tain a  short  chronological  account  of  the 
rulers  of  Jinjera  ^jj^\j  \s>^  s^j  from  the 
building  of  the  fort,  in  A.H.  906,  to  Sayyidi 

HH  2 


236 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


Ibrahim  Khan,  who  held  it  when  the  ac- 
count was  written,  i.  e.  about  the  beginning 
of  the  present  century. 

Jinjera  is  a  corruption  of  the  Arabic 
Jazirah,  "  island ;"  see  Duflf,  History  of  the 
Mahrattas,  vol.  i.  p.  139,  vol.  ii.  p.  97,  and 
Thornton,  East  India  Gazetteer. 

It  appears  from  a  note  on  the  fly-leaf  that 
this  MS.  was  sent  to  Mr.  Erskine  by  Mr. 
James  Grant. 

Add.  6583  and  6584. 

Two  uniform  volumes,  foil.  394  and  420 ; 
10^  in.  by  5f  ;  15  lines,  3^  in.  long ;  written 
in  fair  Nestalik,  with  ruled  margins,  in  the 
18th  century.  [James  Grant.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  earliest 
times  to  the  reign  of  Earrukh-Siyar,  in- 
cluding an  account  of  the  early  kings  of 
Persia. 

Author  :  Lfd-Ram,  son  of  Rai  Dulah-Ram 
B.  Rai  Kunjaman  Khuldmakani,  j.ij    A   J^) 

Beg.    (JJJ'.*    s.^    ijj-*^    er*^    "^^^   'rfji*^ 


The  author  states  in  the  preface  that  he 
wrote  this  work  in  the  18th  year  of  Muham- 
mad Shah,  A.H.  1148.  He  designates  him- 
self as  a  born  slave  of  the  emperor,  and  the 
title  of  Khuldmakani  which  he  gives  to  his 
grandfather  shows  that  the  latter  had  been 
in  the  service  of  Aurangzlb.  He  further  in- 
cidentally mentions,  fol.  22  a,  tliat  he  once 
held  Mungi  Patan,  in  the  Deccan,  as  a  Jagir. 

The  sources  of  the  present  compilation  are 
enumerated  as  follows :  Akbar-Namah,  Taba- 
kat  i  Akbari,  Eutuhat  i  Akbari  by  Eaizi, 
Tarikh  i  Eirishtah,  Shahnamah,  Tarikh  i 
Shamshii'khani,  Khulasat  ul-Akhbar,  Aja'ib 
ul-Makhlukat,  Jahanglr-Namah,  Shrdijahan- 


Namah,  'Alamglr-Namah,  and  Lubb  ut-Tava- 
rikh  i  Hind  by  Rai  Bindraban. 

The  work  is  divided  into  four  books  (Easl) 
of  very  unequal  extent,  as  follows : — 

Easl  I.  Account  of  Adam  and  of  the 
Hindu  system  of  cosmogony,  fol.  56. 

Easl  II.  Geographical  and  historical  ac- 
count of  the  Subahs  of  India,  in  nineteen 
sections  (Kism) :  1.  Bengal,  fol.  24  a.  2.  Be- 
har,fol.  37  6.  3.  Ilahabad,fol.39a.  4.  Awadh, 
fol.  42  6.  5.  Agrah,  fol.  44  b.  6.  Mal- 
vah,  fol.  46  a.  7.  Subahs  of  Deccan,  in 
seven  Tabakahs  :  Khandes,  fol.  99  b.  Berar, 
fol.  107  a.  Bahmanis  of  Gulbargah,  fol. 
110  a.  'Adilshahis  of  Bijapur,  fol.  122  b. 
Nizamshahis,  fol.  132  a.     Kutbulmulkis,  fol. 

145  b.  Baridis,  fol.  149  b.  8.  Gujrat ;  fol. 
150  b.  9.  Ajmir;  fol.  216  a.  10.  Dehli, 
fol.  219  a.  This  section  is  brought  down  in 
the  first  volume  to  the  death  of  Adli,  and 
continued  in  the  second  from  the  accession 
of  Akbar  to  the  third  year  of  Earrukhsiyar, 
A.H.  1126,  where  it  breaks  off,  fol.  88  a,  the 
rest  of  the  folio  being  left  blank.  11.  Lahore, 
Add.  6584,  fol.  88  b.  12.  Multan,  fol.  90  b. 
13.  Tatah,  fol.  92  b.  14.  Kashmir,  fol.  98  b. 
15.  Kabul,  fol.  127  b.  16.  Ghaznin,  with  a 
short  history  of  the  Ghaznavis  and  Ghuris, 
fol.  128  a.     17.  Muslim  Saints  of  India,  fol. 

146  a.  18.  Kings  and  famous  personages 
who  visited  India,  fol.  150  b.  19.  Settlement 
of  the  children  of  Ham  in  India,  and  its 
kings  before  the  Muslim  conquest,  fol.  158  b. 

Easl  III.,  in  two  chapters  (Bab) :  1.  Early 
kings  of  Iran  from  Kayumars  to  Yazdagird, 
fol.  174  a.  2.  Ancient  sages,  or  Greek  philo- 
sophers, fol.  392  b. 

Easl  IV.,  in  two  chapters  (Zikr) :  1.  Mis- 
cellaneous historical  notices  and  anecdotes, 
fol.  396  b.  2.  Conclusion  (Khatimah),  want- 
ing in  this  copy. 

To  each  volume  is  prefixed  a  table  of  con- 
tents, Add.  6583,  foil.  1—3,  Add.  6584,  foil. 
1 — 4.  The  first  volume  bears  the  stamp  of 
Rao  Kishan  Singh,  with  the  date  1175. 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


237 


Add.  27,250. 

Foil.  132;  13i  in.  by  8 ;  19  lines,  5^  in. 
long;  written  in  fair  Nestalik,  about  the 
close  of  the  18th  century. 

[J.  Macdonald  Kinneir.] 

A  general  history  of  India  from  the  most 
ancient  times  to  A.H.  1196. 

Author:  Ghulam  Basit,  k»il>     ^Ji^ 

Beg.      ]j*!l*  t^  ^^^n^    S^  u'    o^V"  i  ^"^^ 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that, 
having  lost  the  patrimonial  estate  he  pos-' 
sessed  in  Oude,  he  had  tried  to  enter  the 
service  of  the  imperial  house  of  Timur,  which 
his  ancestors  had  served  before  him  for  nearly 
three  centuries.  This  desire,  however,  having 
been  frustrated,  he  had  no  resource  but  to 
take  office  under  the  English,  whose  gene- 
rosity and  high-mindednesswere  known  to  the 
whole  world,  and  he  attached  himself  in  the 
capacity  of  Munshi  to  General  Giles  Stibbert,'' 
who  brought  him  to  Calcutta,  and  by  whose 
desire  he  wrote  the  present  history.  He 
derived  his  account  partly  from  books,  and 
partly  from  information  conveyed  to  him  by 
his  late  father,  Shaikh  SaifuUah  Bijnurl   .^ 

(jj^.  aUlu-flJuu,  who  had  spent  his  life  in  the 
service  of  the  Emperors  of  Hindostan,  and 
had  died  at  the  age  of  105  years. 

An  examination  of  the  work,  however, 
shows  that,  with  the  exception  of  a  very 
meagre  continuation  of  the  series  of  the 
Moghul  Emperors  from  Akbar  to  Shah'Alam, 
foil.  125 — 132,  it  is  entirelv  founded  on 
Eirishtah,  whom  the  author  follows  almost 
textually,  but  with  a  considerable  degree  of 
condensation. 

It  is  stated  at  the  end  to  have  been  written 
A.H.  1196. 

•  Brigadier-General  Giles  Stibbert  was  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  Bengal  army  in  the  years  1777 — 1779  and 
1783 — 1785.    See  Dodwell  and  Miles,  Indian-Army  List. 


The  work  is  described,  under  the  title  of 
Tarikh  i  Mamalik  i  Hind,  in  Sir  II.  Elliot's 
History  of  India,  vol.  viii.  p.  200. 

Contents :  Hindu  cosmogony  and  the  war 
of  the  Kauravas  and  Pandavas,  from  the 
Mahabharat,  fol.  9  a.  The  sons  of  Ham, 
Hind  and  Bind,  and  the  early  Hindu  kings 
from  Kishan,  son  of  Purab,  to  Miildeo,  fol. 
14  b.  Early  Muhammadan  invasions,  by 
Arabs  and  Afghans,  fol.  21  a.  Ghaznavis, 
fol.  23*.  Ghuris,  fol.  27  6.  Khiljis,  fol.  35  i. 
Lodis,  fol.  42  a.  Kings  of  Sind,  Tatah  and 
Multan,  fol.  43  b.  Kings  of  Kashmir,  fol, 
51  b.  The  kings  of  Bengal,  fol.  65  a.  The 
Sharki  kings  of  Jaunpur,  fol.  69  b.  The 
Bahmanis,  fol.  72  a.  The  'Adilshahis  of  Bi- 
japiir,  fol.  82  a.  The  Nizamshahis  of  Ahmad- 
nagar,  fol.  85  b.  The  Kutubshahis,  fol.  90  b. 
The  Imadul-Mulkis,  fol.  92  b.  The  Barldis, 
fol.  94  a.  The  kings  of  Gujrat,  fol.  94  b. 
The  kings  of  Malvah,  fol.  102  a.  The  Fil- 
rukis  of  Khandes,  fol.  109  a.  Account  of 
Malabar,  fol.  114  a.  The  Timurides  from 
Babar  to  Shah  'Alam,  fol.  119  b. 

No  title  appears  in  the  text;  but  in  the 
heading  of  a  full  table  of  contents,  foil.  2 — 7, 

the  work  is  called  iJs^jS'xsk  ciDU-  -/tj^ .     On 
the  first  page  the  author  is  designated   as 

It  is  stated  in  the  subscription  that  the 
MS.  was  written  by  order  of  Navvab  Valfijah, 
Navvab  of  the  Carnatic,  whose  seal  is  found 
at  the  beginning,  with  the  name  &Jj  J\  ^kc- 

On  the  first  page  is  written :  "  From  the 
Ameer  ool  Omrah  to  John  Macdonald  Kin- 
neir." 

Or.  205. 

Foil.  261 ;  10^  in.  by  6|;  15  lines,  4J  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  dated  A.H.  1283 
(A.D.  1866).  [Geo.  W.  Hamiltox.J 


238 


GENERAL  HISTORY  OF  INDIA. 


(ijljL-ijOJh  iS\i> 


CUfiAA> 


An  historical  and  topographical  account 
of  the  various  Subalis  of  Hindostan  and 
Deccan. 

Author :  Lachhml  Narayan,  takh.  Shaf ik, 
Aurangabadi,  ^ib\ili,j\  Ji^  u«l^**c;?.^y  l*-^ 

The  author  gives  the  following  account  of 
the  origin  of  the  work.  His  father,  Rae 
Mansiiram,  Divan  of  Navvab  Asafjah,  had 
sent  to  him,  in  A.H.  1204,  from  Aurangabfid, 
the  author's  native  place,  to  Haidarfibad, 
some  old  and  worm-eaten  revenue  returns, 
which  had  been  drawn  up  by  his  grandfather, 
and  inspected  and  signed  by  Nizam  ul-Mulk. 
They  were  brought  down  from  various  dates 
to  the  Pasli  year  1139.  Finding  them  of 
great  importance,  he  was  induced  to  tran- 
scribe them  in  a  more  generally  intelligible 
form  and  to  supplement  them  with  much 
additional  information,  for  the  benefit  of  his 
munificent  patron,  Captain  William  Patrick. 
The  above  title  expresses  numerically  the 
date  of  composition,  A.H.  1204.  See  Mac- 
kenzie Collection,  vol.  ii.  p.  127. 

The  work  is  divided  into  four  Makalahs, 
as  foUows : 

I.  The  revenue  returns  above-mentioned, 
fol.  4  b. 

II.  Account  of  the  SQbahs  of  Hindustan, 
in  the  following  order :  Dehli,  Agrah,  Ilaha- 
bad,  Awadh,  Behar,  Bengal,  Orissah,  Malvah, 
Ajmir,  Gujrat,  Tatah,  Multan,  Lahore,  Kash- 
mir, Kabul,  fol.  37  b. 

III.  Account  of  the  Subahs  of  Deccan, 
viz.  Khandes,  Berar,  Aurangabfid,  Bedar, 
Bijapur,  and  Haidarabad,  fol.  79  b. 

IV.  Sketch  of  the  history  of  the  Muslim 
Sultans  of  Hindustan  from  Mu'izz  ud-Din 
i  Sam  to  'All  Gauhar  (Shah  'Alam),  fol.  194  b. 

The  author  states  at  the  end  that  he  com- 
pleted the  work  on  the  first  of  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  1204,  while  Nizam  'Ali,  then  on  his 


march  against  Tipu  Sultan,  was  encamped 
before  Pangul. 

Lachhmi  Nariiyan  had  written  in  A.H.  1200 
a  history  of  Deccan,  entitled  Tanmik  i  Shi- 
garf,  which  is  referred  to  in  the  present 
work,  fol.  79  b.  He  wrote  in  A.H.  1214  a  , 
history  of  the  Mahrattahs,  entitled  Bisat 
ul-Ghana'im  (Add.  26,274), and  an  account  of 
Haidarabad  (Add.  26,263). 

Add.  26,266. 

Foil.  269;  8^  in.  by  5|;  11  lines,  3.f  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik;  dated  EabI*  II., 
A.H.  1224  (A.D.  1809).        [Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  same  work. 

The  name  of  Captain  William  Patrick  is 
omitted  in  this  copy. 

Add.  16,712. 

Foil.  63 ;  9  in.  by  5 ;  15  lines,  3|  in.  long ; 
written  in  fair  Nestalik,  at  the  beginning  of 
the  19th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 

An  abridged  history  of  the  Sultans  of 
Dehli  and  the  Timurides  from  their  origin 
to  Shah  'Alam. 

Author :  A'azz  ud-din  Muhammad,  ^^^^\js-\ 

Beg.  idiun  Jy  uHUl  ^U  ^]  j; 

Thiswork  was  written,  in  A.H.  1218,  for  Col. 
(afterwards  Major)  Wm.  Yule.  It  purports 
to  be  founded  on' a  history  found  in  the 
library  of  the  Safavi  Prince,  Abu-1-fath  Sul- 
tan Muhammad  Mirza,  the  title  and  author 
of  which  are  not  named. 

It  is  simply  a  transcript  of  the  well  known 
Tarikh  i  Hakki  (see  p.  223  b)  with  the  addi- 
tion of  a  few  lines  in  the  preface,  fol.  3  b, 
and  a  very  meagre  continuation  from  Akbar 
to  Shah  'Alam,  foil.  59  6—62  b. 


(    239    ) 


PARTICULAR  HISTORIES  OF  INDIA. 


SULTANS  OF  DEHLI. 


Add.  7623. 

Foil.  143;  Hi  in.  by  6f ;  19  lines,  5  in. 
long  ;  written  in  fair  Naskhi ;  dated  Sha'ban, 
A.H.  711  (A.D.  1312).  [CI.  J.  Eich.] 

A  history  of  the  empire  of  Dehli  from  ' 
A.H.  587  to  614. 

Author :  Hasan  NizamT,  ^joUai 

Beg.   ^fl&  J^y^J^  j»ii5  *S  (_jMLi>j  i^j^^xui  J  4>^!». 

This  work,  to  which  no  title  is  given  in 
the  text,  has  always  been  known  under  the 
name  of  J'\.^\  -U,  or  "  Crown  of  Memorable 

.Deeds,"  which  is  found  on  the  first  page  of 
this  and  the  three  following  copies.  It  is 
written  in  mixed  prose  and  verse,  and  has 
long  been  held  up  in  the  East  as  a  model  of 
elegant  composition.  It  contains  a  mini- 
mum of  historical  matter  diluted  in  a  flood 
of  rhetorical  verbiage. 

In  a  preface  remarkable,  even  among  Per- 
sian prefaces,  for  irksome  prolixity,  foil.  2 — 
38,  the  author,  after  dilating  on  the  praises 
of  his  hero,  Kutb  ud-Din  Abul-Hari§  Aibak, 
who  had  been  raised  to  power  in  the  reign 
of  Sultan  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Siim, 
for  the  triumph  of  Islamism  in  the  land  of 
idolaters,  proceeds  to  give  a  diffuse  account 
of  his  own  circumstances. 

Compelled  by  the  disturbed  state  of  Khu- 
rasan to  leave  in  the  prime  of  life  his  native 
city,  Nishapur,  and  to  seek  his  fortune  abroad, 
he  repaired  by  the  advice  of  his  Shaikh,  Mu- 
hammad Kufi,  to  Ghaznah,  where  he  was 
kindly  received  by  a  learned  divine,  Shaikh 
Muhammad  Sharzi,  iSjA,  and  the  Sadr  Majd 
ul-Mulk.     After  recovering  from  a  long  and 


dangerous  illness  he  set  out  on  his  travels, 
and,  after  a  thousand  dangers  and  hardships, 
he  reached  Dehli,  where  he  again  fell  ill. 
He  was,  however,  soon  restored  to  health 
and  hope  through  the  kindness  of  the  Sadr 
Sharaf  ul-Mulk  and  other  friends.  En- 
couraged by  them  to  make  his  talent  known 
to  the  world  by  some  literary  production, 
he  hastened  to  obey  the  royal  commands 
then  issued,  by  writing  a  record  of  His 
Majesty's  glorious  deeds,  Avhich  he  com- 
menced in  A.H.  602. 

The  preface  must  have  been  written  at 
the  same  time,  for  Sultan  Mu'izz  ud-Din,  who 
was  assassinated  at  Ghaznah,  in  the  month 
of  Shaban,  A.H.  602  (Tabakat  i  Nasiri),  is 
there  spoken  of  as  still  living. 

The  Taj  ut-Tavarikh  relates  the  Indian 
wars  of  Sultan  Mu'izz  ud-Din,  of  Kutb  ud- 
Din  Aibak,  and  of  the  latter's  successor, 
Shams  ud-Din  Iltatmish.  It  begins  with 
the  conquest  of  Ajmir  by  Mu'izz  ud-Din  in 
A.H.  587.  The  last  event  recorded  in  this 
and  the  following  copies  is  the  appointment 
of  Nclsir  ud-Din  Mahmud,  son  of  Iltatmish, 
to  the  government  of  Lahore,  in  A.H.  614. 
An  account  of  the  work,  and  abstract  of  its 
contents  by  Sir  H.  Elliot,  will  be  found  in 
the  "  History  of  India,"  vol.  ii.  pp.  204— 
243.  Compare  Hammer,  Gemaldesaal,  vol. 
iv.  pp.  172 — 182,  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society  for  1868,  p.  433, 
Vienna  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.  p.  173,  St.  Peters- 
burg Catalogue,  p .  296,  Gotha  Catalogue,  p.  53. 

In  the  Rauzat  ut-Safa,  Bombay  edi- 
tion, vol.  i.  p.  7,  where  the  Taj  ul-Ma'a§ir  is 
mentioned  among  the  sources,  as  also  in 
Haj.  Khal.,  vol.  ii.  p.  92,  the  author  is 
called   Sadr  ud-Din  Muhammad  B.  Hasan 


240 


SULTANS  OF  DEHLI. 


un-Nizami.  On  the  title-page  of  one  of  the 
following  copies.  Add.  24,951,  written  in 
A.H.  818,  his  name  is  written  ^^^..-s-  (^jj.1\  J^ 

In  a  MS.  belonging  to  Navvab  Ziya  ud- 
Din  of  Dehli,  and  described  by  Sir  H.  Elliot, 
I.e.,  p.  210,  there  is  a  continuation  bringing 
down  the  history  to  A.H.  626. 

In  the  colophon  of  the  present  copy  the 
date  of  transcription  was  originally  written 
*>V»*j-ij  'i^  ijss>'\  sIm,  A.H.  711,  but  the 
last  word  having  been  altered  to  «j.U::-»,  it 
now  reads  A.H.  611,  a  date  anterior  to  the 
composition  of  the  work. 

Copyist :  ^^  ^^/>  ^\  ^  ^,^  ^  J.^\  ^A 

The  margins  contain  notes  and  headings 
in  a  handwriting  of  the  18th  century. 

Add.  24,951. 

Foil.  171;  6i  in.  by  4| ;  15  lines,  3  in. 
long  ;  written  in  small  Naskhi,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins;  dated  Zulhijjah, 
A.H.  818  (A.D.  1416).      [Lord  Abebdeen.] 

The  same  work. 

The  first  page  contains  the  following 
title,  written  in  gold  within  an  illuminated 
border  :   tj^oLS-  ^  jji:-j  ^.Jui^  yUl    -.13   ^-j'c/ 

lU^Jl\  U^   j_^'iaj   ^ji  y-o.   j^.oJl      \3 

The  margins  contain  rubrics  in  the  hand- 
writing of  the  transcriber. 

Copyist :  o^\  ^j  j.^  ^  ,y^\ 


Add.  7624. 

Foil.  326 ;  9f  in.  by  6^ ;  15  lines,  3f  in. 
long;  written  in  a  neat  Nestalik,  with  gold- 
ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  16th  century. 

[CI.  J.  EiCH.] 

The  same  work. 

Some  lost  folios  of  the  original  MS.  have 


been  replaced  by  leaves  of  European  paper, 
foil.  1—7,  11,  15,  24—30,  39,  46,  48,  53, 
326,  written  by  a  scribe  who  dates  at  the  end 
llabl  1,  A.H.  1215  (A.D.  1800);  but  a 
lacune  of  about  six  leaves,  occurring  after 
fol.  23,  has  not  been  filled. 

Or.  163. 

Foil.  258;  9i  in.  by  5 ;  19  lines,  2|  in. 
long ;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan 
and  gold-ruled  margins ;  dated  Ramazan, 
A.H.  1034  (A.D.  1625). 

[Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 


Add.  16,838. 

Foil.  85  ;  8  in.  by  4^ ;  15  lines,  2|  in.  long, 
written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik,  with 
'Unvan  and  ruled  margins,  probably  early  in 
the  18th  century.  [Wm.  Yule.] 


-iJ^  [^^f' 


A  history  of  the  reign  of  'Ala  ud-Din  Mu- 
hammad Shah  Khilji,  from  his  accession 
to  A.H.  711. 

Author :  Khusrau,  j^^-i- 

Beg.  ^yiiJ\  j>}y>-  >  ^^jJl     UiU  ^^ 

Over  the  above  is  written,  as  a  heading, 
the  following  couplet  containing  the  title  of 
the  work : 

Amir  Khusrau,  the  greatest  of  the  Persian 
poets  of  India,  has  given  some  account  of 
his  life  in  his  prefaces  to  the  Tuhfat  us- 
Sighar  and  Ghurrat  ul-Kamiil,  Add.  21,104, 
foU.  139 — 190,  from  which  we  extract  the 
following  particulars.  His  father,  a  Khita'i 
Turk,  Lajin  by  name,  afterwards  Amir  Saif 
ud-Din   Shamsi,  was   originally  a  slave  of 


J 


SULTANS  OF  DEHLI. 


241 


Shams  ud-Dln  Tltatmisli,  and  his  warlike 
achievements  secured,  according  to  Khusrau, 
the  empire  for  his  master,  by  whom  he  was 
raised  to  the  rank  of  Amir.  Saif  ud-Din 
settled  in  Patiyali,  where  Khusrau  was  born 
in  A.II.  651.  Khusrau  was  seven  years  of 
age  when,  having  lost  his  father,  who  fell  in 
battle,  he  was  transferred  to  the  care  of  his 
maternal  grandfather  'Imad  ul-Mulk,  who 
held  the  office  of  'Ariz  i  Sipah,  and  he  grew  up 
under  the  latter's  care  to  the  age  of  tAventy. 
He  stayed  then  two  years  with  Kishlu  Khiin 
Jumhur,  the  brother  of  Sultan  Ghiyag  ud- 
Din  Balban,  and  subsequently  passed  into 
the  service  of  Bughra  Khan,  a  younger  son 
of  the  latter,  whom  he  accompanied  to 
Lakhnauti.  He  afterwards  attached  him- 
self to  the  Khan  i  Buzurg  (Muhammad 
Sultan),  the  eldest  son  of  Balban,  and  stayed 
five  years  at  that  prince's  court  in  Multan. 
When  the  latter  fell  in  an  encounter  with 
the  Moghuls,  A.H.  683,  Khusrau,  who  had 
been  made  prisoner,  contrived  to  escape,  and 
repaired  to  his  mother  in  Patiyali.  He  after- 
wards settled  in  Dehli,  where  he  remained 
in  great  favour  with  five  successive  sove- 
reigns, viz,  Mu'izz  ud-Din  Kaikubad  (A.H. 
686—689),  Jalal  ud-Din  Plruz  (A.H.  689— 
695),  who  conferred  upon  him  the  rank  of 
Amir,  Muhammad  Shah  (A.H.  695—715), 
Ghiyas  ud  Din  Tughluk,  A.D.721— 725,  and 
Muhammad  B.  Tughluk,  who  ascended  the 
throne  in  the  month  of  Eabi'  I.,  A.H.  725. 
He  died  at  Dehli  on  the  29th  of  Zulka'dah, 
A.H.  726,  shortly  after  the  accession  of  the 
last.  Khusrau  was,  like  his  friend  and  fellow- 
poet  Khwajah  Hasan  Dihlavl,  one  of  the 
favourite  disciples  of  the  celebrated  Shaikh 
Nizam  ud-Din  Auliya,  whose  death  preceded 
his   own  by   seven   months. 

Firishtah  devotes  to  him  a  detailed  notice 
in  his  lives  of  Indian  saints,  and  mentions 
him  frequently  in  the  course  of  his  history, 
mostly  repeating  the  statements  of  Khus- 
rau's  friend,  Ziya  ud-DlnBarani;  see  Briggs' 


translation,  vol.  i.  pp.  252,  259,  269,  292  etc., 
and  Ziya,  Tarikh  i  Firuzshahi,  pp.  67, 110, 127. 
See  also  Nafahat  ul-Uns,  Add.  16,718,  fol.  222, 
Daulatshah,  Add.  18,410,  fol.  120,  Haft 
Ikllm,  Add.  16,731,  fol.  150,  Akhbar  ul- 
Akhyiir,  Or.  221,  fol.  86,  Sprenger,  Oude 
Catalogue,  p.  465,  and  Ouseloy's  Notices, 
p.  146.  A  full  account  of  the  life  and  the  his- 
torical poems  of  Khusrau  will  be  found  in 
Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  pp.  523 
— 567;  compare  S.  Petersburg  Catalogue, 
p.  350. 

The  Preface  contains  a  eulogy  on  'Alii  ud- 
Din  Muhammad  Shah,  for  whom  the  work 
was  written.  The  narrative  begins  with  that 
sovereign's  accession  on  the  19th  of  RabI  'II., 
A.H.  695,  and  concludes  with  the  Darbar 
held  in  Dehli,  on  the  Sultan's  return  from 
Ma'bar,  on  the  fourth  of  Jumada  II.,  A.H.  711. 

The  Khazain  ul-FutCih,  or  Tarikh  i  'Ala'i, 
as  it  is  frequently  called,  is  written  in  a 
highly  laboured  and  artificial  style,  in  evident 
imitation  of  the  Tiij  ul-Ma'a§ir,  In  each 
paragraph  a  particular  set  of  similes  and 
metaphors  is  used,  and  versified  rubrics  in- 
dicate the  subjects  from  which  they  are  in 
each  case  borrowed. 

The  substance  of  this  history  wiU  be  found, 
in  a  condensed  English  translation,  in  Elliot's 
History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  pp.  67 — 92.  There  is 
a  copy  marked  No.  158  in  the  library  of 
King's  College,  Cambridge. 

Or.  162. 

Foil.  210 ;  11  in.  by  7 ;  15  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  Avritten  in  Nestalik,  in  the  19th  cen- 
tury. [Geo.  "W.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  the  life  and  reign  of  Flriiz 
Shah,  A.H.  752-790. 

Author :   Shams  i  Siraj  'Af if,  _y«  ^j^ 
I  I 


242 


SULTANS  OF  DEHLI. 


Beg.       iii\  ^\  *bj\3  ^,  Uj  J\j3  4lJl  Ji; 

The  author  states  incidentally,  fol.  147  a, 
that  at  the  time  of  Firuz  Shah's  return  from 
Tattah,  i.  e.  A.H.  763,  he  was  twelve  years 
of  age.  He  must  therefore  have  been  born 
in  A.H.  751.  He  grew  up  at  the  court 
of  that  sovereign,  where  he  lived,  as  he  tells 
us,  fol.  60  a,  about  forty  years  in  the  society 
of  the  highest  officials.  His  spiritual  guide 
was  Shaikh  Kutb  ud-Dm  Munavvar,  a  holy 
man,  who  resided  in  Hansl,  and  was  one  of 
the  chief  Khallfahs  of  Nizam  ud-Din  Auliya 
(see  Akhbar  ul-Akhyar,  Or.  221,  fol.  76). 

The  present  work  must  have  been  written 
shortly  after  A.H.  801,  for  the  invasion  of 
Timur,  which  took  place  in  that  year  is  re- 
ferred to,  fol.  149  a,  as  an  event  of  very 
recent  occurrence.  Another  work,  previously 
written  by  the  author  in  praise  of  Tughluk, 

»Li>  jli>  i_-J'U«,  is  mentioned,  fol.  14  a.  'Afif 
was  an  hereditary  surname  in  his  family; 
the  author  appends  it  to  the  names  of  his 
grandfather  Shams  i  Shihab  and  of  his  great- 
grandfather Malik  Sa'd  ul-Mulk  Shihab,  who 
was  "Amaldar  of  Abiihar,  near  Dipfilpiir. 
After  an  introduction  treating  of  the  virtues 
of  kings  in  general  and  those  of  Firiiz  Shah 
in  particular,  the  author  says  that  Maulana 
Ziya  ud-Din  Barani  had  written  a  history 
entitled  Tavarlkh  i  Firuzshahi,  and  extend- 
ing from  the  accession  of  Ghivas  ud-Din 
Balban  to  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of 
Firuz  Shah.  His  account  of  the  latter  had 
been  intended  to  comprise  101  sections  called 
Mukaddimah,  but  he  did  not  live  to  complete 
more  than  the  first  eleven,  thus  leaving 
ninety  unwritten. 

Although  taking  up  the  history  of  Firiiz 
Shah  from  the  beginning,  the  author  chose 
to  adopt,  in  remembrance  of  his  predecessor, 
a  division  into  ninety  Mukaddimahs,  group- 
ing them  in  five  books  (Kism),  each  of 
which  comprises  eighteen  Mukaddimahs. 

The  Kisms  are  as  follows :    I,  History  of 


Firiiz  ShJih  from  his  birth  to  his  accession, 
fol.  18  a.  II.  Wars  of  Bengal  and  Orissa; 
foundation  of  Hisar  and  Firiizabad;  capture 
of  Nagarkot,  fol.  53  a.  III.  Campaign  of 
Tattah,  fol.  90  a.  IV.  Firuz  Shah  desists 
from  war  and  attends  to  the  government  of 
his  empire,  fol.  123  a.  V.  Tonsure  of  Firuz 
Shiih ;  prince  Fath  Khan ;  the  great  Khans 
and  Maliks ;  close  of  the  reign,  fol.  176  a. 

The  MS.  is  imperfect  at  the  end.  It  breaks 
off  a  few  lines  before  the  end  of  the  ninth 
Mukaddimah  of  Kism  V.  (Elliot,  p.  373). 
There  is  also  a  lacuna  at  the  end  of  Kism  I. 
and  beginning  of  Kism  II.,  foil.  51,  52,  where 
three  pages  have  been  left  blank. 

A  considerable  part  of  the  work  has  been 
translated  by  Prof.  Dowson;  see  Elliot's 
History  of  India,  vol.  iii.  pp.  267 — 373. 
Compare  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the  Boy.  Asiat. 
Soc,  new  Series,  vol.  iii.  p.  445.  Two 
copies  of  the  work  exist  in  the  library  of 
the  India  Office,  and  one  in  the  collection  of 
Sir  H.  Elliot. 

Or.  164. 

Foil.  179  ;  9  in.  by  6 ;  13  lines,  3|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Shikastah,  apparently  in 
the  18th  century.  [Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

^^\^  ji^\  '&a^ 

A  history  of  the  life  and  reign  of  Shir  Shah. 
Author:    Abbas    Khan   B.    Shaikh    'Ali 
Sarvani,  ^ljj«>  J*  ^xL  ^^  J^  (^^\^ 
Beg.  ^J.  [U5]  U^j  ^^/^  J  u^  j^li*  J  J^ 

An  account  of  the  author  and  a  some- 
what abridged  version  of  the  work  will  be 
found  in  Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  301—433. 

The  author's  name  and  the  above  title  do 
not  appear  in  the  preface,  but  they  are 
found  in  several  passages  in  the  body  of  the 
work,  foil.  22  5,  29  b,  39  a ;  Elliot,  pp.  333, 


SULTANS  0¥  DEHLT. 


243 


343,  361.  The  author  says  at  the  beginning 
that  he  wrote  this  work  by  the  order  of 
Akbai*,  and  that  he  received  his  information 
fx'om  the  month  of  some  trustworthy  and 
accomplished  Afghans  who  had  followed  Shir 
Shah  from  his  first  rise  to  power  to  the  end 
of  his  reign.  He  was  himself,  as  he  states 
further  on,  fol.  22  b,  descended  from  'Abbas 
Khan,  a  noble  Afghan,  whose  son,  Hasnu 
Khan,  ranked  first  among  the  Amirs  of 
Shir  Shah,  and  had  married  his  sister. 

The  work  appears  to  have  been  written 
shortly  after  A.H.  987  ;  see  Elliot,  p.  301. 
It  is  more  generally  known  under  the  name 
of  Tarikh  i  Shir  Shiihi.  See  Dorn,  History 
of  the  Afghans,  p.  3,  Stewart's  Catalogue, 
p.  14,  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the  Roy.  As.  Soc, 
New  Series,  vol.  iii.  p.  449,  Library  of  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  No.  80. 

Or.  197. 

FoU.  129;  Si  in.  by4i;  17  lines,  2f  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Shahabad, 
Jumada  I.,  A.H.  1192  (A.D.  1778). 

[Geo.  W.  Hamilton.] 

A  history  of  the  Lodi  and  Siir  dynasties. 

Beg.  i>^  i^.J'^  u^v?"  '--^■^^  "^y  J^  (^li-J 
An  account  of  this  work,  with  copious 
extracts,  will  be  found  in  Elliot's  History  of 
India,  vol.  iv.  pp.  434 — 513.  We  learn 
from  it  that  the  author,  whose  name  does  not 
appear  in  the  present  copy,  was  called  *Abd 
TJllah,  and  that  he  wrote  in  the  reign  of  Ja- 
hangir.  See  also  N.  Lees,  Journal  of  the  Eoy. 
As.  Soc,  New  Series,  vol.  iii.  p.  447. 

The  author  states  in  the  preface  that  he 
had  collected  in  this  volume  such  notices 
relating  to  the  Afghan  Sultans  as  he  found 
scattered  in  standard  histories.  The  Ak- 
barshahi,  i.e.  Tabakat  i  Akbarshahi,  is 
frequently  quoted  in  the  body  of  the  work. 


The  Tarikh  i  Da'udl  comprises  the  following 
reigns :  BahlQl  Lodi,  fol.  3  b.  Sikandar,  fol, 
18  a.  Ibrahim,  fol.  50  b.  Shir  Shah,  fol.  65  a. 
Islam  Shah,  fol.  102  b.  Muhammad  'Adil, 
fol.  118  b.    Da'ud  Slmh,  fol.  126  b. 

Add.  24,409. 

Foil.  237  ;  81  in.  by  4| ;  15  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  plain  Nestalik,  apparently 
in  the  18th  century.      [Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

.     An  account  of  the  Afghan  kings. 

Author  :  Muhammad  Kabir  B.  Shaikh  Is- 
ma'il  Haziya,  daughter's  son  of  Shaikh  Kha- 


lil  Ullah  Hakkani,  J-«-»">^ 


e^ 


^    jJLfi'    J-»3? 


Beg.   Oj^aa-  J   c^  ^Jl^  s>^\^  vS-^  iX-o 

The  author  gives,  foil.  197 — 205,  some 
account  of  his  maternal  grandfather,  an  Af- 
ghan saint,  who  lived  in  Rajgir,  Bengal, 
and  died  in  Panjab  in  the  time  of  Akbar. 
He  wrote  the  present  work,  as  stated  in  the 
preface,  in  order  to  divert  his  mind  in  his 
bereavement,  his  son  Mahmud  having  died 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  from  a  snake  bite. 

This  is  less  a  history  than  a  series  of  de- 
tached narratives  and  anecdotes,  cj^}^,  140 
in  number,  written  in  popular  style  and 
without  any  attempt  at  elegance  of  com- 
position or  historical  sequence.  They  are 
roughly  arranged  in  chronological  order,  and 
relate  to  the  lives  and  times  of  the  fol- 
lowing Afghan  chiefs  :  Kala  Lodi,  the  father 
of  Bahm,  fol.  6  h,  Bahlill,  fol.  15  «,  Sikandar, 
fol.  23  b,  Ibrahim,  fol.  44  b.  Shir  Shah,  fol. 
49  b,  Islam  Shah,  fol.  137  6,  'Adli,  fol.  159  *, 
Ibrahim  and  Sikandar  Sur,  fol.  170  a,  Kalii 
Pahar,  fol.  205  a,  Da'Qd  Lodi,  fol.  224  a. 

The  first  and  last  pages  have  been  sup- 
plied by  a  later  hand;  the  last  is  dated 
A.H.  1189. 

Ii2 


244 


PARTICULAR  HISTORIES  OE  INDIA. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  TIMURIDES. 


Add.  24,416. 

Foil.  358 ;  8i  in.  by  5^  ;  19  lines,  3  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik  ;  apparently  about 
tbc  close  of  the  16th  century. 

[Sir  John  Malcolm.] 

The  autobiography  of  Babar,  translated 
from  the  Turki  original  by  Mirza  'Abd  ur- 
Eahlm  B.  Bairam  Khan. 

Beg.  jii  «j  J   ^yj   tX<a.*a    b.'xm    ^^^^   »'•■«  jii 


This  remarkable  work,  which  is  also  called 
^jA>  tdJjy,  has  been  rendered  accessible  to 
English  readers  by  means  of  an  excellent 
translation,  commenced  by  Dr.  John  Leyden, 
revised,  completed,  and  enriched  with  a 
learned  introduction  and  notes,  by  Mr.  Wm. 
Erskine,  London,  1826.  The  Turki  original, 
a  copy  of  Avhich  is  preserved  in  the  Museum, 
Add.  26,324,  has  been  edited  by  N.  Ilminski, 
Kasan,  1857,  and  translated  into  French  by 
M.  Pavet  de  Courteille,  Paris,  1871. 

The  Persian  version  was  made  by  the 
order  of  Akbar,  and  completed  A.H.  998. 
Mirza  *Abd  ur-Rahim,  one  of  the  great 
generals  of  Akbar,  better  known  under  his 
title  Khankhanan,  was  no  less  celebrated  for 
his  literary  tastes  and  accomplishments  than 
for  his  achievements  in  war.  He  was  born 
A.H.  964  and  died  under  Jahangir,  A.H.  1036. 
See,  for  a  notice  of  his  life,  Mr.  Erskine's 
preface  and  Blochmann's  Ain  i  Akbari,  pp. 
334—39. 

An  account  of  the  work,  with  extracts, 
will  be  found  in  Sir  H.  Elliot's  History  of 
India,  vol.  iv.  pp.  218 — 287.  See  also  Mac- 
kenzie Collection,  vol.  ii.  p.  124,  King's 
College  Library,  Cambridge,  No.  96,  Ouseley 
Collection,    No.  343-4,    Copenhagen    Cata- 


logue, p.  19,  and  Melanges  Asiatiques,  vol. 
iii.  pp.  484 — 86. 

The  memoirs  are  divided,  by  some  gaps 
which  never  were  filled  up  by  the  author,  into 
the  following  four  detached  sections :  I.  A.H. 
899—908  (Erskine,  pp.  1—222),  fol.  1  *. 
II.  A.H.  910—914  (Erskine,  pp.  127—234), 
fol.  101  a.  III.  A.H.  925-6  (Erskine,  p. 
246—284),  fol.  191  h.  IV.  A.H.  932—936 
(Erskine,  pp.  290—425),  ful.  226  b. 

The  first  page  of  the  MS.  contains  some 
notes  written  in  the  reign  of  Jahangir,  one 
of  which  is  dated  Agrah,  A.H.  1022  (A.D. 
1613).  One  of  its  former  owners,  Musavi 
Khan  'All  Akbar,  who  held  the  office  of  Sadr 
under  Jahangh',  and  died  A.H.  1054,  has 
entered  on  the  margin  of  fol.  145  b  a  genea- 
logical notice  relating  to  Sultan  Nizad 
Begam. 

Add.  26,200. 

Foil.  380;  ^  in.  by  5;  16  lines,  2|  in. 
long,  written  in  small  and  neat  Nestalik,  on 
gold-sprinkled  paper,  with  'Unvan  and  gold- 
ruled  margins,  probably  in  the  16th  century. 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  respectively  on  foil. 
1  b,  106  b,  201  b,  and  236  b. 

This  is  the  copy  which  Mr.  Erskine  used 
for  his  translation  ;  see  preface,  p.  xi.  The 
original  MS.  breaks  off  at  the  paragraph 
dated  Monday,  22  Ramazan,  A.H.  935  (Er- 
skine, p .  420) .  Ten  leaves,  written  on  English 
paper,  water-mafked  1810,  contain  the  re- 
mainder of  the  memoirs  and  also  Persian 
translations  of  the  passages  left  by  the  trans- 
lator in  the  original  language.  The  same 
hand  has  supplied  two  leaves  lost  after  fol. 
27,  and  two  single  leaves  missing  after  foil. 
61  and  135. 

Four  whole-page  miniatures,  in  highly 
finished  Indian  style,  occur  on  foil.  26,  27, 
30  and  34.     Several  pages,  apparently  re- 


BABAR. 


215 


served  for  miniatures,  have  been  left  blank. 
Two  dates,  7  April,  1807,  and  9  March,  1812, 
have  been  written  in  pencil  by  Mr.  Erskine 
on  the  margin  of  the  first  page. 

Add.  16,623. 

Foil.  295 ;  8^  in.  by  5  ;  17  lines,  3|  in. 
long;  written  in  neat  Nestalik,  on  gold- 
sprinkled  paper,  with  'Unvan  and  gold-ruled 
margins ;  dated  Lahore,  Eajab,  A.H.  1048 
(A.D.  1638).  Bound  in  stamped  and  gilt 
leather. 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  respectively  on  foil! 
1  b,  85  h,  162  a,  191  b.  Six  and  twenty 
miniatures,  finely  executed  in  Indian  style, 
and  occupying  mostly  a  small  portion  of  the 
page,  illustrate  the  scenes  described  in  the 
text. 

Transcriber :  »_-3li  o^  b 


Add.  16,691. 

Foil.  194 ;  12  in.  by  8 ;  23  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik ;  dated  Shahjahan- 
abad,  Rajab,  A.H.  1148  (A.D.  1735). 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  on  foil.  1  b,  56  a, 
105  b,  and  123  a. 

Copyist :  ^'^J^  tibU  ^^^ju-^joI 

Add.  16,690. 

FoU.  274;  111  in.  by  6^;  17  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  with  'Unvan  and 
ruled  margins,  apparently  in  the  18th  cen- 
tury. [Wm.  Yule.] 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  on  foil.  2  b,  82  b, 
151  b,  and  176  a. 

On  the  last  page  is  written :  "Wm.  Yule, 
Lucknow,  1800." 


Add.  26,201. 

Foil.  169  ;  15^  in.  by  9^;  21  lines,  5|  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  in  the  early  part 
of  the  19th  century.  Bound  in  gilt  and 
stamped  leather.  [Wm.  Erskijs'e.J 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  on  foil.  2  J,  55  b,  95  a, 
and  111  a.  There  is  a  whole-page  miniature 
on  fol.  3  a. 

This  copy  is  mentioned  by  Mr.  Erskine  in 
his  preface,  p.  x.,  as  procured  for  him  from 
Dehli,  through  Mr.  Metcalfe,  the  British 
Resident  at  that  Court.  He  adds,  that  it 
was  much  less  accurate  than  the  other  (Add. 
26,200).  In  the  manuscript  list  of  his  col- 
lection Mr.  Erskine  states  that  it  was  tran- 
scribed for  him  from  a  copy  in  the  Imperial 
Library  at  Dehli. 

Or.  167. 

Foil.  475  ;  12  in.  by  8^;  12  lines,  ^  in. 
long;  written  in  Nestalik,  in  the  19th  cen- 
tury. [Geo.  Wm.  Hamilton.] 

The  same  work. 

The  four  parts  begin  on  foil.  3  a,  132  b, 
249  5,  and  297  b. 

A  table  of  contents,  occupying  one  page, 
is  prefixed. 

Add.  26,317. 

Foil.  88;  9  in.  by  7^;  17  lines,  5^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  on  English  paper 
bearing  the  date  1808  in  its  water-mark. 

[Wm.  Erskine.] 

A  portion  of  the  same  work  corresponding 
to  pp.  14 — 179  of  the  English  translation. 

This  volume  is  endorsed  by  Mr.  Erskine 
as  "  copied  for  Dr.  Leyden."  It  is  no  doubt 
the  transcript  which  he  caused  to  be  made 
for  the  latter  from  a  copy  found  at  Bombay, 
as  stated  in  the  Preface  to  the  Memoirs, 
p.  ix. 


246 


HUMAYUN. 


Add.  26,202. 

FoU.  83 ;  10|  in.  by  GJ ;  20  lines,  4^  in. 
long ;  written  in  Nestalik,  apparently  in  the 
17th  century.  [Wm.  Erskfne.] 

A  fragment  of  the  same  work. 

It  contains  the  first  half  of  the  fourth 
part  of  the  Memoirs,  in  a  peculiar  recen- 
sion, in  which  the  author's  first  person  is 
changed  to  the  third,  and  the  unadorned 
language  of  the  original  to  the  pompous 
style  of  court  annals.  It  is  thus  described 
by  Mr.  Erskine  on  the  fly  leaf: 

"  This  is  a  translation,  and  in  some  places 
a  rhetorical  expansion,  of  the  text  of  the 
Wakiat  e  Baberi,  beginning  1st  of  Sefer, 
A.H.  932  (17  Nov.,  1625)  and  ending  about 
the  end  of  Moharrem,  A.H.  933  (Oct.  1526), 
nearly  a  year  (Printed  Memoirs  from  p.  290 
to  p.  345),  with  several  omissions." 

On  the  last  page  are  three  seals,  one  of 
which  bears  the  date  1050. 

Add.  16,711. 

ToU.  146;  lOf  in.  by  7 ;  15  lines,  3^  in. 
long ;  written  in  cursive  Nestalik ;  dated 
Jumada  II.,  A.H.  1019  (A.D.  1610). 

[Wm.  Yule.] 

Memoirs  of  the  reign  of  Humayun. 
Author  :  Jauhar  Afitabjl,  ^jtfVjjJ^^ 
Beg.  J  \^  j«^  .ijo  . . .  j^Ul\  L_^  &)J  j-^J^ 

Jauhar  was,  as  Afitabji  or  ewer-bearer,  in 
constant  attendance  upon  his  royal  master, 
during  the  most  eventful  period  of  his  life. 
He  informs  us  towards  the  end  of  the 
Memoirs,  fol.  132,  that  Humayun  appointed 
him  in  A.H.  962  collector  of  Haibatpur,  and 
subsequently  of  the  villages  of  Tatar  Khan, 
and  he  calls  himself  further  on,  fol.  135  5, 
treasurer  (KhizanajT)  of  the  government  of 
Panjab  and  Multan.     He  states  in  his  pre- 


face that  he  commenced  this  work  in  A.H. 
995,  i.  e.  32  years  after  the  death  of  Huma- 
yun. See  Elliot's  History  of  India,  vol.  v., 
pp.  136—149. 

Transcriber  :   (_jiju-*   c-*Sll>  ^^  Ja^ 

On  the  first  page  is  a  note,  dated  A.D. 
1 801,  stating  that  the  Safavi  prince,  Abul- 
Eath  Sultan  Muhammad  Mirza,  had  received 
the  MS.,  as  a  loan,  from  Captain  William 
Yule. 

This  is  the  MS.  on  which  Major  Charles 
Stewart  made  his  translation,  printed  for 
the  Oriental  Translation  Eund,  London,  1832, 
and  which  is  described  in  the  translator's 
preface  as  being  about  a  century  old.  The 
mistake  arose  from  his  reading  the  date  in 
the  subscription  19,  instead  of  1019,  and 
referring  it  to  the  reign  of  Muhammad 
Shrdi. 

The  Museum  possesses  an  interleaved 
copy  of  the  English  version.  Add.  26,608, 
with  extensive  corrections  in  manuscript, 
amounting  almost  to  a  re-translation  of  the 
work,  by  Mr.  Wm.  Erskine,  to  whom  Major 
Yule  had  lent  the  present  MS.  The  rough 
draught  of  the  same  corrections  is  preserved 
in  Add.  26,620. 

In  a  short  notice  prefixed  to  the  former 
volume,  Mr.  Erskine  passes  on  Major  Stewart's 
version  the  following  judgment,  which,  coming 
from  so  eminent  an  authority,  carries  great 
weight :  "  The  translation  of  Major  Stewart 
is  no  translation  at  all.  It  is  full  of  errors. 
It  adds,  takes  away,  alters.  It  is  not  trust- 
worthy, and  one  does  him  no  injustice  in 
pronouncing  him  ignorant  of  the  history  and 
manners  of  the  tim'es,  ignorant  of  the  geo- 
graphy of  the  country,  ignorant  of  the 
language,  ignorant  of  the  duty  of  a  trans- 
lator." 

Or.  166. 

EoU.  83 ;  9  in.  by  5^;  15  lines,  3  in.  long; 
written  in  Nestalik,  appar